Societe Anonyme des Establissements Nieuport
Edouard de Nieport was born in Algeria in 1875. With his brother Charles, he emigrated to France, altering their name to Nieuport. In 1905 Edouard began designing aircraft and appliances like spark plugs and magnetos.
In 1910 Edouard de Nieport decided to build a monoplane with a covered fuselage and on 21 June 1911 he flew his Nie-2N monoplane at 87.2mph. In September 1911 Edouard de Nieport was killed in an emergency landing in the -2N. Immediately the company was taken over by Henri de la Meurthe.
On 24 Jan 1913 Charles Nieuport and his mechanic, Gouyot, were killed.
By 1914 the firm had at least two factories in Issy-Les-Moulinaux and one flight school at Villacoublay.
Designer Gustave Delage made the Nieuport company famous with his series of fighters. The sesquiplane Nieuport XI and XVII served with British, French, Belgian, Russian, Italian, Dutch, Finnish, and American services during the First World War. The improved Nieuport 28 biplane which appeared in 1917 was less successful, but best known for its exploits with the American 94th Aero Squadron ("Hat-in-Ring") in the hands of Eddie Rickenbacker and Raoul Lufbery. Nieuport aircraft were manufactured under license in Britain and Italy.
Societe Anonyme des Etablissements Nieuport amalgamated with the Astra airship company in 1921, but all construction of airships was abandoned and the company name changed again to SA Nieuport-Delage.
Gourdou-Leseurre joined Nieuport in 1925 to become Loire-Nieuport.
In France, the Socialist Government of the so-called Popular Front brought all the companies building military aircraft, aero engines and ar-mament under its control in 1936. The im-mediate result was the socialized oblivion of such established companies as Marcel Bloch, Bleriot, Nieuport, Potez, Dewoitine, Hanriot and Farman within half a dozen nationalized groups or Societies Nationales, named ac-cording to their geographical location (Nord, Ouest, Centre, Midi and so on).
After World War II, although four of the nationalized groups continued operating un-der state control, private companies were al-lowed to resume the design and manufacture of both civil and military aircraft. Some of the pioneering names of French aviation, such as Breguet and Morane-Saulnier, returned to prominence, and by 1950 a new one had been added-Avions Marcel Dassault.
Loire-Nieuport joined SNCASO in 1942.