Caudron-Renault C.713 / C.714 Cyclone
Marcel Riffard, who joined the French company Societe Anonyme des Avions Caudron as chief designer in 1932, developed his racing aircraft design into a lightweight fighter aircraft as the Caudron C.710. The prototype flew for the first time on 18 July 1936.
The C.713 Cyclone, first flown in December 1937, which was generally similar in overall design and 336kW Renault 12Ro1 powerplant, but introduced retractable tailwheel type landing gear and redesigned vertical tail surfaces. Final evolution of Riffard's design was the C.714.01 prototype, first flown in the summer of 1938, which differed by having some structural strengthening and a wing of improved profile.
The factory testing of this prototype confirmed Riffard's performance estimates, and it was handed over to the CEMA for trials in September 1938.
In November 1938 100 C.714 production aircraft were ordered which were required to have four 7.5mm wing-mounted machine-guns. Of low-wing cantilever monoplane configuration, the C.714 was an all-wood construction, except that all control surfaces had light alloy framework and fabric covering. The wing section was so shallow that it was not possible to mount machine-guns conventionally, within the wing structure, and special streamlined pods were designed, these carrying a pair of guns beneath each wing.
Production began in the summer of 1939, and 50 of the aircraft which had been intended to serve with the Armee de I'Air were diverted to the assistance of Finland, but only six had been received by 12 March 1940, the balance being presumed to have been lost en route. It is believed that about 40 C.714s were delivered to the French air force, which, after some 90 had been built, cancelled production because of dissatisfaction with the type's rate of climb. They were used to equip an all-Polish squadron which became known as the 'Warsaw Group' (GC 1/145), this unit seeing action against the Germans between 2-13 June 1940. Following the collapse of France, a small number were used by the Vichy French air force, and about 20 were confiscated by the Germans for use by the Luftwaffe.
Caudron C 714 R Cyclone
Fighter aircraft, France, 1939
Length : 27.986 ft / 8.53 m
Height : 9 ft 5 in / 2.87 m
Wingspan : 29 ft 5 in / 8.97 m
Wing area : 134.550 sqft / 12.5 sq.m
Max take off weight : 3858.8 lb / 1750.0 kg
Weight empty : 3087.0 lb / 1400.0 kg
Max. speed : 262 kts / 485 km/h / 301 mph
Cruising speed : 173 kts / 320 km/h / 199 mph
Service ceiling : 29856 ft / 9100 m
Wing load : 28.70 lb/sq.ft / 140.00 kg/sq.m
Range : 486 nm / 900 km
Engine : Renault 12Ro1, 444 hp
Crew : 1
Armament : 4x MG 7,5mm