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Dornier Do-335 Pfiel (Arrow)

 

dornierdo335


The unconventional layout of the Do-335 - one engine "pulling" in the nose and another "pushing" in the tail - was patented by Claudius Dornier in 1937. The configuration provided the power of two engines, but with reduced drag and better maneuverability. The German Aviation Ministry (RLM) was interested in the design, but initially wanted Dornier only to produce bombers. By 1942, Dornier was still continuing design work and the war situation was worsening. The Luftwaffe now needed a multi-purpose fighter, and the prototype Do-335V-1 ("V" indicating "versuchs" or "experimental") flew in fighter form in September, 1943 - six years after its conception. Orders were immediately placed for 14 prototypes, 10 A-0 preproduction aircraft, 11 production A-1 single-seaters, and 3 A-10 and A-12 two-seat trainers.


The aircraft was large for a single-seat fighter, with a cruciform tail and a tricycle landing gear. The two liquid-cooled Daimler-Benz DB-603 engines were used in four different versions, each displacing 44.5 liters (2670 cu in) and weighing 910 kg (2006 lb). The engine produced 1750 hp from 12 cylinders in an inverted V layout using fuel injection and an 8.3:1 compression ratio. The rear three-bladed propeller and dorsal fin were jettisoned by explosive bolts in an emergency, to allow the pilot to bail out safely using a pneumatic ejection seat. The seat, inclined 13 degrees to the rear, was ejected with a force of 20 times gravity. The ventral fin could be jettisoned for a belly landing.


Unlike a normal twin-engined aircraft, with wing-mounted engines, loss of an engine on the Do-335 did not cause a handling problem. Even with one engine out, speed was a respectable 621 kph (348 mph). Because of its appearance, pilots dubbed it the "Ant eater" ("Ameisenbar"), although they described its performance as exceptional, particularly in acceleration and turning radius. The Do-335 was very docile in flight and had no dangerous spin characteristics. Many Do-335 prototypes were built, as the Reich strained desperately to provide day and night fighters and fast reconnaissance aircraft to the failing war effort. One of the many RLM production plans, issued in December 1943, called for the production of 310 Do-335s by late 1945. Initial production was at the Dornier Manuel plant, but this factory was bombed heavily in March-April, 1944, and the Do-335 tooling was destroyed.


Powered by a pair of DB-603E liquid-cooled engines arranged in tandem, it has attained a speed in excess of 500 mph with both 12-foot, 3-blade propellers in operation. Operating on one engine, it can move along at a 350-mph for several minutes.


A big airplane by any standard, the 335 weighs more than 18,000 pounds with standard equipment and loading, topping 22,000 pounds in certain sub-types. With wing span and length of ap-proximately 45 feet, it was originally built as a single seater only to emerge during the last year of war with a pig-a-back seating arrangement for training and reconnaissance utilization.


The Dornier has a wing loading of 41 pounds per square foot in the standard model, wing load-ing of 35 pounds per square foot in one high altitude type. However, interchangeability of armament and equipment brought wide divergence in gross loading on various missions.


With a 520-gallon main tank installed behind the pilot’s compartment, two wing tanks, two drop tanks, and a bomb bay fuel cell, the aircraft carried a total of 1,000 US gallons of gasoline for a range of approximately 2,400 miles. With internal and external belly tanks removed, the Do-335 carried a single 1,000 kg, two 500 kg bombs, or ten 70 kg anti-personnel missiles in the bomb bay, along with one 250 kg bomb in each drop-tank shackle. The full fighter installation included one 30-mm gun firing through the propeller hub, one 20-mm gun on each side of the nose cowling within the propeller arc, and one 20- or 30-mm gun in each wing. Pilots were well protected with a bullet-resistant glass windshield and cockpit enclosure, and an armored bulkhead between cockpit and main fuel tank.


The trapezoidal wing, built around a heavy spar, has stressed metal skin, squared tips with detachable corners, leading edge de-icer, stowage for master unit of remote indi-cating compass, hydraulic tanks, oxygen bottles. On the A-6 version, radar antennae are mounted outboard on each wing. The all-metal monocoque fuselage is distinguished only by circular radiator in the nose, jettisonable mounting for rear propeller, cushioned stringers for hollow shaft to rear propeller, and explosive canopy release. In two-place models, the extra seat is above the leading edge of the wing and faces into the fuselage, with only the fuel tank separating this seat from the rear engine.


The the Pfeil was never encountered in operations, although available in small numbers as the Do 335 A-1 single-seat fighter (with a maximum speed of 763km/h), Do 335A-6 two-seat night fighter and Do 335 B-series heavy fighter and night fighter towards the end of the war.


It was the fastest production piston-engined fighter ever built, attaining 846 kilometers per hour (474 mph) in level flight at a time when the official world speed record was 755 kph (469 mph). Powered by two 1800-hp engines in a unique low-drag configuration.

Dornier Do-335A-1 Pfeil
Wingspan: 13.8 m (45 ft. 3.33 in.)
Length: 13.85 m (45 ft. 5.25 in.)
Height: 5 m (16 ft. 4.75 in.)
Weight empty: 7,400 kg (16,314 lb.)
Max speed: 763 kph.

Dornier DO 335 A-02 Pfeil (Ameisenbär)

Length : 45.604 ft / 13.9 m
Height : 16.404 ft / 5.0 m
Wingspan : 45.276 ft / 13.8 m
Wing area : 414.414 sq.ft. / 38.5 sq.m
Max take off weight : 20969.6 lb / 9510.0 kg
Weight empty : 16317.0 lb / 7400.0 kg
Max. speed : 395 kt / 732 km/h
Service ceiling : 37730 ft / 11500 m
Wing load : 50.64 lb/sq.ft / 247.0 kg/sq.m
Range max fuel : 1161 nm / 2150 km
Range w/max.payload: 1100 km / 684 miles
Engine : 2 x Daimler Benz DB 603A, 1726 hp / 1800kW
Crew : 1
Armament : 1x MK 103 30mm, 2x MG 151, 500kg Bomb. int. , 2x 250kg Bomb. ext.

Do-335A-6

two seat night fighter.

Do-335A-12
two seat trainer.


Do 335 Production List

Do 335V series prototypes, 14 aircraft built at Friedrichshafen, mid 1943 to mid 1944, and tested at Mengen.

Model: Do 335V-1
Code: CP+UA
Werk Nr: 230001
Notes: 1st prototype.  DB603A-1 engines.  FF 28.10.43

Model: Do 335V-2
Code: CP+UB
Werk Nr: 230002
Notes: to Rechlin, rear engine caught fire, w/o 15.04.44

Model: Do 335V-3
Code: CP+UC/T9+ZH
Werk Nr: 230003
Notes: A-4 prototype, to Ob.d.L.

Model: Do 335V-4
Code: CP+UD
Werk Nr: 230004
Notes: Do 435 prototype, not completed

Model: Do 335V-5
Code: CP+UE
Werk Nr: 230005
Notes: 1st with armament fitted, A-2 engines

Model: Do 335V-6
Code: CP+UF
Werk Nr: 230006
Notes: Dornier development a/c, hit by bomb

Model: Do 335V-7
Code: CP+UG
Werk Nr: 230007
Notes: Junkers Jumo 213A & E testbed, Dessau

Model: Do 335V-8
Code: CP+UH
Werk Nr: 230008
Notes: Daimler-Benz DB603E-1 testbed, Stuttgart

Model: Do 335V-9
Code: CP+UI/V9
Werk Nr: 230009
Notes: A-0 prototype, to Rechlin May 1944

Model: Do 335V-10
Code: CP+UK
Werk Nr: 230010
Notes: A-6 prototype night ftr with SN-2 radar

Model: Do 335V-11
Code: CP+UL/11
Werk Nr: 230011
Notes: A-10 prototype trainer

Model: Do 335V-12
Code: CP+UM
Werk Nr: 230012
Notes: A-12 prototype trainer

Model: Do 335V-13
Code: RP+UA/13
Werk Nr: 230013
Notes: B-1 prototype, to France for tests

Model: Do 335V-14
Code: RP+UB/14
Werk Nr: 230014
Notes: B-2 prototype, destroyed

Do 335A-0 pre-production batch, 10 aircraft built at Oberpfaffenhofen July-Oct 1944.
One example converted to A-4 standard.

Model: Do 335A-0
Code: VG+PG/101
Werk Nr: 240101
Notes: DB603A-2 engines, at Rechlin July 1944

Model: Do 335A-0
Code: VG+PH/102
Werk Nr: 240102
Notes: sole survivor, to USAAF as FE 1012, now at NASM

Model: Do 335A-0
Code: VG+PI/103
Werk Nr: 240103
Notes: to Ob.d.L. late July 1944

Model: Do 335A-0
Code: VG+IJ/104
Werk Nr: 240104
Notes: to Erkdo 335 Sept 1944

Model: Do 335A-0
Code: VG+IK/105
Werk Nr: 240105
Notes: to Erkdo 335 captured by US at Lechfeld 4.45

Model: Do 335A-0
Code: VG+PL/106
Werk Nr: 240106
Notes: to Erkdo 335

Model: Do 335A-0
Code: VG+PM/107
Werk Nr: 240107
Notes: to Erkdo 335

Model: Do 335A-0
Code: VG+PN/108
Werk Nr: 240108
Notes: to Erkdo 335

Model: Do 335A-0
Code: VG+PO/109
Werk Nr: 240109
Notes: to Erkdo 335

Model: Do 335A-0
Code: VG+PP/110
Werk Nr: 240110
Notes: to Erkdo 335 Oct 1944

Do 335A-1 production batch.  11 aircraft built at Oberpfaffenhofen, plus 9 aircraft part assembled, Nov-April 1945.

Model: Do 335A-1
Code: 113
Werk Nr: 240113
Notes: Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code:
Werk Nr: 240161
Notes: Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code:
Werk Nr: 240162
Notes: Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code: 240163
Werk Nr:
Notes: Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code:
Werk Nr: 240164
Notes: Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code:
Werk Nr: 240165
Notes: Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code:
Werk Nr: 240166
Notes: Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code:
Werk Nr: 240167
Notes: Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code:
Werk Nr: 240168
Notes: Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code:
Werk Nr: 240169
Notes: Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code:
Werk Nr: 240170
Notes: Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code: 01
Werk Nr: 240301
Notes: Partly assembled  Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code: 02
Werk Nr: 240302
Notes: Partly assembled  Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code: 03
Werk Nr: 240303
Notes: Partly assembled  Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code: 04
Werk Nr: 240304
Notes: Partly assembled  Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code: 05
Werk Nr: 240305
Notes: Partly assembled  Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code: 06
Werk Nr: 240306
Notes: Partly assembled  Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code: 07
Werk Nr: 240307
Notes: Partly assembled  Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code: 08
Werk Nr: 240308
Notes: Partly assembled  Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-1
Code: 09
Werk Nr: 240309
Notes: Partly assembled  Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-2
Code:
Werk Nr:
Notes: project only

Model: Do 335A-3
Code:
Werk Nr:
Notes: project only

Do 335A-4 10 aircraft scheduled Jan-Feb 1945, only 4 part assembled at Oberpfaffenhofen.

Model: Do 335A-4
Code: 10
Werk Nr: 240310
Notes: Partly assembled  Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-4
Code: 11
Werk Nr: 240311
Notes: Partly assembled  Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-4
Code: 12
Werk Nr: 240312
Notes: Partly assembled  Captured by US

Model: Do 335A-4
Code: 13
Werk Nr: 240313
Notes: Partly assembled  Captured by US

Do 335A-6 none assembled, Heinkel Vienna factory bombed out.

Do 335A-10  aircraft built at Oberpfaffenhofen.

Model: Do 335A-10
Code: 111
Werk Nr: 240111
Notes: flew late Nov 1944. Captured by US at Oberpf.

Model: Do 335A-10
Code:
Werk Nr: 240114
Notes: not completed

Do 335A-12.  2 aircraft built at Oberpfaffenhofen, plus 2 aircraft part assembled.

Model: Do 335A-12
Code: 112
Werk Nr: 240112
Notes: Air Min 225, to RAE, w/o 18 Jan 1946

Model: Do 335A-12
Code: 121
Werk Nr: 240121
Notes: to England, w/o 13 Dec 1945

Model: Do 335A-12
Code: 122
Werk Nr: 240122
Notes: not completed, scrapped by US

Model: Do 335A-12
Code:
Werk Nr:
Notes: Partly assembled

Do 335B series prototypes.  6 aircraft part assembled at Oberpfaffenhofen.

Model: Do 335B-2
Code: RP+UB 14/18
Werk Nr: 240118
Notes: B-2 replacement proto, to France with CEV until 4.6.48

Model: Do 335V-15
Code: RP+UC 15/19
Werk Nr: 240119
Notes: B-1 2nd prototype to Lwe 2.45

Model: Do 335V-16
Code: RP+UD 16/20
Werk Nr: 240120
Notes: B-2 2nd prototype night ftr with FuG 218

Model: Do 335V-17
Code: RP+UE 17/16
Werk Nr: 240116
Notes: B-6 prototype to France w/o Autumn 45

Model: Do 335V-18
Code: RP+UF 18/17
Werk Nr: 240117
Notes: B-6 2nd prototype night ftr to Lwe 2.45

Model: Do 335V-19
Code: RP+UG 19/15
Werk Nr: 240115
Notes: B-3 prototype not completed

Model: Do 335V-20
Code:
Werk Nr:
Notes: B-7 prototype not completed

Model: Do 335V-21
Code:
Werk Nr:
Notes: B-8 prototype not completed

Model: Do 335V-22
Code:
Werk Nr:
Notes: B-8 2nd prototype not completed

 

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