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Junkers Ju.87 Stuka

Breda 201 Picchiatelli

 

ju87stuka


The reputation of the Junkers Ju 87 Stuka (Sturzkampfflugzeug, or dive-bomber) was made during the Polish campaign in close-support operations across Europe. The Luftwaffe believed it to be virtually invincible, but this was true only after air superiority had been gained, as demonstrated during the Battle of Britain when the Stukas were mauled so severely by the RAF that they were later withdrawn from operations over western Europe.

 

Designed by Hans Pohlmann, the fuselage has a metal structure with top hat section stringers and stressed skin covered. The gull wings were two metal spars with a flush riveted stressed skin and fitted with double wing ailerons and flaps.

 

Three prototypes were started in 1934, the first with twin vertical tail surfaces and powered by a Rolls-Royce Kestrel engine. During dive tests in 1935 the tail unit of this aircraft collapsed and the aircraft was destroyed. The second prototype introduced a single fin and rudder and was powered by a 455kW Junkers Jumo 210A, and official evaluation of this aircraft and a further improved third prototype led to a pre-production batch of 10 Ju 87A-0 aircraft with the 477kW Jumo 210Ca engine. The initial Ju 87A-1 production version began to replace Hs 123 biplanes in the spring of 1937.


Late in 1937 three Ju 87A-1 dive-bombers of Stukageschwader 163 were despatched to Spain for service under the Legion Condor. These aircraft were powered by the 477-kW (640-hp) Jumo 210Ca and were replaced in October 1938 by five examples of the Ju 87B-1, the first definitive variant of this dive-bomber series with a considerably more powerful engine, improved offensive armament, and reyised structural and aerodynamic features including a recontoured fuselage, larger vertical surfaces, cantilever main landing gear units without the struts that braced the Ju 87A’s main units to the fuselage. These aircraft operated with Kampfgruppe 88 into early 1939, validating many of the dive-bomber’s tactical principles.

 

Junk-87B2
Ju-87B-2

 

At the beginning of World War II the Luftwaffe had 336 Ju 87B aircraft on strength, and others were supplied to Italy (which named them Picchiatello), Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania.


Breda also built a number of Junkers Ju 87Bs under license as the Breda 201 Picchiatelli before suspension of production soon after the Italian surrender.

 

Junk-87-17
Ju-87D

 

Ju 87s were deployed extensively on the Eastern Front, initially with great success, but by 1943 they were suffering such severe losses by daylight that they were switched to a night assault role.

 

 Junk-87-16
Ju-87G with the BK-37s

 

Later in the war a specialist anti-armour version was produced which brought havoc to the tank armies on the Russian Front.
When production ended more than 5,700 had been built, the majority after 1940 when their vulnerability without adequate fighter cover had been highlighted in the Battle of Britain. A redesigned and improved Ju 187 was projected in 1943, but following consideration of the design no examples were built.

 

Gallery

 

Ju.87 V-1
cn 4921 – The first prototype flew for the first time on 17 Sept 1935 and was later possibly registered D-UBYR
Powered by a 640 hp Rolls Royce Kestrel and fitted with a fixed pitch two blade wooden propeller. Also with the vertical end plate tailplane surface. The aircraft was later destroyed in a crash due to tail flutter.
 
Ju.87 V-2
cn 4922 – D-UHUH Powered by 610 hp Junkers Jumo 210A with a Hamilton Standard three blade variable pitch metal propeller. This time with the single vertical tail surfaces.
 
Ju.87 V-3
cn 4923 – D-UKYQ – similar to the V-2
Fitted with special dive brakes under the wings
 
Ju.87 V-4
cn 4924 – D-UBIP – with a larger vertical tail and flew for the first time on 20 Jun 1936
Armed with a 7.92mm MG 17 in the starboard wing
The prototype for the A-0 production series
 
Ju.87 V-5
cn 4925 – B-0 series prototype, first flew 14 Aug 1936
 
Ju.87 V-6
cn 0870027 – Powered by 1000 hp Junkers Jumo 211A
Also a B-0 series prototype, first flew 14 Jun 1937
 
Ju.87 V-7
cn 0870028 – Prototype for the B series which first flew on 23 Aug 1937
Powered by 1000 hp Junkers Jumo 211A
 
Ju.87 V-8
cn 4926 – First flew 11 Nov 1937
 
Ju.87 V-9
cn 4927 – D-IELZ – First flew 16 Feb 1938, later as WL-IELZ on 16 Oct 1939
 
Ju.87 V-10
cn 4928 – D-IHFH – First flew 17 Mar 1938
As a fixed wing test aircraft for the C series – TK+HD, as C-1
 
Ju.87 V-11
cn 4929 – TV+OV – First flew 12 May 1938
Folding wing test type for the C series, as C-0
 
Ju.87 V-15
cn 0870321 – D-IGDK
crashed during 1942
 
Ju.87 V-16
cn 0870279 – GT+AX
 
Ju.87 V-19
cn 4930 – VN+EN
used as a torpedo test aircraft for the E series types during 1941
 
Ju.87 V-21
cn 0870536 – D-INRF
D series prototype, first flew during February 1941
 
Ju.87 V-22
cn 0870540 – SF+TY
D series prototype, first flew on 1 March 1941
 
Ju.87 V-23
cn 0870542 – PB+UB
D series prototype, first flew during April 1941
 
Ju.87 V-24
cn 0870544 – BK+EE
D series prototype, first flew duringMay 1941
 
Ju.87 V-25
cn 0870538 – BK+EF
D series tropical variant prototype
 
Ju.87 V-30
cn 2296
D-5 prototype, first flew 20 June 1943
 
Ju.87A
210 built
 
Ju.87A-0
10 pre-production types, first flown November 1936
Engine: Junkers Jumo 210C, 600 hp
Prop: 10 ft 10 in two position adjustable
 
Ju 87A-1
Engine: Junkers Jumo 210Ca, 477-kW (640-hp).
 
Ju.87A-1
Production type
Entered service with Sturkampfgeschwader Immelmann August 1937
Engine: Junkers Jumo 210Da, 635 hp
Armament: 1 x fixed 7.92mm MG 17, 1 x flexible 7.92mm MG 15,
Later armament: 2 x fixed 7.92mm MG 17, 1 x flexible 7.92mm win barrel MG 81z
Bombload: 1 x 550 lb bomb or 1100 lb (with one man crew)
Later bombload: 3968 lb, or 2 x pods of six MG 17 or 2 x 2cm MGFF cannon each, or 2 x packs of 92 – 4.4 lb anti-personnel bombs.
Sirens were also fitted to undercarriage fairings
 
Ju.87A-2
Engine: Junkers Jumo 210Da, 680 hp
 
Ju.87B
Larger vertical tail
200 delivered to Italy – known as Picchiatello
Evaluated by the Japanese
Supplied to Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania
Last B type produce during October 1940
Engine: Junkers Jumo 211A-1, 899 hp
Prop: controlable pitch 11 ft 5.75 in 3-blade
Length: 35.6 ft. (10.85 m.).
Wing span: 45.3 ft. (13.8 m.).
Weight empty: 6,085 lb. (2,760 kg.).
Armament: Two mg in wings, one in rear cockpit.
Bomb load: 1100 lb (500 kg.)
Max speed: 232 m.p.h. (373 km.p.h.).
Range: 370 miles (600 km.).
Crew: pilot & 1 gunner.

One aircraft trialled with 1475 hp Daimler-Benz DB 605 engine

 

Ju.87B-0
Ten pre-production aircraft built 1938
Engine: Junkers Jumo 211A, 900 hp
 
Ju.87B-1
1938 – fitted with larger canopy, re-designed cockpit and undercarriage wheel spats
Powerplant: 1 x Junkers Jumo 211Da, 895kW (1,200 hp).
Span: 13.8m (45ft 3.3 in).
Length: 11.1m (36ft 5in).
Max TO weight: 4340 kg (9,560 lb).
Max speed: 238 mph at 13,410 ft.
Operational range: 490 miles.
Armament: 2 x 7.92mm Rheinmetall MG 17 mg in wings, 1 x 7.92mm MG 15 mg in rear cockpit
Bombload: 4 x 110 lb underwing racks & 1 x 551 lb or 1 x 1102 lb under fuselage
 
Ju.87B-1 / U-1
Standard variant
 
Ju.87B-1 / U-2
Alternative radio equipment
 
Ju.87B-1 / U-3
Additional armour
 
Ju.87B-1 / U-4
Similar to U-3 but ski undercarriage
 
Ju.87B-1 / Trop
Tropicalised variant
 
Ju.87B-2
Fitted with automatic dive control
Modified undercarriage legs and hydraulically operated radiator cooling flaps
Later internal electrical equipment modified
Engine: Junkers Jumo 211Da, 1100 hp (1200 hp with fuel injection)
Prop: Junkers VS 5, 11 ft 1.75 in dia., 3-blade
Wing span: 45 ft 3.5 in (13.8 m).
Length: 36 ft 1 in (11.0 m).
Height: 12 ft 9.5 in (3.9 m).
Max TO wt: 9321 lb (4250 kg).
Max level speed: 237 mph (380 kph).
Service ceiling: 26247 ft / 8000 m
Armament: 2 x 7.92mm Rheinmetall MG 17 mg in wings, 1 x 7.92mm MG 15 mg in rear cockpit
Bombload: 2200 lb (2200 lb as a single seater)
Crew: 2
 
Ju.87C
87B’s converted for carrier ‘Graf Zeppelin’.
Strengthened, fitted with folding wings, arrester gear, jettisonable undercarriage, inflatable flotation bags under each wing and some carried a two seat rubber dingy.
 
Ju.87C-0
One only, fitted with 88mm recoilless gun
Damaged while testing
 
Ju-87C-1
Armed with two wing mounted MG 17 machine guns and an aft firung MG 15 machine gun.
Project abandoned and those being built converted to B-2s
 
Ju.87D
Ground attack and dive bomber, two crew
Introduced during late 1940
Engine coolant radiator now under wing.
Oil coolant radiator replaces engine coolant radiator
Redesigned engine cowling, cockpit canopy, undercarriage fairings and improved armour protection.
Sirens fitted to undercarriage
Engine: Junkers Jumo 211J-1, 1350 hp
Propeller: VDM 3-blade controllable pitch
Wingspan: 45 ft 3.5 in
Length: 37 ft 8.75 in
Take-off weght: 12,600 lb
Max speed: 255 mph
Armament: 2 x 7.92mm MG 81 mg
Bombload: 1 x 1100 lb under fuselage or 1 x 550 lb under fuselage & 4 x 110 lb under wings
Some fitted with twin 37mm (flak) cannon, revised canopy, simplified landing gear and larger vertical tail.
Some 6000 built.

 

Ju-87D-1
Engine: 1 x Junkers Jumo 211J-1, 1051kW
Max take-off weight: 6600 kg / 14551 lb
Empty weight: 3900 kg / 8598 lb
Wingspan: 13.8 m / 45 ft 3 in
Length: 11.5 m / 37 ft 9 in
Height: 3.9 m / 12 ft 10 in
Wing area: 31.9 sq.m / 343.37 sq ft
Max. speed: 410 km/h / 255 mph
Ceiling: 7290 m / 23900 ft
Range w/max.fuel: 1535 km / 954 miles
Armament: 2 x 7.92mm MG 81 mg
Bombload: 3968 under fuselage
Crew: 2
 
Ju.87D-1 / Trop
Tropicalized with filters and desert survival equipment
 
Ju.87D-2
Strengthened, sirens removed and fitted with glider towing equipment
 
Ju.87D-3
Different armament and added armour protection
Trialled with over-wing passenger pods (pods to be released and descend by parachute – never tested)
 
Ju.87D-4
Able to carry a torpedo
Armament: 6 x MG 81 in under-wing WB81 weapon containers.
 
Ju.97D-5
Longer span, no dive brakes, jettisonable landing gear
 
Ju.87D-6
Simplified version similar to D-5 – not produced
 
Ju.87D-7
Night ground attack type
Engine: Junkers Jumo 211P, 1500 hp
Armament: 2 x 20mm MG 151 cannon in wings
 
Ju.87D-8
Daytime version of D-7
 
Ju.87E
Proposed two seat, catapult launched dive bomber. Able to carry bombs or torpedo. Not built.
 
junkersju87dld

 

ju87ld-2
 
 

 

 

 

 


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