Sud-Est SE 3140
Sud Aviation SA-316 Alouette III
Sud Aviation SA-318C Alouette II
Sud Aviation SA-319 Alouette III
Sud Aviation SA-3180
Hindustan Aeronautics HSA.316B Alouette III
Hindustan Aeronautics HSA.316B Chetak
IAR IAR-316B Alouette III
IAR IAR-317 Airfox
The basic airframe of the Sud-Est SE-3120 Alouette was completely redesigned to take the 269kW Turbomeca Artouste II turboshaft, and the first of two prototypes, designated SE 3130, was flown on 12 March 1955.
Following were three pre-production aircraft in 1956 as the Alouette II. This was granted a French Certificate of Airworthiness on 2 May 1956. Three months after the first flight the Alouette II set a new helicopter altitude record of 8209m. In 1957 Sud-Est merged with Sud-Aviation, at which time the designation of the Alouette II was altered to SE 313B, remaining unchanged after Sud's take-over by Aerospatiale.
Its has three blade rotor with three degrees of freedom, pitch, in-plane motion and vertical flapping. Pitch is controlled by means of a stabilizing gyroscope.
Even before flight testing had been completed, the Alouette II was showing its abilities as a mountain rescue aircraft. The second prototype Alouette II was in the Alps for performance tests in July 1956 when the test team learned that a climber was dying after having a heart attack in the Vallot Mountain refuge, one of the highest in Europe at 4362m.
The first attempt at a rescue was unsuccessful, but the second worked: within five minutes of landing the helicopter had transported the climber to hospital in Chamonix, thereby saving his life.
During the period 9-13 June 1958, an Artouste-powered Alouette II set up a helicopter altitude record of 10981m for all classes, and a height record of 9583m in the 1000/1750kg category. By September 1960 598 Alouette IIs had been ordered by customers in 22 different countries and the type was being assembled by Republic in the USA and Saab in Sweden although few were built.
Production aircraft were delivered initially to fulfil orders from the French forces and civilian customers, but when production ended nine hundred and twenty-three of the Artouste-powered Alouette II's had been built for customers in thirty-three countries. Three-hundred and sixty-three of these were built for the French services — particularly the Aviation Legere de I'Armee de Terre - and a further two hundred and sixty-seven were built for the Federal German Heeresfliegerei. Other large military operators of the Alouette II include the Belgian Army (thirty-nine), Swiss Army (thirty), all three Swedish air arms (total twenty-five), and Britain's Army Air Corps (seventeen) as Alouette AH.2. Alouette II's were also delivered to the air forces of Austria (sixteen), Cambodia (eight), Congo Leopoldville (three), Dominican Republic (two), Indonesia (three), Israel (four). Ivory Coast (two), Laos (two), Lebanon (three), Mexico (two), Morocco (seven), Netherlands (eight), Peru (six), Portugal (seven) and South Africa (seven). In all, at least 1,305 Alouette II were built.
SE 313 Alouette II
Alouettes of the ALAT have carried out firing trials using Nord AS.10 or AS.11 anti-tank missiles, while some of the Aeronavale's machines have been used to carry homing torpedoes.
A development of the Alouette II with a 298kW Turbomeca Turmo II engine, with the designation SE 3140, was announced in May 1957 and flown on 16 May 1957 but did not reach the production stage.The SE.3150 an Artouste-powered development of it of which two were built.
From the Alouette II, the SE.3131 Gouverneur executive version was derived.
The first version of the Alouette III, the SE 3160 prototype flew in 1959. Production of the SA 316A (SE 3160) began in 1960 and remained in production until 1968. It was replaced by the SA 316B.
The Turbomeca Artouste IIIB turboshaft engine was the original variant produced, the Alouette III is recognized for its mountain rescue and adaptability for land and ship based applications. The Argentine Navy purchased 14 helicopters, 3 of the original design SE3160, 7 with the more powerful engine and strength upgrades in the SA316B and 4 machines of the SA319B with more power than the other two versions.
The Alouette III entered in service with the French Armed forces in 1960. Many were used by the Foreign Legion from 1964-1967. Three machines were delivered from France for local assembly in Australia, and were used by Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF).
Pakistan purchased 35 machines and used them in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. Two planes of the PAF were shot down in the war, and the Portuguese Colonial War, during 60's and 70's used large numbers of helos in Angola, Mozambique and Guinea, where it proved its qualities for use in dusty and hot flying conditions. One SA316B purchased by Argentina was on board the ARA General Belgrano when she was sunk by the HMS Conqueror S48 during the Falklands War with Great Britain in 1982.
Basically, the SE.3160 Alouette III is an enlarged and more powerful development of the Alouette II, with an Artouste IIIB turboshaft engine of 870/550shp and a strengthened transmission system. The cabin is enlarged to accommodate a pilot and 6 passengers, and the tailboom is an enclosed, all-metal semi-monocoque fuselage. The prototype, F-ZWVQ, first flew on 28 February 1959. The SE.3160 was revised in 1968 and redesignated SA.316A Alouette III for the first production series.
A close-support version, the SA.3164 Alouette III Armee with a stepped windshield, was flown on 24 June 1964. This carried a 20mm cannon in front of the left-hand seat, and can be armed with 7.92mm machine-guns, pods of 18 or 36 HVAR rockets or Nord AS.11 or AS.12 anti-tank missiles on mountings on each side of the cabin. A naval version with a mooring harpoon and all-weather capability is being developed for anti-submarine and other shipboard roles.
Various experimental developments followed, including an all-weather variant which made its initial flight on 27 April 1964. The SA.319 Alouette III prototype, F-ZWVQ, was basically an SA.316 fitted with a 600shp Turbomeca Astazou XIV turboshaft.
SA.319B Alouette III
The subsequent SA 316B, first flown on 27 June 1968, featured strengthened main and tail rotor transmissions and was generally slightly heavier, but could carry more payload. It became the principal production version, with first deliveries made in 1970, and was an immediate export success.
Two versions have been built, the SA 316B with one 870 shp Turbomeca Artouste IIIB turboshaft engine derated to 570 shp, and the SA 319B with one 870 shp Turbomeca Astazou XIV turboshaft derated to 600 shp. The first experimental SA 319B prototype was completed and flown in 1967, but full production did not start until 1973. Those in service in an anti-armour role can carry a variety of cannon, machine-guns, rockets, and wire-guided missiles. Naval versions can deploy wire-guided missiles, but those intended specifically for an ASW role carry two homing torpedoes, or one torpedo and MAD equipment. The Alouette III has an external sling for loads up to 750kg or a rescue hoist which can lift 175kg.
Another derivative, powered by the more economical Astazou IIA turboshaft engine and featuring a new centrifugal clutch, was far more successful. The first prototype, designated SA 3180, was flown on 31 January 1960 and after thorough trials an extension of the Alouette II French Certificate of Airworthiness was granted on 18 February 1964. Production, as the SA 318C with the Artouste IIID derated to 600shp, commenced in the same year, with first deliveries taking place in 1965.
The SA 318C had a slightly higher level speed, longer range and was capable of lifting heavier loads, but is less suitable for operations in higher altitudes. The success of the basic Alouette II design was reflected in the growing number of civil and military customers: by 1 June 1967 a total of 988 Alouette IIs (including those with Astazous engines) had been ordered (and 969 delivered); by 21 May 1970 the total had increased to 1,200 (923 with Artouste and 277 with Astazou engines); this total included 450 Alouette IIs delivered to the French air force, army and navy as well as private customers. By the spring of 1975, when the production of this helicopter was terminated, the number of Alouette IIs sold had reached 1,300, and it was used by 126 civil and military operators in 46 countries.
Production of the SE.3130 (which was redesignated SE.313B in 1967) has been gradually running down since about 1964, but output is still maintained of the SA.318C (originally SE.3180) which first flew on 31 January 1961 and received domestic type approval on 18 February 1964. This is basically the same airframe, but with a 550shp Astazou IIA shaft turbine (derated to 360shp) and the strengthened transmission system of the Alouette III. An initial fifteen Alouette II Astazou's were built for the ALAT; by September 1967 orders had reached seventy-eight, for the Gendarmerie, the Federal German police force and other customers. A lighter-weight 'long-life' version was being developed during 1967, and one Alouette II Astazou was testing the Bolkow rigid-rotor system. It flew in this configuration on 24 January 1966.
Production ended in 1975, by which time over 1300 had been built.
The SA 316B and the SA 319B both remained in series production up to the early 1980s, when the main production line in France was closed down. However, HAL of India continued to licence-build Alouette IIIs as the Chetak. In 2004, most of the Alouette III were retired from the French Air Force after 32 years of successful service, to be replaced by the Eurocopter EC 355 Ecureuil 2. In the same year, the Swiss Armed Forces announced the retirement of the Alouette III, from the front line by 2006, and entirely by 2010. Venezuelan Air forces retired their Alouette IIIs in the late 90s.
Hindustan Licence-manufactured SA-315B Lama and SA-316B Alouette III helicopters at Bangalore as Cheetah and Chetak respectively up to 1998 under a licence agreement finalised in 1962. Production gave way to the indigenously developed Advanced Light Helicopter (first flown August 1992).
The first Indian-assembled Alouette III was flown on 11 June 1965.
More than 250 had been completed at Bangalore in India for civil and military use.
In addition to a number of military export customers, the USSR purchased eight Chetaks for civil use. A version for the Indian Navy is armed with two Mk.44 torpedoes and has a harpoon moor-ing system and folding rotor blades for ship-board operations. A podded magnetic anomaly detector may also be carried in place of one of the torpedoes. An armed variant for the Indian Air Force is equipped with four air-to-surface missiles, and has a roof mounted periscope sight.
Also built under licence in Roumania by CNIAR were the IAR-316 and IAR-317 Airfox. The IAR-316B Allouette III first flew on 13 November 1971. Production of the Alouette III continued in Romania for domestic and export customers in 1987.
The IAR-317 Airfox is a Romanian developed light attack/training version of the Aérospatiale Alouette III helicopter. Its recon-figured front fuselage has two seats in tandem, the rear seat raised for improved visibility; a hard nose; a fixed forward firing armament of two 7.62mm machine-guns in the lower front fuselage; six external weapons pylons; and armour protection for the crew and fuel tanks in the combat variant. The IAR-317 was due to enter production for the Romanian armed forces in 1986.
The first flight took place in 22 September 1983, and two more prototypes were completed by the end of 1985. To the rear of the main rotor mast the Airfox is essentially an Alouette III, retaining the latter’s tail rotor and Turbomeca Artouste IIIB power plant. Performance is improved by the lighter, more streamlined nose, with a maximum cruise speed of 190km/hr (102kt) at maximum take-off weight, a 525km range on internal fuel, and 810km with two external tanks fitted. Service ceiling is more than 6,200m (20,350ft).
Licence production in Switzerland by FFA totalled 60.
Sud-Est SE 3120 Alouette (Lark)
SE 3130 Alouette II
SE.3160 Alouette III
SA.3164 Alouette III Armee
SE 313B Alouette II
SA.316A Alouette III
SA.316B Alouette III
SA.316C Alouette III
SA.318C Alouette Astazou
SA.319 Alouette III
SA.319B Alouette III
Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. HSA.316B Alouette III
Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. HSA.316B Chetak
IAR-316B Alouette III
Engine: 1 x Salmson 9NH, 150kW
Main rotor diameter: 11.60m
Take-off weight: 1150kg
Empty weight: 750kg
Max speed: 125km/h
Service ceiling: 4000m
Sud-Est SE 3130 B Alouette II / SA.313B
Engine: Turboméca Artouste II C 6, 400 shp
Length: 31.824 ft / 9.7 m
Width of hull: 6.824 ft / 2.08 m
Height: 9.022 ft / 2.75 m
Rotor diameter: 33.465 ft / 10.2 m
MTOW: 3307.5 lb / 1500.0 kg
Weight empty: 2149.9 lb / 975.0 kg
Max. weight carried: 1157.6 lb / 525.0 kg
Max. speed: 92 kts / 170 km/h
Initial climb rate: 826.77 ft/min / 4.20 m/s
Service ceiling: 12959 ft / 3950 m
Range: 302 nm / 560 km
Endurance: 3 h
Payload: 4 Pax
SE 313 Alouette II Artouste
Engine: Turbomeca Artouste IIC6, 530shp(derated to 360shp)
Aerospatiale SE-313B Alouette II
Engine: 1 x Turbomeca Artouste II C6 turboshaft, 395kW
Main rotor diameter: 10.2m
Length blades folded: 9.7m
Take-off weight: 1600kg
Empty weight: 895kg
Max speed: 185km/h
Cruising speed: 165km/h
Service ceiling: 2150m
Range with max fuel: 565km
Range 390kg payload: 300km
Engine: Astazou IV, 600 shp
Fuselage length: 10 m / 33 ft
Rotor dia: 36 ft 1.25 in / 11.02 m
Max speed: 130 mph / 210 km/h
SA 316 Alouette III
Engine: 1 x Turbomeca Artouste IIIB turboshaft, 570shp
Length: 42.13ft (12.84m)
Width: 36.15ft (11.02m)
Height: 9.84ft (3.00m)
Maximum Speed: 130mph (210kmh; 113kts)
Maximum Range: 298miles (480km)
Rate-of-Climb: 885ft/min (270m/min)
Service Ceiling: 7,379ft (2,249m)
Accommodation: 2 + 5
Empty Weight: 2,474lbs (1,122kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 4,850lbs (2,200kg)
Aerospatiale SA.316B Alouette III
Engine: 1 x Turbomeca Artouste IIIB turboshaft, 649kW
Main rotor diameter: 11.02 m
Length rotors turning: 10.03 m
Height: 3.0 m
Take-off weight: 2200 kg
Empty weight: 1143kg
Max speed: 210km/h
Cruising speed: 185km/h
Service ceiling: 3200m
Range max fuel: 540km
Aerospatiale SA 316B Alouette III
Engine: Turbomeca Artouste IIIB, 850 hp (derated to 570 shp)
Main rotor dia: 36 ft 1.75 in / 11.02 m
Length rotors turning: 42 ft 1.5 in / 12.84 m
Disc loading: 4.74 lb/sq.ft
Pwr loading: 5.65 lb/hp
Max TO wt: 4850 lb / 2200 kg
Empty wt: 2474 lb 1122 kg
Equipped useful load: 2321 lb
Payload max fuel: 1322 lb
Range max fuel/ cruise: 191 nm/ 1.9 hr
Range max fuel SL: 258 nm / 298 mi / 480 km
Service ceiling: 13,125 ft / 4000 m
Max cruise SL: 101 kt / 115 mph / 185 kph
Max range cruise: 96 kt
Max ROC SL: 885 fpm / 270 m/min
HIGE: 9510 ft
HOGE: 4920 ft
Max sling load: 1650 lb / 750 kg
Fuel cap: 999 lb
SA318C Alouette II Artouste
Engine: Turbomeca Astazou IIA turboshaft, 530shp derated to 360 shp
Main rotor diameter: 33 ft 5 5/8 in / 10.20m
Fuselage length: 32 ft 0 in / 9.75m
Empty weight: 1961 lb / 890 kg
MTOW: 3630 lb / 1650 kg
Max cruise SL: 97 kt / 112 mph / 180 kph
ROC SL: 1300 fpm / 396 m/min
Service ceiling: 10,800 ft / 3300 m
Range max fuel SL: 388 nm / 447 mi / 720 km
Range with 1058 lb / 480 kg payload: 161 nm / 186 mi / 300 km
External load capacity: 1322 lb / 600 kg
SE 3160 Allouette III / Aerospatiale SA 319B Alouette III
Engines: Turbomeca Astazou XIVB, 858 hp derated to 600 shp
Rotor diameter: 36.155 ft / 11.02 m
Length: 32.841 ft / 10.01 m
Width of hull: 8.497 ft / 2.59 m
Height: 9.744 ft / 2.97 m
Max TO wt: 4960 lb
Empty wt: 2486 lb
Equipped useful load: 2412 lb
Payload max fuel: 1413 lb
Disc loading: 4.8 lb/sq.ft
Pwr loading: 5.78 lb/hp
Range max fuel/ cruise: 264 nm / 2.4 hr
Service ceiling: 13,125 ft
Max. speed: 113 kts / 210 km/h
Max cruise: 107 kt
Max range cruise: 90 kt
ROC: 900 fpm
HIGE: 10,400 ft
HOGE: 5900 ft
Max sling load: 1800 lb
Fuel cap: 999 lb
HAL SA-315B Cheetah
Engine: 1 x Hindustan Aeronautics/Turbomeca Artouste IIIB
Instant pwr: 420 kW
Rotor dia: 11.02 m
MTOW: 2200 kg
Payload: 325 kg
Useful load: 780 kg
Max speed: 113 kts
Max cruise: 104 kts
Max range: 560 km
HIGE: 20,010 ft
HOGE: 19,026 ft
Service ceiling: 20,993 ft
HSA.316B Alouette III
Engine: 1 x Hindustan Aeronautics/Turbomeca Artouste IIIB
Instant pwr: 420 kW
Rotor dia: 11.02 m
MTOW: 2300 kg
Payload: 465 kg
Useful load: 920 kg
Max speed: 113 kts
Max cruise: 100 kts
Max range: 500 km
HIGE: 12,136 ft
HOGE: 8036 ft
Service ceiling: 15,580 ft