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Boeing 747

Boeing VC-25 / E-4


Boeing 747-338

The Boeing 747 was conceived following the failure of Boeing to secure a USAF contract for a large strategic transport (the winner of this competition was Lockheed and their C-5 Galaxy). Seeing the need for a large passenger aircraft, Boeing dismissed the option of developing their 707 further and began the most famous and most ambitious project in the company’s history.

The Boeing Model 747-100 was announced on 13 April 1966 supported with orders from PanAm for twenty-five aircraft. It was not until further orders were received from Japan Airlines and Lufthansa that, on 25 April 1966, the decision was made to start construction. The maiden flight did not occur until 9 February 1969. Everything about it was giant-sized, including the 200,000,000 cu ft (5,663,400 cu.m) single-roofed factory in which to build it; some 20,000 people involved initially on the project; and the astronomic production costs. The new aircraft, RA001, emerged from the plant with 158 orders. The next four aircraft that were constructed were used in the certification programme, and collectively flew some 1400 hours. With the certification flying completed towards the end of 1969, FAA approval was granted on 30 December 1969. This was followed by Pan Am’s inauguration of the type on its first service from New York to London on 22 January 1970. Boeing went on to deliver 250 of the 747-100 senes. The last built in 1982.

On 11 October 1970, when the first Boeing 747-200 model flew. Developed as a long-range model, it had greater fuel capacity, increased gross weight (from 334,751 kg to an initial 351,535 kg). The 100th 747 was delivered on 26 February 1971 and by September the following year the 747 had flown 1 million hours.


Boeing 747-211B C-GXRD, Toronto, Canada, August 1980


The Boeing 747-212F differs in so far as it has the uprated 300 series Pratt and Whitney JTP-D-7R4G2 engines, no windows and three air con-ditioning pacs instead of two. The additional air conditioning provides for a greater range of air temperature control. The contrast becomes more marked when the Jumbo comes to rest and opens its top hinged nose door. A large freight door port side rear completes the contrast. With the nose door open, some 53.42 metres of usable freight space stretches out awaiting the placement of the 28 pallets utilising a power-driven conveyor system. The nose, restricted by the lower floor of the upper deck, can swallow loads up to 2.4 metres in height. The side cargo door can accept loads of up to 3.05 metres.




 The seventh model was the 747SP (special performance), of which only forty-five were built. The B747SP, which first flew on 4 July 1975 (N530PA), was 14.35 m shorter than the standard Jumbo, and the vertical tail was increased in height to compensate for the reduced moment arm of the shorter fuselage. It did, however, share 90 percent commonality with the -200 and the -100 aircraft.

On 23-24 March 1976 a Model 747SP on delivery to South African Airways set a commercial aircraft nonstop distance record of 10,290 miles (16560 km).

The SUD (stretched upper deck) model involved extending the upper deck (behind the flight deck) by about 7 metres. The SUD model became the Boeing 747-300, the first example of which was delivered in March 1983.

Sharing the same airframe as the -300 series was, naturally, the Boeing 747-400. It first flew on 29 April 1988, and since 1990 has been the only 747 on offer. This latest model features drag reducing 1.8-m winglets, an advanced two-crew electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) “glass” flightdeck (in contrast, the -100’s flightdeck has a staggering 971 lights, gauges and switches, while the -400 has a relatively sparse 365). It also has new engines and an empty weight saving of 11 tonnes and, subsequently, further range. This aircraft is available in three maxi-mum take-off weights up to 396.90 tonnes, and in a typical configuration of 416 passengers.

The 747F cargo version has a cargo area the size of two tennis courts. Wing sweepback on the 747 is 37.5 degrees.



Boeing 747-400F

The 747-ER first flew on 31 July 2002, and can carry 15,000 lb more and can fly about 410 nm farther than existing 747-400s. Although identical in exterior appearance to the -400 the -400ER achieves it gains through an additional fuel tank and a strengthened fuselage, parts of the wing and undercarriage. The additional fuel is a 12,150 lt tank in the forward cargo area.

Original Boeing 747s had fuel distributed in seven tanks: two inboard (wing) mains, two outboard mains, and two inboard reserves, with a center wing tank. The latter's capacity was first increased with the 747-200B and -200C, which also had the option of two outboard reserve tanks and a fuselage tank in the aft cargo compartment. With the -400, an option is to have fuel in the horizontal stabilizer.

In May 1990, Boeing decided to market only the -400.


Boeing 747-428


The Boeing 747-123 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) (NASA 905), was flown for the first time on 16 December 1976. The Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), for which Boeing became the contractor to convert an ex-American Airlines Boeing 747-123 to carry an SSO mounted above its fuselage, has meant structural reinforcement to withstand the weight of the 150,000-1b (68039-kg) SSO above the fuselage, supports and clamps to hold it in position, and to provide increased stability when paired with the Shuttle the 747 had endplate fins added to its tailplane.


Boeing 747‑123 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) (NASA 905)


On 14 January 1977 the task was complete, the SCA handed over to NASA ahead of schedule.

The VC-25 is essentially a highly-modified Boeing 747-200B series model featuring state-of-the-art communications and air defense measures consistent with protecting the President of the United States and his staff. Two Boeing 747-200B's were converted to this VC-25 status and operate with tail numbers 28000 and 29000 respectively. Both aircraft are flown simultaneously for security and logistical reasons. The aircraft - or any USAF aircraft - is not officially designated as "Air Force One" until the president is onboard.

VC-25 (as VC-25A) arrived in 1990 with tail number 28000 (27000 served Nixon, Ford and Carter). Its first flight was in transporting President George Bush senior on September 6th 1990. The aircraft was officially introduced on December 8th, 1990. A second VC-25A (tail number 29000) was introduced on December 23rd, 1990. VC-25 with tail number 29000 was deployed for the first time on March 26th, 1991. These two VC-25's were in operational service with the United States Air Force.

The VC-25 differs from existing passenger Boeing 747's mostly in an internal way. The aircraft features a self-contained baggage loader, capability for in-flight refueling and front and rear "air-stairs". Additionally, cutting edge technology is in the navigation, real-time communications and electronic systems. The aircraft features f anti-missile functionality that is held classified. The interior furnishings are consistent with the level of government and combine the comforts of a working office and the White House in a self-contained mobile platform.





The main galley can serve up to 100 persons at a given time while the crew has access to their own smaller galley as well as a lounge area. Passengers are also offered up six lavatories and full disabled access. 102 passengers can be carried.

The president has full access to his own in-flight office and the executive suite which contains the stateroom and comforts such as a shower, lavatory and dressing room. A conference room doubles as a dining room for family and close staff. Air Force One is also stocked with medical equipment to address minor injuries and situations.

Power for the VC-25 is four General Electric CF6-80C2B1 engines of 56,700lbs of thrust each engine. The aircraft flies higher and faster than her commercial counterparts, with a top speed of 630 mph and a ceiling of 45,100 feet. Range capability is up to 7,800 statute miles. With the in-flight refueling capability, this distance becomes essentially unlimited.

The pair of VC-25's are held in an unmarked hanger at Andrews Air Force Base. The aircraft is inspected, cleaned and waxed before every flight and must be ready at a moment's notice.

The E-4 designation identifies four Boeing 747 transports operated by the USAF as Advanced Airborne Command Posts. One is airborne at all times to maintain the critical communications link (in event of war) between the US National Command Authority and the strategic retaliatory forces.

Derived from the Boeing 747, the first of three E-4As flew first in mid-1973. The fourth aircraft, designated E-4B, has more advanced equipment. Power plant of the E-4B comprises four 52,500 lb thrust General Electric F103-GE-100 turbofan engines. The primary advantages of the E-4s over the EC-135s that formerly had full responsibility for this role are increased endurance and increased efficiency through the use of a larger number of crew members.

The programme to upgrade the four E-4A airborne command posts to E-4B standard was completed early in 1986. Satellite communications terminals have been added, together with radios ranging from super-high-frequency (SHF) to very-low-frequency (VLF) for more reliable contact with US strategic nuclear forces.

As of 20 October 2001, produced as 747-100 (250), 747-200 (393), 747-300 (81), 747-400 (530). Versions of 747-400 include - 400D, -400F and 400-M (Combi). As of 20 October 2001, Boeing had delivered 1,254 Boeing 747s. In addition, four 747s have been modified as E-4 command post aircraft, 19 Pan American C-19As were modified for the Civil Reserve Fleet currently operated by Evergreen International.




Engines 4 x 43,500 lb. (19,730 kg.) thrust Pratt & Whitney JT9D-3 turbofan.
Length 231.3 ft. (70.51 m.)
Wing span: 195.7 ft. (59.64 m.)
Wing area: 511.0 sq.m / 5500.35 sq ft
Height: 19.3 m / 63 ft 5 in
Max. weight: 710,000 lb. (322,000 kg.)
Empty weight: 238820 kg / 526511 lb
Max. capacity: 490 passengers
Max. speed: 990 km/h / 615 mph
Cruise speed: 965 km/h / 600 mph
Ceiling 45,000 ft. (13,000 m.) fully loaded.
Range w/max.fuel: 13000 km / 8078 miles
Range w/max.payload: 9650 km / 5996 miles
Crew: 3
Passengers: 490

Engine : 4 x Pratt&Whittney JT9D-7W, 209149 N
Wing span: 195 ft 8 in (59.64 m)
Wing area: 5685.545 sq.ft / 528.2 sq.m
Wing load : 136.53 lb/sq.ft / 666.0 kg/sq.m
Length: 231 ft 4 in (70.51 m)
Height: 63 ft 5 in (19.33 m)
Max TO wt: 775,000 lb (351,540 kg)
Weight empty: 361276.0 lb / 163844.0 kg
Max level speed: 608 mph (978 kph)  
Cruising speed: 512 kts / 948 km/h
Service ceiling: 44291 ft / 13500 m
Range : 6156 nm / 11400 km
Crew : 3
Payload : 66 Pax, 490 Pax eco.


Engines: 4 x General Electric CF6-50E2, 52,500 lbf  
Length: 231.63ft (70.6m)
Width: 195.54ft (59.60m)
Height: 63.32ft (19.30m)
Maximum Speed: 587mph (945kmh; 510kts)
Maximum Range: 8,342miles (13,425km)
Service Ceiling: 45,000ft (13,716m)
Accommodation: 3 + 452
Empty Weight: 383,604lbs (174,000kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 832,999lbs (377,842kg)

Engines: 4 x Rolls-Royce RB211-524D4, 53,000 lbf
Length: 231.63ft (70.6m)
Width: 195.54ft (59.60m)
Height: 63.32ft (19.30m)
Maximum Speed: 587mph (945kmh; 510kts)
Maximum Range: 8,342miles (13,425km)
Service Ceiling: 45,000ft (13,716m)
Accommodation: 3 + 452
Empty Weight: 383,604lbs (174,000kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 832,999lbs (377,842kg)

Engines: 4 x General Electric CF6-50E2 turbofan, 233.5 kN.
Wing span: 59.64m.
Length: 70.66m.
Height: 19.33m.
Max speed: 0.84M @ 9150m.
Range (std load): 11,760 km.
Accommodation: 3 (flight-deck) three-class, 366 pax.

Engines: 4 x Pratt and Whitney JTP-D-7R4G2

Engines: 4 x RR RB211-524D4 turbofan, 52,810 lb thrust.
Length: 70.4m.
Wing span: 59.64 m.
Height: 19.58m.
Wing area: 512 sq.m.
Range: 9500-11,000 km.
MTOW: 377.84 tonne.

Engines: 4 x General Electric CF6-80E2 turbofan, 233.5 kN.
Length: 70.66m.
Height: 19.33m.
Wingspan: 59.64m.
Max speed: M0.84.
Max range: 11760 km.
Crew: 3.
Pax cap: 432

Engines: 4 x Rolls-Royce RB211-524G3 turbofan, 56,870 lb thrust.
Fuel cap: 175 tonne.
MTOW: 394,600 kg.
Max cruise alt: 40,000 ft.

Engines: 4 x General Electric CF6-80C2-B5F turbofan, 62,100 lb thrust.
MTOW: 412.769 tonne.
Fuel cap: 184.44 tonne.
Cruise: 0.85M.


747-8 Intercontinental
Engines: 4 x GEnx-2B67 turbofan
Length: 250 feet
Height: 63 feet
Wingspan: 224 feet
Passenger capacity: 467
Empty weight: 485,300 lb
Cruise speed: Mach 0.86
First flight: 2010


Engines: 4 x General Electric CF6-80C2V1F turbofan.


Engines: 4 x General Electric Fl03-GE-100 turbofans, 52,500 lb st (23 814 kgp)
Length: 231.30ft (70.5m)
Width: 195.87ft (59.70m)
Height: 63.32ft (19.30m)
Maximum Speed: 603mph (970kmh; 524kts)
Maximum Range: 7,140miles (11,490km)
Service Ceiling: 45,932ft (14,000m; 8.7miles)
Accommodation: 4 + 23 + 70
Empty Weight: 418,878lbs (190,000kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 826,403lbs (374,850kg)

VC-25A (Air Force One)
Engines: 4 x General Electric CF6-80C2B1, 56,700 lb
Length: 231.96ft (70.7m)
Width: 195.54ft (59.60m)
Height: 63.32ft (19.30m)
Maximum Speed: 629mph (1,013kmh; 547kts)
Maximum Range: 7,798miles (12,550km)
Service Ceiling: 45,098ft (13,746m)
Accommodation: 26 + 102
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 826,403lbs (374,850kg)






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