Enaer T-35 Pillan / E.26 Tamiz
Piper PA-28R-300 Pillan
In the late '70s there was the need to develop a new primary and basic trainer and the ECH-51 Pillán project was chosen to fill specific technical aspects required, but also possible fabrication in Chile.
In the Pillán there is a sort of reinvention of the wheel, but using a series of highly tested products. The use of facilities and growing potential of Ala Maintenance first and ENAER starting in 1984, served starting to give force to this project and that while hybrid in its construction, was Chile in its conception.
This was to be the replacement in its entirety of the serving Beechcraft Mentor, and that until 2002 (when four units were delivered to the Ecuadorian Navy) different versions of the aircraft succeed in being placed in service in not less than seven other military aviations of America and Europe.
Developed by Piper for manufacture in Chile, the T35 Pillan (Devil) tandem-seat trainer is based on the Cherokee series, using a proportion of PA-28 Dakota and PA-32 Saratoga componentsThe first prototype (N300BT) was designed and manufactured as part of the Project 51, by Advanced Engineering and Experimental Department of Piper Aircraft Co. in Lakeland, Florida, where it made its first flight on March 6, 1981 piloted by Hugh Smith, factory test pilot.
Then the FACh commissioned the construction of a second prototype and also requested the necessary kits are manufactured in Chile to join three other copies of preproduction aircrat.
Shortly after the first flight, N300BT went to Chile to continue testing, retain the original registration, supplemented with XBT.
XBT crashed on February 26, 1982, on El Bosque, while doing an inverted low flight. The pilot, Don Fernando Malbrán (also reported as Don Juan González Silva), was killed.
The second prototype Pillán, manufactured, assembled and tested in the US, first flew on 31 August 1981.
The first flight occurred in Chile on 13 September 1981, flown by José Salgado, and was officially unveiled three days later in a symbolic delivery at the Aviation School.
The number 102 was assigned in Chile, but soon (early 1982) changed to YBT when those digits were reassigned. It was exhibited at the IFAD '82 painted red and white, as YBT. On 23 January 1986 the on aircraft was registered CC-PZA.
On 31 December 1993 this aircraft was decommissioned after 764.6 hours of flight. Since 1994, it is preserved in the Museum of Aviation, registration YBT on the sides, but with plate CC-PZA as "serial number".
The third plane, was the first preseries of Pillán and first assembled in Chile. Its first flight was on January 30 , 1982.
At first it was painted blue top and white below the fuselage , and red / white / red wings ( then blue / white / blue ), plus the white star. It was exhibited at the IFAD '82 with serial number 101.
For a time it flew in Chile repainted red-white and registered CC-EFP before shipment to Farnborough '82 (5 to September 12), where it was given the number 56 on the nose. With the same scheme and identifying marks it participated in the June 1983 Farnborough, and shared the static display with the space shuttle Challenger.
The aircraft continued to operate with such a color scheme and markings until the registration was replaced (keeping the red / white and 56th ) by CC-PZB tuition, on 23 January 1986.
During the first half of 1987 this aircarft was extensively modified, being used as a prototype for the Project ENAER ECH-51M and T-35S Pillán version with aerobatic capabilities. Basically the weight was decreased and the cabin accommodation redesigned, retaining the original two-seater engine.
A new scheme of blue and white lines along the fuselage, finished in the head of a hawk nose , similar to that used at some point by Aerobatics Squadron Hawks FACh, was applied. CC-PZB made its second first test flight on March 4, 1988 and was exhibited at the IFAD of that year.
The T-35S program did not take this prototype and after a while the plane was decomissioned and the fuselage meant to be displayed on a pedestal in the Division of Systems and Equipment ENAER in El Bosque, painted white, red and blue, with a fantasy registration of CC-CSM. In 2006 it was given to the Aeronautical Museum in Los Cerrillos, to display the colors of the Squadron Hawks.
The fourth Pillán, (the second pre-series aircraft) was the second assembly in Chile. Its first flight date was estimated for January 20, 1982 , but was delayed for several weeks.
This was the only one painted a light green color scheme on the top half of the fuselage and the bottom white. The rudder green with a white star. It wore the number 102. It was exhibited in '82. During the first half of 1982 its color scheme changed to the traditional white red with black numbers painted on the fuselage. During the first half of 1984 this plane, still marked with the number 102, was sent to the US for changes to the cabin and cockpit.
Returning to Santiago it received the number 104 as the original 102 was reassigned to the second prototype of Pillán (the original YBT).
Shortly afterwards it received the registion CC-EFS, and was exhibited at the Farnborough Airshow '84, keeping this identification during the second half of 1985.
This airplane became the prototype Pillán T-35TX, later known as Aucán, as CC-PZC, being shown for the first time at IFAD '86. Received on January 23, 1986, the first flight was on 12 February 1987.
The Aucán was basically a turboprop version of the original Pillán, converted by Soloy in the US, with an Allison 250-B17D engine with 420 shp, plus other minor changes. After an unsuccessful promotion, the aircraft experienced a series of noticeable changes, including the replacement of three traditional cockpit transparencies by a one-piece. The aircraft was presented in the FIDAE 1990, at which time it wore a camouflage in shades of dark green and gray with light gray undersides, keeping the CC-PZC registration.
It was eventually discharged from inventory of ENAER on June 21, 1991, and subsequently disassembled for use as spare parts for other aircraft, canceling the registration CC-PZC on April 2, 1993. The balances of the fuselage would be in a courtyard of the Educational Complex La Reina, Santiago, very battered and away from view.
The Aucán has no relation to the Pillán Turbo. The Pillán Turbo was the result of ECH-51DT, a plane built by ENAER ECH-51B serial number 186-88. Registered on October 6, 1988 as CC-PZG the Pillán Turbo featured all the changes applied and tested in the Aucán CC-PZC, and its first flight occurred on May 14, 1991. It differed from Aucán externally by a cockpit which consisted of two parts (with no racks front section). On July 12, 1996 was delivered to evaluating Aviation Group No. 11 as T-35DT Pillán Turbo, serial number 191. After the dissolution of this unit in late 1997 the aircraft returned to ENAER and was promoted in different configurations, without success.
The sixth aircraft was known as "the first series production aircraft," though in reality it was the fourth of preproduction aircraft.
Its roll-out took place on March 8, 1984 at a ceremony in El Bosque, where it was shown as "the first Pillán made in Chile", wearing 105, since this was the beginning to progressively integrate parts manufactured in Chile.
However, its official status indicates that this plane would never have flown, being used only to perform various tests on land, at the end of which it was severely deformed. The remains were definitely unusable in the second half of 1985.
The construction of the seventh plane, the fifth preseries, was not completed and was used as a model. During the second half of 1985 it was decommissioned and the remains were observed in the School of Aviation in January 1988. It was not assigned a serial number and it might be seen as that there were not six production aircraft but only five.
The eighth plane, sixth preseries, was the last in preproduction. Completed in 1984, it received the number 107. Due to its continuous modifications, the aircraft has seen three model designations (A, B and C).
It was exhibited at Farnborough with unregistered CC-EFU, and assigned the number 51 on a scheme of white with blue lines. After receiving the CC-PZD registration on January 23, 1986, and, with the same white color but with different set design lines, was exhibited at Le Bourget 1987, following which, in order to participate in the commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Piper Aircraft Corporation, moved under its own power to the US via the North Atlantic (France, England, Ireland, Iceland, Greenland, Canada, USA).
It was reained by ENAER and used as a demonstrator of the company, with color schemes that varied over time.
After making ECH-51 number 107, began delivery to the FACh its first batch of T-35, by agreement dated July 6, 1984, for an initial batch of 20 aircraft, a total of 48 finally contracted. The first of these, serial number FACh 101 (cn 108-85) was completed in May 1985 and delivered on July 31 1985. After operational service it was sold to the Air Force of El Salvador in 1998, where it served as FAS 70 from 29 May 1998 until January 19, 2000, when it crashed and was completely destroyed in that country.
The Pillan is operational with the Chilean Air Force in two versions, the T-35A primary trainer and the T-35B instrument trainer, which has an upgraded avionics package. CASA is assembling a number of T-35C Pillans for the Spanish Air Force as the E.26 Tamiz, from kits supplied by ENAER under a counter-trade agreement linked to the Chilean Air Force purchase of C-101 Aviojets.
Versions include the T-35D instrument trainer for Panama.