EMBRAER EMB-110 Bandeirante / YC-95 / EMB-111
In 1965 a government initiative to develop a light twin turbo-prop for the Brazilian Air Force led to the formation of Embraer four years later. Though initially this design requirement was for a military transport of only 7-9 seats, it was quickly realised that a substantial civil market also existed.
Designed under the guidance of French designer Max Holste, the first of three prototypes, designated YC-95, flew for the first time on 26 October 1968. Though initially still only a 7-9 seater, the final design had the development potential to be stretched to meet the larger 15-seat and upward commuter market.
The first EMB.110 flew on August 9, 1972, and deliveries to the Brazilian Air Force began in February 1972.
In early 1973 the first three production EMB-110 Bandeirantres were formally delivered to the Brazilian Air Force.
At about this stage an airworthiness certificate was also granted for the 15-seat civil version, the EMB-110C and later that year a further three were delivered to the private domestic airline Trans Brazil. Powered by twin 680 shp Pratt and Whitney PT-6A-27 turboprops with reversible pitch and auto feathering capability, these first Bandeirantes had a range of around a thousand miles and speeds up to 220 knots. Seating was for 15 passengers and two crew. However it was not until 1975 that the Bandeirante achieved its first real breakthrough, when the Brazilian Government established a third-level network. Though in part this was to release the major carriers from the necessity to continue servicing uneconomical routes with large aircraft, the other result was to provide a vastly extended market for the Bandeirante. Over the next few years a number of third-level carriers re-equipped with Embraer’s commuter-liner until some 45 Bandeirantes were in service throughout Brazil on the regional network.
Embraer produced the P1 and P2 variants, specifically designed for the export market. Both aircraft engined with the PT6A-34 of 750 shp, and carry up to 21 passengers in three-abreast seating. Each model is identical, except for their door arrangement. The P1 Bandeirante being designed as a quick change airliner with airstairs at the front and big top-hinged cargo door at the rear. The P2 version comes with dual airstairs front and rear, for fast whistlestop turnarounds. Both aircraft are designed for a 30,000 hour life cycle.
France issued airworthiness certfication in late ‘77. U.S. and United Kingdom certification followed in August 1978.
A cantilever low-wing monoplane, primarily of metal construction, the Bandeirante has a conventional fuselage and tail unit, retractable tricycle landing gear and power provided by two Pratt & Whitney Aircraft of Canada PT6A-34 free-turbine turboprops in wing-mounted nacelles. The two Pratt & Whitney PT6A turboprop engines are flat-rated at 750 shp maximum continuous power at 2,200 propeller rpm. The propellers are three-blade Hartzells with automatic synchronization and full beta-control reversing. Seating varies according to role, but the EMB-110P2 has accommodation for a maximum of 21 passengers. There's a crew/passenger door at the front and passenger/baggage door at the rear, both on the port side.
By the beginning of 1979, 219 Bandeirantes of various models had been sold to some 40 operators around the world. The Bandeirante was available in more than 14 versions, differing in their equipment for specialized missions.
The EMB-110B1 Bandeirante was specially developed for aerophotogrammetric missions. Gyro-stabilised camera platform, electrically-operated ventral sliding camera hatch and dark-room cum toilet, all make for a specialised aircraft which can nevertheless still be easily reconverted back to a basic transporter.
Other specialist use versions include the EMB-110S1 for geophysical survey. Equipped with the more powerful PT6’s from the P1 and P2 aircraft, and with increased fuel capacity, the S1 has up to nine hours endurance.
Military versions of the EMB.110 are the P1K utility transport and the P1K SAR. The P1K SAR is fully equipped for over-water and overland search and rescue missions, as well as for medevac duties. This has accommodation for observers and a variety of rescue equipment, plus space for up to six stretcher patients. Five are operated by the Brazilian air force under the designation SC-95B. Others are the EC-95B calibration and XC-95B rain research versions.
The EMB-111 was developed as a land-based maritime reconnaissance aircraft to meet the needs of the Comando Costeiro (Coastal Command) of the FAéB (Brazilian Air Force) and the first example (2262) flew on 15 August 1977.
Based on the EMB-110 Bandeirante, it differed primarily by the introduction of a nose radome for search radar and the addition of wingtip fuel tanks and began to enter service in April 1978. In use with the Brazilian Air Force and the Chilean Navy.
Powered by a pair of 750 shp (560 kW) Pratt & Whitney PT6A-34 turboprops, the EMB-111 features a nose-mounted ALL AN/APS-128 (SPAR-1) search radar, a wing mounted searchlight, tip tanks, wing-tip fuel tanks and wing hard-points for the carriage of weapons.
Ordered for the Brazilian air force, which designates them P-95, the first entered service in 11 April 1978 with ten hours endurance.
Examples have been supplied also to the Chilean navy and the air force of Gabon.
When production ceased in 1990, 500 Bandeirantes had been ordered and built, variants including the EMB-110, EMB-110/C-95, EMB-110 A/EC 95, EMB-110B/R-95, EMB-110B1, EMB-110C, EMBHOE(J), EMB-110K1/C-95A, EMB-110P, EMB-110P1K and EMB-110S1. The final production versions, progressive developments of earlier aircraft, included the EMB-110P1/C-95B for quick-change passenger/cargo operations; EMB-110P2/C-95C third-level commuter transport; and two versions corresponding to the foregoing for operations at a higher gross weight which have the respective designations EMB-110P1/41 and EMB-110P2/41 A pressurised version designated EMB-110P3, did not proceed.
Engines: UACL, 600shp.
Max cruise: 228mph.
Econ cruise: 183mph.
Fuel cap: 2920lb.
Service ceiling: 25,500ft.
SE service ceiling: 10,000ft.
SE ROC: 300fpm.
Min field length: 1803ft.
Payload with full fuel: 901lb.
Max range: 1109sm.
High speed range: 1020sm.
Max payload: 1966lb.
Range with max payload: 315sm.
Gross wt: 12,410lb.
Equipped empty wt: 9380lb.
Useful load: 3030lb.
Engines: 2 x P&W PT6A-34, 750 shp / 559kW
Props: Hartzell 3-blade, 93-in.
Length: 49 ft 6 in / 15.08 m
Height: 16 ft 2 in / 4.92 m
Wingspan : 50.262 ft / 15.32 m
Wing area : 312.156 sqft / 29.0 sq.m
Wing aspect ratio: 8.1.
Maximum ramp weight: 13,073 lbs.
Maximum takeoff weight: 13,007 lbs.
Standard empty weight: 7955 lbs.
Maximum useful load: 5118 lbs.
Zero-fuel weight: 12,015 lbs.
Maximum landing weight: 12,566 lbs.
Wing loading: 39.9 lbs/sq.ft.
Power loading: 8.3 lbs/hp.
Maximum usable fuel: 2948 lbs.
Best rate of climb: 1660 fpm.
Service ceiling: 22,500 ft.
Maximum single-engine rate of climb: 428 fpm @ 115 kts.
Single-engine climb gradient: 214 ft/nm.
Single-engine ceiling: 11,000 ft.
Maximum speed: 230 kts.
Normal cruise @ 10,000ft: 225 kts.
Fuel flow @ normal cruise: 638 pph.
Endurance at normal cruise: 4.1 hrs:
Stalling speed clean: 92 kts.
Stalling speed gear/flaps down: 73 kts.
Turbulent-air penetration speed: 169 kts.
Takeoff distance (50 ft.): 2,215 ft
Landing distance (50 ft.): 2,790 ft.
Passenger capacity: 21
Engines: two 750 shp Pratt & Whitney Aircraft of Canada PT6A-34 turboprop.
Wing span: 52 ft 4.5 in (15.96m).
Length: 48.655 ft / 14.83 m
Height: 15.551 ft / 4.74 m
Wing area: 312.156 sq.ft / 29.0 sq.m
Max take off weight: 15435.0 lb / 7000.0 kg
Cruising speed: 172 kts / 318 km/h
Wing loading: 49.41 lbs/sq.ft / 241.0 kg/sq.m
Range: 1458 nm / 2700 km