Farman F.61 Goliath
The two FF.60 bomber prototypes of 1918 started a great family of passenger airliners and night bombers. The F.60 of 1915-16 was an F.40 with the more powerful 190-hp Renault; the F.61 was the 190-hp version of the F.41. The type was an equal-span biplane with a conventional monoplane-type tail unit. The landing-gear legs had trousered fairings and each supported twin wheels. Immediately above each leg was an engine set in a large nacelle on the lower wing, with minimal clearance between the propeller and the slab-sided fuselage.
Bomber versions had gunners cockpits in the nose and amidships, while the pilot and co-pilot/navigator were seated in tandem in open cockpits. Commercial transport Goliaths had a nose cabin for four passengers and an aft cabin for eight, separated by a raised open cockpit for the two pilots under the leading edge of the upper wing.
The Farman brothers commenced Paris-London flights on 6 February 1919 using an F.60 Goliath.
About 60 commercial Goliaths were built in several versions with Salmson, Renault, Lorraine, Gnome-Rhone-built Jupiter, Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar and Farman engines, among the most important being those powered by 171.4kW Salmson Z.9 radial engines operated by Air Union.
Goliath - Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar engines
Several flew with other airlines including the Farman airline, and indeed it was this company that started the world's first regular international passenger service, beginning on 22 March 1919 between Paris and Brussels. Of course this had not been the first international passenger service by an airline between European capital cities, this being officially recognised as the Farman flight between Paris and London on 8 February 1919 carrying military personnel. However the latter was not the start of a sustained or civil passenger service and as such does not conflict with the Paris-Brussels "first". Versions operated by the Farman airline included the Renault-powered F.61 and Gnome-Rhone-built Jupiter-powered F.63bis. Six passenger-carrying Goliaths were also built under licence in Czechoslovakia, two going to the air force.
Thirty-six F.60 bombers (with Salmson engines and cut-down noses) served with the French 21 and 22 Regiments d'Aviation and 24 square-nosed Jupiter-powered Goliaths equipped naval escadrilles 6R1, 6B1 and 6B2, following tests with a passenger type. These could be mounted on twin floats (with stabiliser floats under the lower wings) as an alternative to the normal wheel-type landing gear. Russia purchased sufficient F.62s to equip two units which formed the embryo of its new heavy bomber force; Japan and Italy bought a single example each for testing; and Poland acquired 32 F.68 bombers. Export bombers - like the 42 F.63 for the French Army and a large batch of F.65 for the French Navy - each had a 'balcony'-type nose-gunner's cockpit with a 'step' below.
The Belgian Aviation Militaire had two squadrons of F.41s and 60s a few F.40 series were used by the RNAS and 30 were supplied to the American Expedtionary Force.
Conversions to airliner were operated by Air Union circa 1929.
Engine: 2 x Salmson CM.9, 190kW
Max take-off weight: 4870 kg / 10737 lb
Empty weight: 2500 kg / 5512 lb
Wingspan: 26.5 m / 86 ft 11 in
Length: 14.3 m / 46 ft 11 in
Wing area: 161.0 sq.m / 1732.99 sq ft
Max. speed: 130 km/h / 81 mph
Cruise speed: 120 km/h / 75 mph
Ceiling: 4000 m / 13100 ft
Range w/max.fuel: 400 km / 249 miles
Farman F.60 Goliath