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Ikarus AD
Formed at Novi Sad in 1923, Ikarus was one of the country's largest aircraft manufacturers. Initial production centered on a number of S.M. training flying-boats, followed by a military type I.O. In 1926 the company acquired a license to build the Potez 25 biplane, and established a new factory at Zemun for its production.
Four out of five Yugoslav aircraft plants were in close proximity to each other, built in and around Belgrade: Ikarus, Rogožarski, Zmaj and Utva. The fifth one was DFA (Državna Fabrika Aviona - State Aircraft Factory) which was located in Kraljevo.
The production facilities of Ikarus were destroyed in World War Two but rebuilt in 1946 and soon nationalised by the new Tito lead Yugoslav communist government. 

In the early 1950’s Ikarus continued to develop a number of experimental research aircraft protoypes. These included a number of early jet aircraft under the Ikarus 451 designation a number which all featured the same basic airframe of the piston engined S-451 but all served different purposes in testing and evaluation. The 451 designated jet aircraft included the first jet designed and built in Yugoslavia (S-451M), a more advanced jet design (S-451M Zolja), a close support military jet development (J-451MM Stršljen) and jet training aircraft (S-451MM / T-451MM).


Ikarus experimented with further jet designs in the early 1950’s. The Ikarus 452M and 453 aircraft were both unconventional designs that were briefly used for flight testing


 Ikarus 451 experimental research aircraft at the Yugoslav Aeronautical Testing Centre
in the 1950’s – Ikarus 452M, S-451M, S-451 and 232 Pionir

None of the Ikarus experimental aircraft went into wide production but they did provide a stepping stone for future aviation technology development in Yugoslavia. By the early 1960’s aircraft development ceased at Ikarus and had been taken over by Soko based in Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina (Ikarus manufacturing buses).






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