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Polikarpov TsKB-12 / I-16 Rata


The I-16, designed by Nikolai Nikolayevich Polikarpov, externally, differed significantly from other single engined fighters of the period. It had a short fuselage with a large frontal area, wide wing panels with deep wing roots, a massive tail unit and a retractable undercarriage. Its high manoeuvrability, considered to be one of the I-16's major advantages, primarily resulted from the aft c.g., which made the aircraft extremely unstable. This caused much trouble during flying training, but also had a positive effect.

Nikolai Polikarpov, then head of Design Team No 2 of the Central Design Bureau, developed a draft design for a monoplane fighter, initialiy designated TsKB-12, during 1932-33. Development and construction of two prototypes began in June 1933. The first prototype was powered by a 480 h.p. M-22 air-cooled radial engine, which gave it a speed of 186.5 mph at 16,400 ft. The second prototype, designated TsKB-12bis, had a 600 h.p. Wright Cyclone F-2 driving a Hamilton Standard three-bladed propeller. Both aircraft, fitted with the same NACA engine cowlings and differing only in their powerplants, had been prepared for tests by late 1933. As it was already winter, they were equipped with a fixed ski undercarriage. Although this considerably reduced flying speed, it allowed test flights to start immediately. Valery Chkalov, test pilot of Zavod (Aircraft Factory) 39, took the M-22-engined TsKB-12 for its maiden flight on December 30, 1933, and the second prototype made its maiden flight injanuary 1934. Accordingto Chkalovthe newaircraft proved to be quite difficult and unusual to fly. Both TsKB-12s were refined throughout January, and underwent most of their factory tests at that time. The State tests, aimed at determining basic flight characteristics of the TsKB-12 before a final decision was made on putting the aircraft into series production, started as early as February 1934. On February 16 test pilot Kokkinaki flew the M-22 powered aircraft, and test pilot Stepanchonok tested the machine with the Wright Cyclone.

According to the test pilots both prototypes were very responsive but demanding. They were not forgiving of any sharp control inputs, but progressed easily from one manoeuvre to another. Pilots had to be especially careful during landing, as the aircraft did not tolerate levelling off at height, and stalled immediately. However, pilots noted that the 1-16 was more stable during take-off, landing and banking, than the I-14 fighter prototype designed by the TsentrainiyAero Gidrodinamicheskiy Institut (TsAG I - Central Aero & Hydrodynamic Institute).

The comments on the I-16's complicated piloting techniques led TsAG 1 experts to doubt whether the aircraft could be spun successfully. Their attitude towards the fighter improved only after Chkalov conducted 75 spins in March 1934, from which the aircraft recovered perfectly.

Another testimony to the I-16's outstanding characteristics was its use by aerobatic teams, the so-called "Red Five-Aircraft Groups". In March 1935 the first such group equipped with I-16s comprised pilots Kokkinaki, Shevchenko, Suprun, Evseyev and Preman, who trained extensively to hone their skills. A slow ascending roll of the entire group of five aircraft was their most stunning manoeuvre. Chief of the V-VS Yakov Alksnis suggested that the roll be demonstrated over Moscow's Red Square during the military parade on May Day.

On April 30,1935, the pilots arrived at the parade ground, where they were to fly between two buildings spaced some 130 ft apart. At Kokkinaki's request a widewhite stripe was painted along the centre of the passage between the GUM department store and the Historical Museum for the pilots to use as a reference. This was the passage along which Soviet tank columns drove into Red Square during traditional military parades.

The following day the five bright-red I-16s descended below the rooftops, sped into Red Square in a tight formation with a deafening roar and carried out a steep climb, rolling as one.

The effect was tremendous. Having returned to their airfield the pilots were already leaving for home when Marshal Voroshilov's aide arrived at the airfield, bringing a considerable cash bonus and promotion for each pilot. Voroshilov telephoned the airfield and told Kokkinaki: "Comrade Stalin highly appreciates the pilots' skills and is asking them to fly over Moscow once again".

After that, the five-aircraft group flew above the Moscow streets repeatedly. They were seen over various districts of the city, which resulted in a legend that several “red five-aircraft groups" flew over Moscow on May Day 1935.

To facilitate rapid mastery of the new fighter, pilots from aerobatic teams toured military garrisons throughout 1935. Their demonstration flights were expected to dispel any doubts ordinary pilots might have about the I-16. Later, Polikarpov and all participants in the events were decorated with Orders of Lenin, then the highest state award.

The I-16 entered series production at Zavod 39 in Moscow and Zavod 21 in Nizhny Novgorod in the Volga region. The Moscow factory dealt with every design modification and developed detailed documentation for mass production of the new fighter.

The I-16s produced there were designated in compliance with TsKB serial numbers. In 1934 the factory delivered fifty I-16s with serial numbers 123901-123950 (standing for TsKB-12, produced by Zavod 39, and finally the machine's individual number). The Moscow factory built eight more aircraft during 1935-36 (four aircraft a year), stopping at aircraft 123958.

Although Zavod 21 started I-16 series production in 1934 it did not get up steam until the following year. The I-16 was the fourth type of aircraft manufactured by Zavod 21 after the I-5, KhAl-1 and I-14. Thus the first I-16s, powered by M-22 c, engines, were designated Type 4. The Nizhny Novgorod factory produced them throughout 1935. The total number of M-22- powered I-16s, including aircraft of the same type built in Moscow, amounted to 400. Type 4 fighters did not take part in combat operations, but they remained in service, primarily with flying schools, until 1941.

I n 1935 I-16s started to be fitted with M-25 engines, which were a Soviet copy of the Wright Cyclone F-3. Engines were produced at the new Zavod 19, built at Perm in the Urals. The factory manufactured a total of 660 M-25s during the first year of its operation. Some of the engines were expected to be mounted on I-16s. Zavod 21 designated the new M-25 powered variant the Type 5.

The 1-16 was armed with the state-of-the-art 7.62mm ShKAS machine-gun from the outset. This weapon, developed by armourers Shpitalny and Kornaritsky in 1932, had the world's highest rate of fire, at 1,800 rounds per minute. At first the ShKAS machine-gun, launched into mass production in 1934 just like the 1-16, had a number of snags which had to be rectified in the course of operation. Although the new gun cost five times more than the mass-produced PV-1 machine gun (5,000 Roubles in 1934), it was one-and-a-half times lighter and had twice the rate of fire.

Ten I-16s manufactured by Zavod 39 in Moscow underwent service tests at the 107th Air Squadron, the Bryansk Air Brigade, from August 28 until November 3, 1935. Military pilots assessed the aircraft's advantages and disadvantages, and every possible combat usage. They found that lowering the ailerons during take-off and landing (the ailerons of the I-16 Types 4 and 5 also acted as flaps) reduced the take-off run and landing roll considerably. This became quite a strong argument for I-16 proponents, since the work of enlarging existing airfields to accommodate new fighters had just started.

As far as piloting techniques were concerned, it was stated: "The aircraft was easy to control and very responsive to the control stick ... it did not allow any mistakes ... too strong a pull on the control stick during banking and landing may result in a spin stall." Soviet feature films of the 1930s featuring the 1-16, such as Istrebiteli (Fighters) and Valery Chkalov, prove that the fighter indeed performed this aerobatic manoeuvre perfectly.

The I-16 was initially refined and improved by a team of designers in Moscow, headed by Polikarpov, in April 1936 this team developed the TsKB-12P (1-I6P), with two wing-mounted 20mm SWAK cannon and two ShKAS machine-guns.

The I-16P underwent tests frorn July to September 1936. As early as 1937 this variant, designated Type 12, was launched into series production at Nizinny Novgorod. The armament layout was modified in 1938; the cannon remained in the wing centre section, but the machine-guns were now housed in the fuselage. This I-16, powered by the supercharged M-25V engine, was designated Type 17 and put into mass production.

Another TsKB project entailed fitting the fighter with a retractable ski undercarriage. Zavod 39 in Moscow fitted an M-22-powered I-16 with such an undercarriage on February 2, 1936. Tests using aircraft Nos 123904 and 123906 proved the system satisfactory, but the matter of mass-producing such an undercarriage had never been raised, and for the following two winters military units operated I-16s with fixed ski undercarriages. The ski retraction system was improved in 1938, and from then on all seriesproduction aircraft (save for Type 29 fighters) could be fitted with skis in winter without any detriment to their flying characteristics.

After the I-16 was put into mass production at Nizhny Novgorod, all major I-16 refinements and modifications were developed there. In 1937 the factory worked on reducing the weight of certain I-16s. These aircraft, the weight of which did not usually exceed 3,2851b, were registered as "red aircraft" ' They were special I-16s for the "Red Five-Aircraft Groups" and were sometimes stripped of armament and even some of their equipment and instruments. It took these lightweight versions 12sec to complete a turn, compared with the usual 15-16sec. The exact number of such I-16s built is unknown, but in 1938-39 every military district had an aerobatic team equipped with them. Separate I-16s of this type took part in hostilities in 1941-42.

Zavod 21 at Nizhny Novgorod manufactured 1,881 I-16 Type 5s, Type 12s and Type 15s (UTI-4 two-seat trainers) in 1937. However, considerably improved versions, the Types 10 and 17, with M-25V engines, were put into mass production in 1938. At the same time much effort went into reinforcing the structure of earlier models. These constraints resulted in a significant drop in output, only 1,068 I-16s of all types being produced in 1938.

In early 1939 the M-25 engine was replaced by the 830 h.p. M-62, aircraft thus modified being designated I-16 Type 18.

In late 1939 Zavod 21 built aircraft powered by M-62 and M-63 engines, thus replacing machine-gun-armed Type 10 fighters with Types 18 and 24 fighters, and cannon-armed I-16s Type 17 with Type 27 and 28 respectively.

As it was the most numerous Soviet fighter, the I-16 was frequently used for testing new armament. It was fitted with bomb racks for the first time in early 1937. A fighter equipped with underwing racks designed to carry 280kg (6201b) of bombs was tested at the Nauchnolspitatelniy Institut VoyennoVozdushnykh Sil (NII V-VS Scientific Testing Institute of the Air Force) f rom February 10 to March 3,1937. It had four DER-32 racks for AO-10 bombs and a DER-3 rack for FAB-100 bombs under each wing. This modification never entered production. Later, series-production I-16s were equipped with standard bomb racks similar to those of the I-153, capable of carrying tear-shaped PSB-21 external fuel tanks or two 100kg bombs.

In 1939 I-16s were fitted with RS-82 rocket projectiles (RPs) mounted underwing, and were combattested duringthe RussoJapanese conflict in Mongolia. This version entered series production in 1940 and was later widely employed in combat.

In the summer of 1941 I-16s were equipped with two RS-132 RPs under each wing, although there is little information on the use of this weaponry.

The I-16's operating altitude was increased by using TK-1 turbosuperchargers powered by engine exhaust gases. Experts believed that such turbosuperchargers would considerably boost the aircraft's combat capabilities at altitudes up to 10,000m (32,800ft).

The first I-16V (Vysotniy, or high-altitude), powered by the M-25A and fitted with two TK-1 turbosuperchargers, was operational by late 1938. The Soviet Union's first high-altitude fighter, itwas followed by several others, powered by M-25V and M-62 engines. Turbosuperchargers posed a fire risk where their exhaust plumes hit the fuselage, so the sides and the wing centre sections of such aircraft had special metal plating.

A number of successful flights were conducted in 1939. Powered by an M-25V and fitted with two TK-1s, I-16 No 1021582 reached a maximum speed of 307 m.p.h. at 28,200ft, and a maximum speed of more than 310 m.p.h. when powered by an M-62. Such aircraft did not see series production.

In the second half of the year Zavod 21 started manufacturing the latest I-16 variant, the Type 29, which incorporated work on gun armament undertaken in 1939. In addition to two synchronised ShKAS machine guns it was armed with the B1 heavy machine-gun, accornmodated between the wheel wells. The Type 29's wings had standard mounts for six RS-82 RPs and attachment points for external fuel tanks. In total, 2,207 I-16s of the following types were produced in 1940:
Type 18 and Type 24 - 760
Type 28    - 277
Type 29 - 570
Type 15(UTI-4) - 600

The last year of I-16 series production was 1940. The final variant, the Type 29, was removed from the production plan in the last quarter of the year, and in December Zavod 21 began building the Lavochkin LaGG-3 fighter under the factory designation Type 31. The last 80 Type 29 fighters and 256 UTI-4s from previous backlogs were delivered in 1941.

Zavod 153 in Novosibirsk also started building I-16s in 1937. It manufactured 27 Type 5s in 1937, 105 of the same type in 1938, and 254 (including some Type 24s) in 1939. It was decided against producing 500 I-16 Type 24s planned for 1940; the Novosibirsk factory delivered 503 UTI-4 trainers. In 1941 this plant produced 404 UTI-4s and 19 Type 24s, but late in the year it started building LaGG-3 and Yakoviev Yak-7 fighters.
The last series- production I-16s - two-seat UTI-4s - were built at Zavod 458 in Rostov-on-Don from March 1941. This factory had produced 310 UTI-4s and overhauled another 146 by the outbreak of war. After evacuation to Baku in Azerbaijan it continued building them.



At Baku the trainer was converted into a combat aircraft, designated UTI-413 (Type 15B). The wing centre section housed two non-synchronised Berezin 12.7mm heavy machine-guns, and the wings carried three RS-82 RPs per side and racks for 110 lb of bombs. The rear cockpit was covered by a duralum in fairing. This version was tested by the 480th Istrebiteiniy Aviatsionny Polk (IAP - Fighter Air Regiment) at its airfield near Kishly, and by the 266th IAP at Shekhikay, near Baku. In early 1942 it was admitted that the Type 15B was superior to other I-16 variants as far as firepower and adaptability were concerned. Moreover, standard UTI-4s could be converted into Type 15Bs. The last 83 UTI-4s were built in Baku in 1942, but it is not known whether these aircraft were armed.


Three variants used by the Republicans were the I-16 Tip 5 with the 541-kW (725-hp) M-25, an enclosed cockpit and two machine-guns; the Tip 6 with the 544-kW (730-hp) M-25A and a strengthened airframe; and the Tip 10 with the 559-kW (750-hp) M-25V, an open cockpit and four machine-guns. Deliveries began late in 1936, and estimates for strengths (delivered and locally built) vary from 280+ to 475, while claims against it included 94 by the Nationalists, a similar number by the Germans and 242 by the Italians. The I-16 proved a good fighter in terms of performance, but was too lightly armed with just rifle-calibre guns, was an indifferent gun platform, and lacked the structural strength to deal with multiple hits from heavier guns. Some 22 aircraft fell into Nationalist hands at the end of the war, together with 90 aircraft under construction.


The I-16 was classic wood and metal design, based on the resources and capabilities of Soviet Russia's aviation industry in the early 1930s. Its fuselage was built by covering the frame, of 11 frames, four longerons and eight stringers, with a plywood skin. The frame was of pine, ash and prima birch plywood. Areas needing reinforcement were fitted with steel struts. The skin was made by gluing together birch veneer sheets with casein glue on a special breadboard construction. Layers of veneer sheets were placed perpendicular to each other, and at an angle of 45 degrees to the aircraft's roll axis.

The skin consisted of port and starboard halves, its maximum thickness being 5.5mm (0.2in) and its minimum thickness, in the tail, 2mrn (0.08in). Following assembly the entire wooden fuselage surface was covered with calico, puttied, and painted.

The internal fuselage surface was painted with grey oil paint during the first few years of series production, but from February 1939 it was first coated with ALG-2 primer to increase moisture resistance, and then with AE-9 grey enamel.

The wing centre section, which united the wing panels, fuselage, undercarriage and engine, was the main load-bearing unit. It comprised two trussed spars, linked and strengthened by ribs and tubular bracing struts. Its upper skin was wooden where it connected with the fuselage, and duralumin from the second rib. The upper part of the centre section had a hatch at the junction with the wing panels for access to the machine-guns or cannon. The UTI trainers and I-16 Type 29 lacked these hatches.

The lower part of the centre section had undercarriage fairings with glazed windows to enable the pilot to see whether the undercarriage was retracted.

The entire centre-section trailing edge on later I-16s was fitted with landing flaps, deflecting to a maximum angle of 60 degrees. The wing panels were similar to the centre section in design, and were connected to it by steel liners with rifled heads on the butts of tubular spars. The junction was covered by a 100mm (3.9in)-wide duralumin band. The front part of the wing was covered by a 0.6mm-thick (0.02in) duralumin skin, extending back 44.5 per cent from the leading edge on top an 14.5 percent below, and the entire wing was then covered with fabric.

At first the ailerons were fitted with a droop mechanism enabling them to act as flaps during landing, but from the Type 10 landing flaps were fitted The first series had a pneumatic flap extension, later replaced by a mechanical system.

The ailerons and tail unitwere made of duralumin and fabric covered. The fin was offset to eliminate torque. As the M-22 and M-25 (and M-62) rotated th propeller in opposite directions, the Type 4's fin was offset 2' to starboard, while that of followup types was offset 2' to port.

The tailplane could be adjusted on the ground within 3', allowin ground crew to achieve the most acceptable control column load for various c.g. positions. A removable duralumin fairing permitted easy fin adjustment.
The retractable undercarriage consisted of two three-arm struts. A mechanicaljack on the starboard side of the cockpit required 44 turns to effect retraction. On aircraft of the last series the tailskid had a small 150mm (6in) tailwheel. In rainy weather pilots often fitted a tail ski, as it prevented the skid from burying itself in soft ground.
Early-series I-16s had 700mm x 100mm wheels with mechanical brakes, while subsequent models had 700mm x 150mm wheels, with brake pedals mounted on the rudder bar.

The Type 10 and all subsequent variants had cotter-pins in side covers, running into the wing centre section, designed to hold the ski undercarriage retracted. These were covered with special plates in summer.

The pilot's seat, with a pan for a parachute, initially had a light removable seat back with a soft leatherette cushion. Later it was replaced by an 8mm-thick (0.3in) 30kg (66 lb) armoured seat back. A vertical-adjustment lever on the right side of the seat provided a travel of 110mm (4.5in).

The forward sliding windscreen had an aperture for the OP-1 gunsight, covered by a sliding panel protecting it against oil and mud and opened by the pilot immediately before openingfire.

From the Type 10, fighters were fitted with fixed Plexiglas windscreens with a stainless steel framework. The OP-1 gunsight was replaced by the PAK-1 collimator sight.

The upper part of the instrument panel, mounted on the third fuselage frame, had two round recesses for the reloading handles of the dorsal machineguns. The instrument panel stayed almost unchanged on all versions of the M 6 and was painted black. It was illuminated by two round windows inside the pilot's windscreen in daytime, and by two cockpit hinged lamps, accommodated under the sight, at night.

The engine cowlings of I-16s powered by M-25, M-62 and M-63 engines comprised a 1,388mm (54.5in) front ring and six removable covers. The cowling was held together by hinge-rods and locks. The junction of the covers' leading edges and the front ring was tightened by a 0.5mm-wide (0.02in) stainless-steel band.

The front part of the cowling had nine air intakes for cooling the engine. The side covers of the cowlingwere fitted with eight air outlets with ducts riveted from the inside. The exhaust pipes were connected to the same air outlets (the upper port outlet had two exhaust pipes linked to it, and the lower exhaust pipes were also coupled on aircraft fitted with retractable ski undercarriage. One of the main requirements consisted of positioning exhaust pipes flush with the cowling to reduce its sooting-up.

The propeller spinner had a diameter of 530mm (20.9in) and was fitted with a special ratchet gear for starting the engine with the help of an automobile ground-starter.


A total of 7,005 single-seat and 1,639 two-seaters were produced. Six wrecks were restored in Russia for Sir Tim Wallis and were the only flying examples in the world.




Scale replica:
Heydecke V16


Polikarpov 1-16 variants:

Type 4
M-22-powered first series-production I-16, with cylindrical NACA cowling. The rear edge of the cowling skirted the fuselage with a steady exit slit of about 2in, and the cowling was therefore slightly tapered

Type 5
M-25A-powered and mass-produced from mid-1935 until February 1938. Aircraft of the first series had a different engine cowling from the Type 4 and a propeller spinner. In the course of production Type 5 was gradually fitted with 700mm x 150mm wheels, a fixed windshield, and wing panels with closer rib spacing and smaller ailerons

Type 10
M-25V-powered modification of the I-16 following three years of series production. Changes included:
• Two dorsal synchronised ShKAS machine-guns, mounted inside protruding fairings
• Sliding canopy replaced by fixed windshield with stainlesssteel frame
• OP-1 Aldis optical gunsight replaced by PAK-1 collimator gunsight
• Airframe reinforced, and number of ribs on upper surface of wing increased
• Ailerons reduced and aileron droop mechanism not used. Landing speed decreased with help of landing flaps. Most Type 10s fitted with pneumatic flaps. Aircraft from No 102175, produced in the spring of 1939, equipped with mechanicallyoperated landing flaps 19 Fitted with 6in oil radiator; oil cooler air intake accommodated in lower part of engine cowling

Type 12
M-25A-powered, based on Type 5, not produced in large numbers. Two wing-mounted ShKAS machine-guns augmented by two 20mm SWAK cannon

Type 14 (UTI-2)
M-22-powered two-seat trainer stripped of armament

Type 15 (UTI-4)
M-25A or M-25V-powered two-seat trainer stripped of armament and fitted with manual controls and extra engine controls. Undercarriage retraction jack and indicator housed in rear cockpit. M-25V-powered variants with air intakes in lower part of cowling. Undercarriage shock-absorber struts fitted with torque links. Most UTI-4s fitted with AVA propeller with locked pitch-control mechanism. From aircraft 1521109 all subsequent fighters given 35-litre wing centre-section fuel tanks. From January 1939, some UTI-4s fitted with night-flying equipment and non-retracting undercarriage

Type 17
M-25W powered modification of Type 10, armed with SWAK cannon instead of wing-mounted ShKAS machine-guns. Rounds fed from ammunition boxes inside fuselage. Hatch cut in upper fuselage for stowing ammunition belts. Upper part of engine cowling with rectangular cut-out for same purpose

Type 18
M-62-powered modification of Type 10, with more powerful engine, self-sealing fuel tank and additional 12-litre oil tank. Oil radiator mounted slightly lower, so lower part of engine cowling "sagged" slightly. Lower air intake of oil radiator enlarged. Carburettor ram-air pipe mounted on top

Type 27
M-62-powered modified Type 17; powerplant modified in similar way to Type 18 Type 24 - M-63-powered follow-on of Type 18 to comply with strength standards of 1937. It incorporated:
• AVA variable-pitch propeller and new propeller spinner
• Engine fitted with R-2 constant-speed unit Undercarriage shock-absorber struts with torque links. Shockabsorber travel increased to 3.8in, compared with 1.2-1.4in of previous version
• Tailskid fitted with small wheel and oleo-pneumatic shock absorber
• Mechanically controlled landing flaps operated by lever on port side behind pilot's seat
• Cockpit fitted with a second drop side to starboard
• A manual starting system, and hatch for radio cut out of fuselage on starboard side between Frames 7 and 8.

Type 28
M-63-powered follow-on of Type 27, with same modifications as Type 24 Type 29 - Powered by M-63. 0.5in Berezin BS synchronised heavy machine-gun mounted in lower fuselage between wheel wells; no wing-mounted guns. Oil radiator moved to space between fourth and fifth engine cylinders. Undercarriage height reduced by 1.25in; wheel wells spaced further apart. Space between wheel wells covered by removable fairing. Radioequipped aircraft fitted with mast aerials mounted to starboard on engine cowling. Propeller diameter reduced to 8.85ft

I-16 Production

Zavod 39
1934 – 50
1935 – 4
1936 – 4
Total 58

Zavod 21
1935 – 527
1936 – 902
1937 – 1881
1938 – 1068
1939 – 1571
1940 – 2207
1941 – 336
Total 8492

Zavod 153
1937 – 6
1938 – 105
1939 – 264
1940 – 503
1941 – 423
Total 1301

Zavod 458
1941 – 356
1942 – 83
Total 439

Grand total 10,290

1939 Production
Type 10, M-25V engine – 426
Type 18, M-62 engine – 177
Type 24, M-63 engine – 155
Type 17, M-25V engine – 314
Type 27, M-62 engine – 59
Type 28, M-63 engine – 16
Type 15 (UTI-4), M-25 engine – 424
Total - 1571


Engine: M-22
Max speed: 188 mph at 3280 ft
Max speed: 175 mph at 16,400 ft
Time to 16,400 ft: 10.9 min
360 deg turn: 16.5 sec

Engine: Wright Cyclone
Max speed: 224 mph at 3280 ft
Max speed: 195 mph at 16,400 ft
Time to 16,400 ft: 7.9 min
360 deg turn: 16.5 sec

Type 4
Year: 1935
Span: 29 ft 6 in
Height: 10 ft 8 in
Length: 19 ft 3 in
Loaded weight: 2985 lb
Max speed SL: 225 mph
Max speed at 9840 ft: 215 mph
Landing speed: 66 mph
Climb to 10,000 ft: 4.4 min
Service ceiling: 24,400 ft

Type 5
Year: 1936
Span: 29 ft 6 in
Height: 10 ft 8 in
Length: 19 ft 8 in / 5.98m
Empty weight: 2466 lb
Loaded weight: 3325 lb
Max speed SL: 242 mph
Max speed at 8860 ft: 277 mph
Landing speed: 73 mph
Climb to 10,000 ft: 4 min
Service ceiling: 29,855 ft
Takeoff run: 720 ft

Type 10
Year: 1938
Engine: M-25V
Span: 29 ft 6.5 in
Height: 10 ft 8 in
Length: 19 ft 11 in
Empty weight: 2925 lb
Loaded weight: 3783 lb / 1716 kg
Max speed SL: 247 mph
Max speed at 10,370 ft: 278 mph
Landing speed: 78 mph
Climb to 10,000 ft: 3.4 min
Service ceiling: 27,780 ft
Takeoff run: 850 ft

Type 12
Year: 1937
Span: 29 ft 6.5 in
Height: 10 ft 8 in
Length: 19 ft 8 in
Empty weight: 2557 lb
Loaded weight: 3788 lb
Max speed SL: 244 mph
Max speed at 7870 ft: 268 mph
Landing speed: 80 mph
Climb to 10,000 ft: 4.4 min
Service ceiling: 27,000 ft
Takeoff run: 900 ft

Type 15 / UTI-4

Year: 1937
Engine: M-25
Span: 29 ft 6.5 in
Height: 10 ft 8 in
Length: 19 ft 8 in
Empty weight: 2549 lb
Loaded weight: 3215 lb
Max speed SL: 247 mph
Max speed at 9185 ft: 280 mph
Landing speed: 73 mph
Climb to 10,000 ft: 3.4 min
Service ceiling: 29,400 ft
Takeoff run: 810 ft

Type 17
Year: 1938
Engine: M-25V
Span: 29 ft 6.5 in
Height: 10 ft 8 in
Length: 19 ft 11 in
Empty weight: 3140 lb
Loaded weight: 3990 lb
Max speed SL: 239 mph
Max speed at 8855 ft: 264 mph
Landing speed: 81 mph
Climb to 10,000 ft: 4.4 min
Service ceiling: 27,000 ft
Takeoff run: 920 ft

Type 18
Year: 1939
Engine: M-62
Span: 29 ft 6.5 in
Height: 10 ft 8 in
Length: 19 ft 11 in
Empty weight: 3160 lb
Loaded weight: 4149 lb
Max speed SL: 257 mph
Max speed at 14,435 ft: 286 mph
Landing speed: 82 mph
Climb to 10,000 ft: 3 min
Service ceiling: 30,500 ft
Takeoff run: 670 ft

Type 24
Year: 1939
Engine: M-63
Span: 29 ft 6.5 in
Height: 10 ft 8 in
Length: 20 ft 1 in
Empty weight: 3048 lb
Loaded weight: 4149 lb
Max speed SL: 255 mph
Max speed at 15,420 ft: 287 mph
Landing speed: 81 mph
Climb to 10,000 ft: 3.4 min
Service ceiling: 31,825 ft
Takeoff run: 850 ft

Type 27
Year: 1939
Engine: M-62
Span: 29 ft 6.5 in
Height: 10 ft 8 in
Length: 19 ft 11 in
Empty weight: 2944 lb
Loaded weight: 3986 lb
Landing speed: 81 mph
Takeoff run: 755 ft

Type 28
Year: 1939
Engine: M-63
Span: 29 ft 6.5 in
Height: 10 ft 8 in
Length: 20 ft 1 in
Empty weight: 3093 lb
Loaded weight: 4383 lb
Max speed SL: 265 mph
Max speed at 6560 ft: 288 mph
Landing speed: 93 mph
Climb to 10,000 ft: 3.2 min
Service ceiling: 32,645 ft
Takeoff run: 670 ft

Type 29
Year: 1940
Span: 29 ft 6.5 in
Height: 10 ft 6.5 in
Length: 20 ft 1 in
Empty weight: 4332 lb
Loaded weight: 4227 lb
Max speed SL: 260 mph
Max speed at 14,700 ft: 292 mph
Landing speed: 81 mph
Climb to 10,000 ft: 3.3 min
Service ceiling: 32,150 ft





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