Societe Anonyme des Avions Caudron
Ateliers Aeronautiques d'lssyles-Moulineaux
Gaston and Rene Caudron established an airplane factory as Caudron Freres at Romiotte (Seine) in 1910. Initial flight of the first of a series of highly successful biplanes (G.I, II, and III) was in February 1911. The G.III was considered extremely reliable and used widely as a trainer in the First World War. A single-seat monoplane trainer was produced in 1912. G.IIIAs were built for military use in 1914 and used extensively by France, U.K., Belgium, Russia, and Italy as two-seat reconnaissance/ artillery observation aircraft. Several hundred were built, mostly in France, but also by British Caudron and in Italy. The series continued with the G.IV (1915), several military variants, and also in that year the prototype R.4 three-seat bomber appeared. The R.II with five Lewis machine guns was produced a few months before the Armistice was declared.
The company had moved to Issy-les-Moulineaux (Seine) by 1919, and postwar products included the C 23 (and/or C 232) two-seat biplane, which inaugurated French commercial air services on February 10, 1919 with a flight from Paris to Brussels, the C 61 three-engined six/eight passenger biplane, a three-engined seven-seat development of C 61, the C 183, a further modernisation of two previous aircraft of which one only was built, in 1925.
The company, known as Societe Anonyme des Avions Caudron, ran into financial difficulties and was reorganized as Societe Caudron-Renault. Next became notable for distinctive streamlined aircraft from its designer Marcel Riffard, who joined in 1932. His C363 took second place in the 1933 Coupe Deutsch race, and developed versions took first three places in 1934 and 1935, and the first two places in 1936. Derivatives of these included the Rafale series of single- and two-seat sporting/racing aircraft of the late 1930s. Fifteen C 690Ms were built as advanced trainers for the Armee de I'Air. The series ended with the C 720. These were followed by the single-seat C 580 and C 680, C 600 Aiglon series, C 620/C 630 Simoun four-seat cabin monoplane, C 640 Typhon series, the C 670 ground-attack prototype, and the single-seat C 860, built in 1938 for an attempt (never made) on 1936 Paris-Tokyo flight record established by a Simoun. About 1,700 examples of C 440 (later AA.1) Goeland, twin-engined six-passenger transport were built in about ten years. Two series of light fighters were developed from the Coupe Deutsch racers. Following the C 710 and C 713 prototypes, the four-gun C 714 entered service. Improved variants of the CR 760 and 770 were under development when France collapsed. The factories built aircraft for Germany during the Occupation. Later nationalised as Ateliers Aeronautiques d'lssyles-Moulineaux, and incorporated into SNCAN in late 1947.