In June 1979 Dornier flight tested a new high-technology wing intended for the proposed Do 228 series of commuter airliners. Using a modified Skyservant fuselage fitted with the so-called TNT wing and powered by 533kW Garrett turboprop engines, the aircraft completed a 2 1/2-year test programme during which seven different types of propeller were evaluated. The first definitive Do 228-100, fitted with a new fuselage and tail plus the TNT wing, flew for the first time on 28 March 1981. German certification followed on 18 December the same year and the first production aircraft was delivered to the Norwegian commuter airline Norving early in 1982. The Do 228-100 prototype was lost in a fatal accident near Augsburg while undergoing tests for British certification in March 1982. About 35 Series 100s were built and customers included the German Alfred Wegener Institute which used three 'Polar' aircraft on research duties in Antarctica.
Development of a 'stretched' version followed, designated the Do 228-200. The Dornier 228-200 seats 19 passengers in single seats on either side of a central aisle in a rectangular fuselage of interior dimensions 1.35m x 1.55m and is intended for the wide range of capabilities but its forte is commuter operations into smaller and often semi-prepared airfields.
The aerofoil, of Do A-5 supercritical section with maximum thickness at 50 per cent of chord, is tapered on the outer panels, with the triangular wingtips acting as winglets, but straight out to reduce drag. The glassfibre/Kevlar leading and trailing edges being attached to the primary structure by myriad screws.
The smooth-surfaced wing structure is a box made up of four panels, with integral internal bracing for strength. Each is made from a 70mm thick block of aluminium, of which 95 per cent is milled away to a tolerance of 0.01mm, giving rise to a basic structure which is guaranteed for 50,000 flight hours and 62,500 landings. The two Garrett/ AiResearch TPE 331-5 engines, flat rated to 715 shp, will give full performance for take-off at either sea level at 33'C, or 8,000 feet field elevation at ISA.
The Dornier 228-200 (the -100 model is 1.5m shorter and carries 15 passengers but is otherwise identical) has small single mainwheels with negative camber retracting into the underside of a sponson below the fuselage which, combined with the wing's position right on top of the fuselage and the straight bottom surface of the long nose, gives it a hunch-back, droop-snooted look. Able to carry 19 passengers, the prototype made its first flight on 9 May 1981.
Two versions of the Dornier 228 twin-turboprop regional transport have been developed to serve in the maritime surveillance role, with differing equipment fits. The Version A has a MEL Marec 2 radar as primary surveillance sensor, and wing hardpoints for supply or sensor packs. For inshore patrol and fishery protection, Version B has Ericsson/SSC side-looking airborne radar as main sensor and an optional forward-looking Bendix radar and other aids.
Hindustan Aeronautics’ Kanpur Division was manufacturing some 150 twin-turboprop Dornier 228s, of which a substantial number are for the Indian armed forces. The first Indian-built aircraft flew in January 1986, and was delivered to the internal airline Vayadoot the following March. The Coast Guard service received its first aircraft in 1986 for maritime surveillance duties. These are fitted with an MEL Marec 2 search radar and other maritime equipment. Deliveries to the Air Force and Navy were suspended in May 1987, following a series of engine difficulties experi-enced by Indian civil operators.
The Dornier 228 was in commercial service in both 15-seat -100 and 19-seat -200 form with more than 183 ordered by customers in some 27 countries by 1990. More than 50 airlines ordered the Series 200, including Air Caledonie, Air Moorea, Air Tahiti, Air Guadeloupe, Air Maldives and Aerotuy of Venezuela. Other customers include the governments of Germany, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, India, Niger, Malawi, Bolivia and Japan.
Engine: 2 x Garrett TPE331-5-252D turbo-props.
Installed pwr: 1060 kW.
Span: 17 m.
Length: 15 m.
Wing area: 32 sq.m.
Empty wt: 2980 kg.
MTOW: 5700 kg.
Payload: 2130 kg.
Cruise speed: 430 kph.
Initial ROC: 618 m / min.
Ceiling: 9020 m.
T/O run (to 15m): 565 m.
Ldg run (from 15m): 600 m.
Fuel internal: 2390 lt.
Range/payload: 1343 km with max pax.
Capacity: 15 pax.
Engine: 2 x Garrett TPE331-5-252D turbo-props, 715 shp / 578kW
Wingspan: 16.97 m / 55 ft 8 in
Length: 16.56 m / 54 ft 4 in
Height: 4.86 m / 15 ft 11 in
Wing area: 32 sq.m / 344.44 sq ft
Max take-off weight: 5700 kg / 12566 lb
Empty weight: 3086 kg / 6804 lb
Max. speed: 428 km/h / 266 mph
Cruise speed: 205 kts/365km/h true airspeed @65% / 10000ft
Ceiling: 9020 m / 29600 ft
Range w/max.payload: 1130 km / 702 miles
Pax cap: 19