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Enstrom 280

The Model 280 Shark is an improved F-28A, with revised nose contours of better aerodynamic shape. A conventional light helicopter with skid landing gear, tubular metal tail rotor protector, and a horizontal stabiliser with fins at tips. High inertia, three-blade fully articulated rotor head with blades attached by retention pin and drag link have control rods passing inside a tubular rotor shaft to a swashplate inside fuselage. No rotor brake is fitted. The non-folding blades have a MAC A 0013.5 section, and a two-blade teetering tail rotor is fitted. A thirty-groove belt drive runs from the horizontally mounted engine to the transmission.

The flying controls are conventional and manual, with a trim system that absorbs feedback from the rotor and repositions stick datum as required by pilot.
With bonded light alloy blades, the fuselage has a glass fibre and light alloy cabin section, steel tube centre-section frame, and stressed skin aluminium tailboom. The skids are carried on Enstrom oleo-pneumatic shock-absorbers. Air Cruiser inflatable floats are available optionally. Fuel is in two tanks, each of 79.5 litres. Total standard fuel capacity is 159 litres, of which 151 litres are usable. Auxiliary tank, capacity 49 litres, can be installed in the baggage compartment. Electrical power is provided by a 24V 70A engine-driven alternator, 12V 70A system optional. No hydraulic system is fitted.
Shoulder harnesses are equipped for three seats and night lighting is standard on the 280FX. Night lighting includes instrument lighting with dimmer control, position light on each horizontal stabiliser tip, anti-collision light and nose-mounted landing light. Optional equipment for both F28F and 280FX includes fixed float kit, wet or dry agricultural spray kit and cargo hook for utility missions. Wide instrument panel available for IFR training. Accomodating a pilot and two passengers, side by side on bench seat, the centre place is removable. Removable door on each side of cabin. Baggage space is aft of engine compartment, with an external door. Cabin heated and ventilated.

Developed in 1973 as a luxury version of the F-28A, FAA certification was achieved in September 1974. A collaboration between a Boston industrial design firm and the Enstrom engineering team yielded the new aerodynamically styled airframe. Immediately put into production, a number of models were developed and produced based on the body style of the 280 Shark (mechanically identical to the F-28C).

F-28C/280C: improved versions, introduced in 1975 replacing the F28A and 280, powered by the 153kW Avco Lycoming HIO-360-E1AD engine with a Rajay 301-E-10-2 turbocharger; the tail rotor was moved to the port side of the fuselage and the direction of rotation reversed. Certified by the FAA in 8 December 1975, production ceased in Novembr 1981.

In 1977 Enstrom Helicopters received FAA certification for an increase from 2,200 to 2,350 pounds gross weight for the turbo-charged Model 280C. Fixed waste-gate turbocharging on the Enstrom's 205-hp Lycoming HIO-360 engine enables the F-28C and the 280C to lift their 2,350-pound gross weights at density altitudes up to 13,000 feet. In addition to the turbo-charging, Enstrom shifted the tail rotor from the right to the left side of the tail boom, thus placing the anti-torque device where it reacts more favorably with the main rotor's downwash and, therefore, is more effective. A tail rotor blade with a wider chord has been tested and is being retrofitted to all C models of the F-28 and the Shark 280. The FAA has approved the modification.

F-28F Falcon/280F: FAA certificated in January 1981, the F-28F and 280F were powered by the turbocharged 168kW Avco Lycoming. HIO-360-F1AD engine
280FX: updated version of the Model 280F fitted with faired landing gear, new seats, redesigned vertical and horizontal tail surfaces, covered tail rotor shaft and tail rotor guard powered by one 225 hp (168 kW) Lycoming HIO-360-F1AD. First flown in December 1983 and certificated in January 1985. Export customers include the Chilean army which bought 15 280L Hawk: work on a four-seat version of the 280C began in January 1978 and a prototype was first flown on 27 December 1978. The main rotor diameter was increased by 0.61m and the fuselage lengthened by 0.91m. Powerplant of the F-28F/280F was retained and fuel capacity increased to 170 litres. However, full development was postponed indefinitely in 1983 following a change in company ownership

Spitfire Mk 1: developed by the Spitfire Helicopter Company of Lynnfield, Massachusetts, from the basic Enstrom F-28A design, the Spitfire Mk 1 appeared in 1976, powered by a 313kW Allison 250-C20B turboshaft.

The turbine-powered 280FX, a modified piston-powered model in which an Allison 250-C20 turbine engine with the Enstrom drive train and rotor system was integrated, flew first in December 1988. Turbine-powered certification of the TH28 came in September 1992 and the 480, to FAR Pt27 standards, in December 1994.

The Model 480 Eagle is a development of the 280L Hawk, with seating for five and power provided by the Allison 250-C20B turboshaft.
Although the Enstrom helicopters are intended mainly for light passenger operations, the F-28C and Model 280C can be used in the agricultural role with two side-mounted chemical hoppers and their associated spraybooms. Liquid chemical capacity is 340 litres, and powder chemical capacity 0.5cu.m.

A total of 735 of the earlier versions produced (14 F28, 315 F28A, 121 F28C, 56 F28C-2, 21 280, 206 280C and two 280L).
A total of 98 280FX built up to mid-2003, a further two 280 registered in early 2003. The Chilean Army operates 15 280FX for primary and instrument training. The Venezuelan National Guard took delivery of four 280FX for training in January 2002.
Basic 2004 price was US$320,000 for the F28F Falcon and 280FX Shark.

280 Shark
Engines: Lycoming HIO-360-C1A, 205 hp.
Seats: 3.
Disc loading: 2.67 lb/sq.ft.
Pwr loading: 10.48 lb/hp.
Max TO wt: 2150 lb.
Empty wt: 1450 lb.
Equipped useful load: 642 lb.
Payload max fuel: 402 lb.
Range max fuel/ cruise: 224 nm/2.1 hr.
Range max fuel / range: 245 nm/ 3.0 hr.
Service ceiling: 13,000 ft.
Max cruise: 102 kt.
Max range cruise: 83 kt.
ROC: 1000 fpm.
HIGE: 5600 ft.
HOGE: 3700 ft.
Max sling load: 500 lb.
Fuel cap: 240 lb.

F-280C Turbocharged
Engines: Lycoming HIO-360-E1AD, 205 hp.
Seats: 3.
Disc loading: 2.73 lb/sq.ft.
Pwr loading: 10.73 lb/hp.
Max TO wt: 2200 lb.
Empty wt: 1495 lb.
Equipped useful load: 647 lb.
Payload max fuel: 407 lb.
Range max fuel/ cruise: 193 nm/1.9 hr.
Range max fuel / range: 201 nm/ 2.7 hr.
Service ceiling: 18,000 ft.
Max cruise: 96 kt.
Max range cruise: 76 kt.
ROC: 1300 fpm.
HIGE: 13,800 ft.
HOGE: 8300 ft.
Max sling load: 500 lb.
Fuel cap: 240 lb.

280C Shark
Engine: Lycoming HIO-360-E1AD, 205 hp.
TBO: 1000 hrs.
Main rotor: 32 ft.
Seats: 3.
Length: 28.7 ft.
Height: 9.2 ft.
Max ramp weight: 2350 lbs.
Max takeoff weight: 2350 lbs.
Standard empty weight: 1592 lbs.
Max useful load: 758 lbs.
Max landing weight: 2350 lbs.
Max sling load: 1000 lbs.
Disc loading: 2.9 lbs/sq.ft.
Power loading: 11.5 lbs/hp.
Max usable fuel: 240 lbs.
Max rate of climb: 1200 fpm.
Service ceiling: 12,000 ft.
Hover in ground effect: 8800 ft.
Hover out of ground effect: 4100 ft.
Max speed: 102 kts.
Normal cruise @ 3000 ft: 92 kts.
Fuel flow @ normal cruise: 85 pph.
Endurance @ normal cruise: 2.7 hr.

280FX Shark
Engine: 1 x Textron Lycoming HIO-360-F1AD.
Instant pwr: 170 kW.
Rotor dia: 9.8 m.
MTOW: 1180 kg.
Useful load: 460 kg.
Max speed: 102 kts.
Max cruise: 102 kts.
Max range: 483 km.
HIGE: 13,200 ft.
HOGE: 8700 ft.
Service ceiling: 12,000 ft.
Crew: 1/2.
Pax: 1/2.
Seats: 3.
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