In March 1965, Bell initiated company-funded development of the proven Model 204 (UH-1B/-1C Iroquois) to produce an armed helicopter suitable for close-support/attack roles. Intended to provide the US Army with an interim AAFSS (advanced aerial fire support system) helicopter, it combined a new narrow, low-profile, tandem-seat fuselage with the rotor / transmission system / powerplant and tailboom of the UH-1C. First flown in prototype form on 7 September 1965, the new Bell Model 209 was evaluated by the US Army from December of that year, with orders for two pre-production and 110 production aircraft following during April 1966. Initially a 1400 shp Avco Lycoming T53-L-13 turboshaft engine was used to power the Army's first production version, designated AH-1G, and named HueyCobra, the type was first delivered to the US Army in June 1967, and within two months the type was being used operationally in Vietnam. US Marine Corps interest in this helicopter resulted in 38 AH-1Gs being supplied from the US Army production line in 1969, pending initial deliveries of 49 of the AH-1J SeaCobra variant ordered by the US Marine Corps in May 1968. Examples generally similar to the US Army’s AH-1G have been supplied to the Spanish navy (eight, designated Z.14) and Israel (six).
The HueyCobra has small stub-wings that serve the dual purpose of offloading the rotor in flight, and of carrying armament that, in the case of the AH-1G, can include folding-fin rockets or Minigun pods. Additionally, this version mounts beneath the nose an M-28 turret that can house two Miniguns, or two 40-mm grenade-launchers, or one of each. Armour protection is provided for the crew in the form of Noroc side panels and seats, with other vital areas of the helicopter protected by panels of the same material.
The Cobra features Kaman composite blades, fitted from 67th AH-1P onwards, tolerate hits by 23mm shells, have tungsten carbide bearing sleeves and outer 15% of blade is tapered in chord and thickness; tailboom strengthened against 23mm hits; airframe has infra-red suppressant paint finish. IR suppression nozzle on AH-1F. Flat-plate canopy has seven planes of viewing surfaces, designed to minimise glint and reduce possibility of visual detection during nap of the earth (NOE) flying; it also provides increased headroom for pilot. Improved instrument layout and lighting, compatible with use of night vision goggles. Improved, independently operating window/door ballistic jettison system to facilitate crew escape in emergency.
The Cobra was armed with an M65 system with eight Hughes TOW missiles, disposed as two two-round clusters on each outboard underwing station. Inboard wing stations remain available for other stores. M28 (7.62/40mm) turret in earlier HueyCobras replaced by new electrically powered General Electric universal turret, designed to accommodate 20mm weapon and improve standoff capability, although only 20mm M197 three-barrel cannon (with 750 rounds) mounted in this turret. Rate of fire 675 rds/min. Turret position is controlled by pilot or co-pilot/gunner through helmet sights, or by co-pilot using M65 TOW missile system's telescopic sight unit. Field of fire up to 110degs to each side of aircraft, 20.5degs upward and 50degs downward. Also equipped with Baldwin Electronics M138 wing stores management subsystem, providing means to select and fire, singly or in groups, any one of five types of external 70mm rocket store. These mounted in launchers each containing 7 or 19 tubes, additional to TOW missile capability.
A US Army production version of the Hueycobra attack helicopter is the TOW-armed AH-1F (Model 209) with flat-glass canopy, laser rangefinder and tracker, low airspeed sensor, fire-control computer, Doppler navigation, nap-of-the-earth and secure communications, and infrared suppression and jamming. The fully upgraded AH-1F entered production with the 199th new-build AH-1S, following 100 AH-1S and 98 Up-Gun AH-1S. A more advanced version of the single-turbine Model 209, which has the military designation AH-1S, was in production for the U.S.Army. Power was provided by a 1,800 shp Avco Lycoming T53-L-703 turboshaft engine, and in addition to airframe improvements there are advanced avionics and equipment to enhance the flexibility and capability of the armament which is deployed.
Bell AH-1F HueyCobra
378 earlier AH-lGs were fitted with TOW missiles and designated Mod AH-1S (Modified). The JGSDF received its first AH-1F in December 1984, from a requirement for 54. Fuji is assembling these Hueycobras under licence.
First twin-engined Cobra was AH-1J SeaCobra, delivered from mid-1970. The AH-1J traded the single Lycoming T53 turboshaft for a Pratt & Whitney PT6T-3 TwinPac engine.
The AH-1W was substantially redesigned to take a pair of 3250shp General Electric T700 engines in which guise it was named "SuperCobra". The USMC took delivery of the first of 44 new AH-1W SuperCobras in March 1986. The AH-1W SuperCobra is a version of the US Marine Corps AH-1 SeaCobra attack helicopter, itself a twin-engined development of the US Army’s single-engined AH-1 HueyCobra that first flew in September 1965 in direct response to the requirements of the Vietnam War. In 1980 Bell was loaned an AH-1T Improved SeaCobra, and this was re-engined with two T700-GE-700 turboshafts with a combined output of 3,200 shp (2,386 kW) for improved performance with a heavier and more diverse warload. The AH-1T+ “production” version comprised 44 AH-1T conversions with slightly more power, a new combining gearbox, and revised electronics including a head-up display for the pilot and an improved defensive suite. The type entered service in 1987 with the revised designation AH-1W, and provides the USMC with an advanced capability for support of beach-head operations from landing ships lying offshore. The 65 per cent increase in available power allows up to eight TOW or Hellfire missiles to be carried.
The Bell Model 249 was an AH-1S fitted with a four-blade rotor, and was offered with TOW or HOT missile installations. A prototype Model 249 flew in December 1979, using a Model 412 rotor system. The original Model 209 prototype first flew on September 7, 1965.
Designations include Modified AH-1S, which covers 197 AH-lGs and the 93 AH-1Qs with upgraded gearbox, transmission, improved rotor, T53-L-703 engine, and TOW-capability; 100 generally similar Production AH-1S, being new production aircraft with advanced avionics, instrumentation, and systems; 98 Up-Gun AH-1S, generally as the Production AH-1S but with an improved turret and weapon management systems; and the Modernised AH-1S of which 126 new production aircraft have been ordered incorporating the improvements embodied in the other AH-1S aircraft, plus advanced nay/coin, avionics, and protection systems. These are now known as AH-1F to avoid confusion with other variants AH-1T Improved SeaCobra: generally improved version of the AH-1J, incorporating an uprated T400-WV-402 powerplant, the dynamic system of the Bell Model 214, and the fuselage lengthened by 1.09m (3ft 7 in); 57 built, and equipped for operation with TOW missiles AH-1W SuperCobra: new USMC version with two GE T700-GE-700 engines, producing 1260-kW (1,690-shp) each. Better protection and avionics are incorporated. Conversion applied to AH-1T aircraft Model 249: company designation of a Modernised AH-1S which was equipped and tested with an advanced four-blade main rotor as developed for the Bell Model 412.
Building a HueyCobra requires 38,500 hours of factory-worker time.
The Bell 209 Super Cobra features a stepped tandem seating and stub-wings for armament. Two-blade main rotor, similar to that of Bell 214, with strengthened rotor head incorporating Lord Kinematics Lastoflex elastomeric and Teflon-faced bearings. Blade aerofoil Wortmann FX-083 (modified); normal 311 rpm. Tail rotor also similar to that of Bell 214 with greater diameter and blade chord; normal 1,460 rpm. Rotor brake standard. Stub-wings have NACA 0030 section at root; NACA 0024 at tip; incidence 14degs; sweepback 14.7degs. AH-1Z will incorporate new four-blade rotor system and transmission.
Main rotor blades have aluminium spar and aluminium-faced honeycomb aft of spar; tail rotor has aluminium honeycomb with stainless steel skin and leading-edge. Airframe conventional all-metal semi-monocoque.
Non-retractable tubular skid type on AH- 1W. Ground handling wheels optional.
Two General Electric T700-GE-401 turboshafts, each rated at 1,285kW. Transmission rating 1,515kW for take-off; 1,286kW continuous; AH-1Z transmission flat rated at 1,957kW, Fuel (IPS) contained in two interconnected self-sealing rubber fuel cells m fuselage, with protection from damage by 12.7mm ballistic ammunition, total usable capacity 1,128 litres; AH-1Z has larger stub-wings, containing 379 litres of additional fuel. Gravity refuelling point in forward fuselage, pressure refuelling point in rear fuselage. Provision for carriage on underwing stores stations of two or four external fuel tanks each of 291 litres capacity; or two 379 litre tanks; or two 380 and two 290 litre tanks; large tanks on outboard pylons only. Oil capacity 19 litres.
Crew of two in tandem, with co-pilot/ gunner in front seat and pilot at rear in AH-1W; crew stations are interchangeable in AH-1Z. Cockpit is heated, ventilated and air conditioned. Dual controls; lighting compatible with night vision goggles, and armour protection standard. Forward crew door on port side and rear crew door on starboard side, both upward-opening. Inflatable body and head restraint system by Simula of Phoenix, Arizona, nearing end of development in mid-1995; retrofit provisions installed in 1996 production, with system incorporated in 1997 production.
Electrically operated General Electric undernose A/A49E-7(V4) turret housing an M197 three-barrel 20mm gun. A 750-round ammunition container is located in the fuselage directly aft of the turret; firing rate is 675 rds/min; a 16-round burst limiter is incorporated in the firing switch. Either crew member can fire the gun, which can be slaved to a helmet-mounted sight/aiming device. Gun can be tracked 110degs to each side, 18degs upward, and 50degs downward, but barrel length of 1.52m makes it imperative that the M197 is centralised before wing stores are fired. Underwing attachments for up to four LAU-61A (19-tube), LAU-68A, LAU-68A/A, LAU-68B/A or LAU-69A (seven-tube) 70mm Hydra 70 rocket launcher pods; two CBU-55B fuel-air explosive weapons; four SUU-44/A flare dispensers; two M118 grenade dispensers; Mk 45 parachute flares; or two GPU-2A or SUU-11A/A Minigun pods.
Provision for carrying totals of up to eight TOW missiles, eight AGM-114 Hellfire missiles, two AIM-9L Sidewinder or AGM-122A Sidearrn missiles, on outboard underwing stores stations. Canadian Marconi TOW/ Hellfire control system enables AH-1W to fire both TOW and Hellfire missiles on same mission.
AH-1W Upgrades: Following abandonment of the proposed Integrated Weapon System (IWS) project in July 1995 and the Marine Observation and Attack Aircraft programme which was intended to provide a replacement for both the AH-1W SuperCobra and the UH-1N Iroquois, the US Marine Corps has opted for a two-stage upgrade of the AH-1W, allowing it to be retained in the active inventory until about 2030. Phase 1 concerned installation of a Night Targeting System (NTS), under which USMC AH-1Ws fitted with the Israeli Tamam laser NTS for dual TOW/Hellfire day, night and adverse weather capability. Conversion of a prototype (162533) was authorised in December 1991, with an initial batch of 25 sets being built by Tamam for delivery from January 1993; joint production with Kollsman was approved in May 1994. A total of 250 sets was required by the USMC, with further sets produced for Turkey and Taiwan. Deliveries of modified aircraft to operational units of the USMC began in June 1994.
A further improvement programme, involving installation of an Embedded Global Positioning System/ Inertial Navigation System (EGI), has been undertaken. Two prototype conversions (162532 and 163936) were delivered to test units for trials in November 1995 and March 1996, with EGI installed on new-build aircraft from Lot 9 onwards, as well as older AH-1Ws as a retrofit programme.
Phase 2 entails installation of the Bell 680 four-blade rotor, offering a 70% reduction in vibration; formerly designated AH-1W, but now known as AH-1Z. Initial trials of the four-blade rotor system were undertaken with AH-1W 161022; bench testing of the new drive system began in second quarter of 1999 and was completed in first quarter of 2000. Bell also demonstrated 30-minute run-dry capability of new intermediate and tail rotor gearboxes in Match 2000. The AH-1Z will be fitted with a new four-blade, all-composites, hingeless/ bearingless rotor system; four-blade composites tail rotor; a new transmission rated at 1,957kW; endplates on horizontal tail surfaces and new wing assemblies able to carry twice the number of anti-armour missiles, as well as more fuel and additionally permitting concurrent carriage of two air-to-air self-defence missiles. Lockheed Martin selected to develop and manufacture AN/AAQ-30 Hawkeye advanced target sighting system (TSS), with work on US$8 million, 54 month, engineering development and integration programme beginning in July 1998. TSS features imaging technology by Wescam of Canada and Lockheed Martin's Sniper third-generation FLIR, as well as colour TV camera, laser ranger, spottracker and designator.
Also to feature on the AH-1Z are 'glass cockpits', Northrop Grumman (formerly Litton Industries) has been selected as prime contractor for this aspect of the upgrade. Digital transfer of information on tactical situation, weaponry and flight data will enable crew interchangeability and allow AH-1Z to be flown from either front or rear seat, Major subcontractors include Rockwell Collins, which will supply active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs); Smiths Industries (fire-control system); Meggitt Avionics (standby air data and inertial sensing devices); and BAE Systems (air data computers). Other elements of the upgrade include new stores management system, onboard systems monitoring, mission data loader, HOTCC (hands on throttle, collective and cyclic) controls, airborne target handover system and a new EW suite.
A US$310 million cost-plus-fixed-fee contract was awarded to Bell in November 1996, for design, development, fabrication, installation, test and delivery of three engineering development AH-1W SuperCobra Upgrade Aircraft. Assembly of first AH-1Z begun at Hurst, Texas, in April 1999, by which time 85% of drawings had been released, with design work due for completion by end of 1999. Initial AH-1Z (162549, c/n 59001) completed final assembly in second quarter of 2000 and moved to Bell Flight Research Center at Arlington, Texas, for installation of instrumentation and functional testing that included restrained ground running which was completed in October 2000. Formal roll-out at Arlington on 20 November 2000, with first flight following on 7 December; subsequently redesignated as NAH-1Z and may eventually adopt new identity of 166477. Second development aircraft (163933/166478, c/n 59002) was due to fly in 2001, but handling quality problems that emerged early in flight test programme necessitated redesign of horizontal stabiliser assembly and caused delay; this eventually flew for first time on 4 October 2002, having been forestalled by third development aircraft (162532/ 166479, c/n 59003), which made its maiden flight on 26 August 2002. By mid-November 2002, all three aircraft had accumulated 390 flight hours, demonstrating 296km/h cruise and 407km/h maximum speed. Programme includes flight test and evaluation at Patuxent River, Maryland, to where first AH-IZ was airlifted by C-5 Galaxy on 31 March 2001. Weapons testing will take place at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona with other trials at China Lake, California. Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E) due to begin in fourth quarter of FY03 and will mostly be conducted at Patuxent River. Testing of full-scale AH-IZ structural test article at Arlington began in April 2000; on 22 November 2002, significant milestone passed with completion of 20,000 hour fatigue life demonstration, but further fatigue and static loads evaluation to follow, with airframe also earmarked for survivabiliry assessment on completion of test duty. Finalisation of the cockpit upgrade design occurred in FY99, with first order for remanufacture due to be placed in FY04. IOC scheduled for 2007, with peak production rate requiring 24 AH-1Ws to be upgraded annually. Initial deliveries will be to HMT-303 at Camp Pendleton, California.
As of 2010, the United States Army retains 879 Cobras (models AH-1F, AH-1E, AH-1P, and AH-1S) whilst the United States Marine Corps utilizes 103 AH-1W SuperCobra models.
AH-1RO Dracula: Derivative of AH-1W for Romania, which intended to purchase initial batch of 96. Project abandoned by Bell in fourth quarter of 1999.
AH-1Z King Cobra: Version for Turkey, which plans to acquire 145 attack helicopters at cost of US$4 billion; bids for initial batch of 50 (including two prototypes) submitted by end 1997. Announcement of winning contender was expected at start of 1999 but deferred to mid-2000, following delays in flight evaluations of competing types. AH-1Z selected, with announcement made at Farnborough 2000 in late July, when revealed that initial batch of 50 to be purchased at approximate US$1.5 billion cost; contract signature was due in first quarter of 2001, but was delayed because of difficulties over indigenous production of key systems such as mission computer; subsequent concerns over cost caused further delay and contract still not finalised by end of 2002, although Bell remains optimistic that sale will go ahead. Licensed production expected to be undertaken in Turkey by TAI at Ankara; current plan stipulates follow-on batches of 50 and 45 helicopters.
ARH-1Z: Designation allocated to version unsuccessfully proposed for Australian Army Project Air 87 armed reconnaissance helicopter.
MH-1W: In April 1998, Bell revealed a reconnaissance, armed escort and fire support 'multimission' version of the SuperCobra under this designation. Evolved in response to a perceived need for armed helicopters to undertake anti-drug operations, marketing efforts principally aimed at Latin American countries, with presentations to Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Venezuela. Configuration includes a nose-mounted sighting system, with a FLIRStar Safire FLIR sensor, laser range-finder, video recorder and automatic target tracker. Proposed weaponry includes a 20mm cannon as well as 12.7mm gun pods and up to four 70mm rocket pods, but excludes anti-armour missiles and air-to-air missiles.
Bell rolled out the first production AH-1Z Super Cobra for the US Marines on 20 November 2000. It carries a 20 mm Gatling gun with 750 rounds. An upgrade program involved converting AH-1Ws to AH-1Zs.
The UH-1Y and AH-1Z feature zero-time airframes and 85% commonality, including two GE-T700 turboshafts, glass cockpits, four-blade all-composite main rotors and tail rotors, drive train, and hydraulic and electrical systems.
AH-1E / Up-gun AH-1S
Formerly Enhanced Cobra Armament System or Up-gun AH-1S; with AH-1P improvements plus universal 20mm gun turret (invariably fitted with long-barrel 20mm cannon); improved wing stores management system for 70mm rockets; automatic compensation for off-axis gun firing; 10 kVA alternator for increased power. A total of 98 new build aircraft delivered 1978-79. All remaining upgraded.
AH-1F / Modernised AH-1S
Fully upgraded TOW version, previously designated Modernised AH-1S; 149 manufactured for US Army in 1979-86, including 50 transferred to Army National Guard; also 378 AH-1Gs converted to full AH-1F standard between November 1979 and June 1982, including 41 TAH-1F trainers; improvements of AH-1P and AH-1E added, plus new fire-control system having laser range-finder and tracker, ballistics computer, low-airspeed sensor probe, Kaiser pilot's head-up display, Doppler navigation system, IFF transponder, infra-red jammer above engine, hot metal and plume infra-red suppressor, closed-circuit refuelling, new secure voice communications, Kaman composite rotor blades.
Original version for the US Army, powered by a single 1,044kW Avco Lycoming T53-L-13 turboshaft, derated to 820kW for T-O and maximum continuous rating. Development contract for two preproduction aircraft placed 4 April 1966, followed on 13 April by an initial order for 110 aircraft plus long-lead-time spares, deliveries of which began in June 1967. Total production, including small number of export units came to 1,127. All surviving aircraft converted to AH-1F standard.
One armament research aircraft which has been flown with the Hellfire air-launched missile, and multi-barrel cannon.
Designation of dual-control trainer (all AH-1 Cobras had dual controls) conversions from AH-1G by modification to add 2 hydraulic control servos to the front seat (Instructors position) cyclic control System. This gave the instruction the ability to override the back seat Student inputs to the cycle System. The original front seat controls were arm chair type which did not provide the leverage to override the back seat controls.
Initial US Marine Corps version powered by a twin-turboshaft 1,342kW T400-CP-400 powerplant, a military version of the PT6T-3 Turbo Twin-Pac; this power unit incorporates two turbine engines, flat-rated to 820kW (1,100 shp) for continuous running, but with a take-off or emergency rating of 932kW (1,250shp); total of 69 delivered to USMC by early 1975 the last two being converted later as prototypes for the AH-1T, and 202 similar aircraft supplied to the Imperial Iranian Army Aviation from 1974, the US Army acting as purchasing agent. All USMC SeaCobras withdrawn.
First batch of 100 new-production TOW Cobras (formerly called Production AH-1S), delivered 1977-78, two becoming AH-1F prototypes; improvements include flat-plate canopy, upturned exhaust, improved nap of the earth (NOE) instrument panel, continental US (CONUS) navigation equipment, radar altimeter, improved communication radios, uprated engine and transmission, push/pull anti-torque control and, from 67th aircraft onwards, Kaman composite rotor blades with tapered tips.
Interim anti-armour version for US Army, converted from AH-1G to fire Hughes TOW anti-tank missiles. Total of 92 converted; subsequently upgraded to Mod AH-1S standard.
version similar to AH-1G with a more powerful T53-L-703 turboshaft engine
AH-1S HueyCobra / AH-1S(MOD)
Coverall designation under which existing US Army AH-1 aircraft were updated to have TOW capability and incorporated other improvements, and of new production aircraft to the same or higher standard. current designations include Modified AH-1S, which covers 197 AH-1Gs and the 93 AH-1Qs with upgraded gearbox, transmission, improved rotor, T53-L-703 engine, and TOW-capability; 100 generally similar Production AH-1S, being new production aircraft with advanced avionics, instrumentation, and systems; 98 Up-Gun AH-1S, generally as the Production AH-1S but with an improved turret and weapon management systems; and the Modernised AH-1S of which 126 new production aircraft have been ordered incorporating the improvements embodied in the other AH-1S aircraft, plus advanced nav/com, avionics, and protection systems.
All versions designated AH-1S until March 1987, when new-build AH-1s allotted dormant UH-1 Iroquois suffixes AH-1P, AH-1E and AH-1F. 92 AH-1Qs (early TOW-capable AH-1G) upgraded by 1979; 87 AH-1Qs upgraded in 1986-88 with Textron Lycoming T53-L-703 engines, Kaman rotor blades (see AH-1P) and TOW system, but retaining original curved canopies; total includes 15 in TH-1S Night Stalker configuration for training AH-64 crews to operate night vision system and Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS).
These are now known as AH-1F to avoid confusion with other variants AH-1T
AH-1T / Improved SeaCobra
Generally improved version of the AH-1J for US Marine Corps, incorporating an uprated T400-WV-402 powerplant (1,469kW), the dynamic system of the Bell Model 214, and the fuselage lengthened by 1.09m; 57 built, and equipped for operation with TOW missiles. Last two AH-1Js modified as prototypes under a US Army Aviation Systems Command contract, with uprated components for significantly increased payload and performance. Incorporates features of AH-1J airframe, but embodies dynamic system of Bell Model 214, some technology developed for Bell Model 309 KingCobra, an upgraded power plant and transmission capable of transmitting the full rated engine power. Initial contract for 10 announced 23 June 1975; total of 57 built, of which 51 were subsequently modified to TOW configuration. First AH-1T flew 20 May 1976, and was delivered to US Marine Corps 15 October 1977. All have been converted to AH-1W SuperCobra standard.
Bell flew AH-1T powered by two GE T700-GE-700; first flight of improved AH-1 T+, including GE T700-GE-401 engines, 16 November 1983. New USMC version with two GE T700-GE-700 engines, producing 1260kW each. Better protection and avionics are incorporated. Conversion applied to AH-1T aircraft
USMC received 169 new-build examples as well as two maintenance trainers; 10 supplied to Turkey and 63 to Taiwan. Missions of AH-1W include anti-armour, escort, multiple-weapon fire support, armed reconnaissance, search and target acquisition.
company designation of a Modernised AH-1S which was equipped and tested with an advanced four-blade main rotor as developed for the Bell Model 412
Engine: 1 x Textron Lycoming T53-L-703 turboshaft, 1,800shp
Main rotor: two-blade
Length: 44.59ft (13.59m)
Width: 44.00ft (13.41m)
Height: 13.42ft (4.09m)
Empty Weight: 6,598lbs (2,993kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 9,998lbs (4,535kg)
Maximum Speed: 141mph (227kmh; 123kts)
Maximum Range: 315miles (507km)
Rate-of-Climb: 1,620ft/min (494m/min)
Service Ceiling: 12,198ft (3,718m)
HIGE: 12,200 ft
Armament: 1 x General Electric nose mounted three barrel 20mm gun
AH-1G Huey Cobra
Engine : Lycoming T53-L-13, 1381 shp
Rotor dia: 44 ft 0 in (13.41 m)
Length: 52 ft 11.5 in (16.14 m)
Height: 13 ft 5.5 in (4.1 m)
Max TO wt: 9500 lb (4309 kg)
Max level speed: 219 mph (352 kph)
Fuel capacity: 980 litres.
Service ceiling: 12697 ft / 3870 m
Range: 336 nm / 622 km
Armament: 2x Minigun(7,62)/GrenadeLauncher(40)], 4 St. 750kg
Engine: one 1342-kW (1,800-shp) Pratt & Whitney Aircraft of Canada T400-CP-400 twin-engined turboshaft
Maximum speed at sea level: 333 km/h (207 mph)
Hovering ceiling in ground effect: 3795m (12,450 ft)
Range with maximum fuel: 577 km (359 miles)
Empty operating weight: 3294 kg (7,261 lb)
Maximum take-off: 4535 kg (10,000lb)
Main rotor diameter: 13.41 m (44ft )
Tail rotor diameter: 2.59m (8ft 6 in)
Length rotors turning: 16.26m (53ft 4in)
Height: 4.15m (13ft 8in)
Main rotor disc area: 141.26 sq.m (1,520.53 sq ft)
Armament: one M-197 three-barrel 20-mm cannon in undernose turret, and up to 998 kg (2,200 lb) of weapons (XM-18 Minigun pods, XM-157 seven -tube or XM-159 19-tube 70-mm/2.75-in rocket pods) on four underwing racks.
Engine: 1 x Avco Lycoming T53-K-703 turboshaft, 1342kW
Main rotor diameter: 13.41m
No. Blades: 2
Length with rotors turning: 16.18m
Fuselage length: 13.59m
Empty wt: 2995 kg
Max take-off weight: 4535kg
Fuel cap: 1015 lt
Max cruising speed with Tow misiles: 227km/h
Max rate of climb: 8.22m/s
Hovering ceiling, OGE: 3720m
Range: 510 km
Engine: Pratt & Whitney Aircraft of Canada T400-WV-402 twin-turbine, 2,050 shp
Rotor dia: 48 ft 0 in (14.63 m)
Engines: 2 x General Electric T700-GE-401 turbo-shafts, 1,690 shp (1 260 kW) combined total of 3,250 shp (2,423 kW).
Maximum speed 152 kt (282 km/h) at sea level
Max cruising speed: 278km/h
Initial climb rate 800 ft (244 m) per minute on one engine
Service ceiling 14,000+ ft (4,270+ m)
Range 395 miles (635 km)
HIGE: 14,750 ft
HOGE: 3000 ft
Empty weight: 10,200 lb (4,627 kg)
Maximum take-off weight: 14,750 lb (6,691 kg)
Main rotor diameter: 48 ft 0 in (14.63 m)
Length overall, rotors turning: 58 ft 0 in (17.68 m)
Fuselage length: 13.87m
Height: 14 ft 2 in (4.32 m)
Main rotor disc area: 1,809.56 sq ft (168.11 sq.m)
Armament: one 20-mm multi-barrel cannon, and provision for anti-tank and anti-radar missiles, rocket launchers, and submunition dispensers.