de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter
In the late 1940s de Havilland Canada developed a larger version of the Beaver, with cabin space for some 14 passengers or a freight load of up to 1016kg. The de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter, which was essentially a scaled-up Beaver, with an all-metal airframe and a 447kW Pratt & Whitney R.1340 Wasp radial, and which was initially known as the King Beaver.
Pratt & Whitney powered, a high-wing monoplane with a single bracing strut on each side, its parallel-chord wing with double-slotted flaps for good STOL performance.
The prototype first flew on 12 December 1951, and first deliveries were made in 1952. When production ceased in 1968, 460 had been built, including 66 for the Royal Canadian Air Force and 227 for the US armed forces (223 of the U-1A for the US Army and four of the UC-1 [changed to U-1B in 1962] for the US Navy). An initial order for 84 had been placed for the U.S. Army by 1955 under the designation C-137.
Delivery of a substantial number of DHC Otter to the Indian Air Force was completed in mid-1958.
When released by military operators, many Otters joined those already on the civil market, where again the type had found ready acceptance for its versatility. Like the Beaver, the Otter can operate on wheel, ski, float or amphibious float landing gears.
Despite its already impressive STOL performance, the Otter was selected as the basis for a Canadian experiment in advanced STOL characteristics, a programme undertaken by the company in conjunction with the Defense Research Board. As part of this programme an Otter was fitted with extremely large flaps inboard of the strut/wing junction points; this also necessitated an enlargement of the tail surfaces, and ground stability was ensured by the replacement of the original tailwheel landing gear with a float chassis fitted with quadricycle wheels instead of the floats. The STOL modifications reduced the Otter's stalling speed by 16km/h. The flaps were then removed, and a 1112kg thrust General Electric J85-GE-7 turbojet installed, in the fuselage aft of the wings, with adjustable nozzles protruding one through each side of the fuselage. This arrangement permitted far greater control of speed, and allowed spot landings. Finally, the single Wasp radial was replaced by a pair of wing-mounted Pratt & Whitney Aircraft of Canada PT6 turboprops, whose slipstream was found beneficial to the controllability of the aircraft.
Under the designation DHC-3-T Turbo-Otter, one aircraft has been modified by Cox Air Resources to turboprop power, a 494kW PT6A-27 replacing the standard Wasp. Empty weight is thus reduced to 1861kg, resulting in a useful payload increment.
Airtech Canada of Peterborough, Ontario, has converted a number of Otters to take either the 800 hp / 447kW PZL-3S or 1000 hp / 746kW Kalisz ASz-621R nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engines manufactured in Poland, each driving a PZL four-bladed constant speed propeller. The re-engined aircraft offer increased climb rates and greater fuel economy at lower power settings. The first PZL-3S conversion flew in August 1983.
Texas Turbine Conversions DHC-3 Otter
Engine: 1 x Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S1H1-G Wasp radial, 600 hp / 447kW
Max take-off weight: 3629 kg / 8001 lb
Empty weight: 2010 kg / 4431 lb
Wingspan: 17.68 m / 58 ft 0 in
Length: 12.75 m / 42 ft 10 in
Height: 3.84 m / 13 ft 7 in
Wing area: 34.84 sq.m / 375.01 sq ft
Max. speed: 246 km/h / 153 mph
Cruise speed: 195 km/h / 121 mph
Ceiling: 5485 m / 18000 ft
Range w/max.payload: 1408 km / 875 miles
Fuel consumption: 30 Imp.Gal/hr.
Accommodation: 2 crew plus 14 troops or 6 stretchers and 4 passengers, or freight.
Engine: PZL, 600 hp.
MTOW: 8000 lbs.
Wing span: 58 ft.
Engine: PZL, 1,000 hp.
ROC: 2000 fpm.
T/O time (water): 10 sec.
Fuel consumption: 40 Imp.Gal/hr.
Cruise: 144 mph.
MTOW: 8000 lbs.
Wing span: 58 ft.