ANT / Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute / TsAGI
Founded by Bolshevik government December 1,1918 under Prof N. E. Zhukovskii; based on Moscow Technical University's pre-Revolution research organization. Departments for study of propellers, aero engines, aeronautical construction materials, flight testing, etc. Separate flight test center for Soviet Air Force established 1920; alternative centers for aero engines 1930 and materials 1932. Zhukovskii died 1921; succeeded by S. A. Chaplygin (1921-1941), N. I. Kharlamov, M. N. Shulzhenko and (since early 1960s) V. M. Myasischchev.
In 1924, Pavel Sukhoi joined the Central Aero and Hydrodynamic Institute, or TsAGI, eventually becoming a bureau design leader under Andrei N. Tupolev. After collaborating in the design of the ANT-25, Sukhoi was responsible for the design, in 1932, of one of the world's first single-seat low-wing cantilever monoplane fighters to embody such innovations as a. fully enclosed cockpit and a retractable undercarriage. This aircraft, the ANT-31, or 1-14, flew in October 1933, and series production of an improved version, the 1-14bis which first flew on February 14, 1934, was, in fact, ordered but cancelled two years later when it was found impossible to eradicate some of the fighter's shortcomings.
New facility built 1931 at Stakhanov, Moscow; continued until 1939. Most aircraft designs before Second World War carried ANT designations, other designers also employed, some eventually heading their own bureaus, e.g. Petlyakov and Sukhoi.
Aircraft with TsAGI designations included Komta twin-engined 10-passenger triplane of 1922; 1- EA to 5-EA and A-4 to A-15 series of helicopters and autogyros from various designers between 1928-1940; and TsAGI-44 (MTB-2) four-engined flying-boat bomber, redesignated from ANT-44 after arrest of Tupolev in 1936.
After Second World War TsAGI became purely research center and moved to new premises at Zhukovskaya, near Ramenskoye. New facilities since provided for new Hydrodynamic Institute at Novosibirsk.