Canadair Learstar 600 / CL-600 Challenger
Lear's brief collaboration with Canadair led to the LearStar 600, subsequently re-named Challenger 600 after Canadair bought the manufacturing rights.
The initial Challenger 600, of which 83 were built, had Avco Lycoming ALF 502s and, on retro-fitted aircraft, winglets, and was flown for the first time on 8 November 1978, near Montreal. During the 50-minute first flight, the airplane climbed to 9,500 feet, the gear was cycled and various basic maneuvers were performed. The Challenger began certification flight-testing in March 1979 with Lycoming ALF 502s of 7,500 pounds thrust (up from 6,700 pounds) and reduced elevator span to discourage flutter.
The second and third prototypes flew in March and July 1979.
On 3 April 1980, a test flight with the first prototype above the Mojave Desert ended in a disaster, with the airplane crashing due to a deep stall. In August 1980, certification was granted with temporary restrictions. Deliveries of the CL-600, powered by two Lycoming ALF-502L turbofans started on 30 December 1980, first flown on 21 September 1979.
The design was developed further and on 10 April 1982 the Challenger 601, a refined version with the more powerful General Electric CF-34 engines and winglets, made its maiden flight. In 1983, the CL-601 replaced the CL-600 in production.
The first 601-1A delivered on 6 May 1983.
The first 601-3A flew on 6 May 1987 and the first 601-3A/ER on 19 May 1989.
The Canadair CL-601 Challenger 3A completed Canadian certification on 21 April 1987, less than 10 months after its roll-out on 18 July 1986. FAA cer-tification was confirmed on 30 April and the first delivery was made on 6 May, to TAG Aeronautics. The first production aircraft made its public debut at the Paris Air Show in June.
Based on the CL-601 — the version of the Challenger that introduced General Electric CF34 turbofans in the original CF-600 airframe — the Challenger 601-3A incorporates four significant developments. These are the improved CF34-3A engines to provide better climb and hot day take-off performance; a fully integrated digital avionics suite with higher reliability and improved diagnostics; a power-assisted passenger door and two landing lights mounted in the nose. A “glass’ cockpit features dual Sperry flight guidance systems, a five-tube, four-colour Sperry FF15 with multi-functional display and four-colour digital weather radar; dual Sperry flight management systems; dual Honeywell laser IRS and a comprehensive Collins Pro Line II communications/navigation package.
In 1986, Bombardier Aerospace bought Canadair. The Bombardier Challenger became a family of business jets. A number of models entered production including in 1989 the CL-601-3R, an extended range version with an extra fuel tank added to the aircraft's tail, a 2 crew and up to 19 passengers.
The number of models in 1989 included the CL-600-2B16 or Challenger 604 powered by CF-34-3B engines. First flight with these engines was on 17 March 1995, with Transport Canada certification granted that September. First delivery was in January 1996.
Sales to 1990 exceeded 140. The first 601-3R flew on 14 July 1993, and the first 604 on 25 January 1996.
The Royal Australian Air Force Challenger CL-604 special purpose VIP transports are operated by the Royal Australian Air Force's No 34 Squadron, based at Defence Establishment Fairbairn in Canberra. The Challenger has a crew of three (pilot, co-pilot and attendant) and carries up to nine passengers.
The Challenger CL-604 is fitted with a high-tech wing, high bypass CF34-3B engines, and a Collins ProLine 4 glass cockpit. The Challengers joined the RAAF VIP fleet in July 2002.
Challenger certified for operation in 40 countries by 1998. 500th Challenger rolled out 25 May 2000 and handed over 1 September 2000; 600th was undergoing interior outfitting in March 2003.
First built: 1978.
Engines: 2 x Lycoming ALF-502L, 7500 lbs thrust.
Length: 68.4 ft.
Height: 20.7 ft.
Wingspan: 61.8 ft.
Wing area: 450 sq.ft.
Wing aspect ratio: 8.5.
Maximum ramp weight: 40,550 lb
Maximum takeoff weight: 40,400 lb
Standard empty weight: 18,600 lb
Maximum useful load: 21,950 lb
Zero-fuel weight: 27,500 lb
Maximum landing weight: 36,000 lb
Wing loading: 89.7 lbs/sq.ft.
Power loading: 2.69 lbs/lb.
Maximum usable fuel: 16,725 lbs.
Best rate of climb: 3600fpm.
Certificated ceiling: 45,000 ft.
Max pressurisation differential: 9.3 psi. 8000 ft cabin alt @: 45,000 ft.
Maximum single-engine rate of climb: 1045 fpm @ 170 kts.
Single-engine climb gradient: 368 ft/nm.
Single-engine ceiling: 29,000 ft.
Maximum speed: 480 kts.
Normal cruise @ 43,000ft: 425 kts.
Fuel flow @ normal cruise: 2105 pph.
Stalling speed clean: 137 kts.
Stalling speed gear/flaps down: 113 kts.
Turbulent-air penetration speed: 280 kts.
Range : 4017 nm / 7440 km
Canadair CL-601 Challenger
light airliner, corporate jet, transport, Canada, 1986
Engine: 2 x CF 34 A1, 39829 N / 4060 kp
Length: 68.57 ft / 20.9 m
Height: 20.669 ft / 6.3 m
Wingspan: 64.304 ft / 19.6 m
Wing area: 519.901 sqft / 48.3 sq.m
Max take off weight: 43107.8 lb / 19550.0 kg
Weight empty: 19955.3 lb / 9050.0 kg
Payload: 23152.5 lb / 10500.0 kg
Max. speed: 460 kts / 851 km/h
Cruising speed: 442 kts / 819 km/h
Initial climb rate: 4527.56 ft/min / 23.00 m/s
Service ceiling: 41011 ft / 12500 m
Wing load: 83.03 lbs/sq.ft / 405.00 kg/sq.m
Range: 3440 nm / 6370 km
Payload: 19 Pax
Power Plant: Two x General Electric CF34-3A turbofans each flat-rated at 9,140 lb St (4 146 kgp) including automatic power reserve (five-minute limit), up to 70 deg F at sea level.
Cascade-type fan air thrust reversers.
Fuel capacity, 2,451 US gal (9 278 1).
High speed cruise, 459 kts (850 km/h) or Mach = 080
Normal cruise, 442 kts (819 km/h) or M =077
Long-range cruise, 424 kts (786 km/h) or M = 074
Time to climb to initial cruise altitude, 23 mm
Max operating altitude, 41,000 ft (12 497 m)
Single-engine ceiling, 24,000 ft (7 315 m)
Take-off balanced field length, 5,400 ft (1 646 m)
Landing dis-tance, 3,300 ft (1 006 m)
Max range, (NBAA IFR reserves, long-range cruise), 3,430 naut mls (6 352 kin) with five passengers.
Typical operating weight empty, 24,685 lb (11197 kg)
Max fuel load, 16,665 lb (7 559 kg)
Payload with max fuel, 1,900 lb (862 kg)
Max payload, 4,815 lb (2 184 kg)
Max take-off weight, 43,100 lb (19 550 kg)
Max zero fuel weight, 29,500 lb (13 381 kg)
Max landing weight, 36,000 lb (16 329 kg).
Wing span, 64 ft 4 in (19,61 m)
Overall length, 68 ft 5 in (20,85 m)
Overall height, 20 ft 8 in (6,30 m)
Wing area, 450 sq ft (41,81 sq.m)
Wing sweepback at quarter chord line, 25 deg
Undercarriage track, 10 ft 5 in (3,18 m)
Wheel-base, 26 ft 2½ in (7,99 m).
Flight crew: two
Accommodation: 12 - 15.
Cabin length, 28 ft 3 in (8,61 m)
Max height, 6 ft 1 in (1,85 m)
Max width, 8 ft 2 in (2,49 m)
Cabin volume: 1,150 cu ft (32,56 cu.m)
Bombardier Challenger CL-604
Engines: Two General Electric CF34-3B turbofans (9,220 lbs thrust each)
Wingspan: 19.61m (including winglets)
Max takeoff: 21,863kg
Max landing: 17,236kg
Normal ops Speed: 870km/h
Range: 5,600km (with max fuel and reserves)
Ceiling: 41,000 feet
Crew: Two pilots and one crew attendant
Accommodation: 9 passengers