Main Menu

de Havilland Gypsy
Wright-Gipsy L-320

 

dhgypsy2
Gypsy II

 

By 1927 the Moth threatened to become a victim of its own success as continuing demand was depleting the stockpiles of surplus Renaults needed to build its Cirrus engine. The Moth having provided a solid financial cushion, de Havilland Aircraft decided to start its own engine factory. Geoffrey de Havilland went to Frank Halford and this time asked him to design a completely new aircraft engine of weight and performance comparable to the latest version of the Cirrus, the 105 hp (78 kW) Cirrus Hermes.

 

Halford and de Havilland agreed on a 135 hp (101 kW) test engine later to be de-rated to 100 hp (75 kW) for production models. While Halford went to build the engine, de Havilland designed its test-bed: the D.H.71 racer. Two D.H.71s were built and although in a bout of over-confidence named Tiger Moth, their racing career was rather uneventful. Their only notable claim to fame came in capturing a world speed record of 186 mph (299 km/h) for their weight class. What the D.H.71 did not accomplish in racing successes, it did accomplish in developing the new engine and by the time the career of the D.H.71 was over, the 100 hp (75 kW) production version of its engine, now named the Gipsy, was ready to start its career.

 

The upright four-cylinder Gipsy I was an air-cooled in-line engine weighing 300lb and developed 98hp at 2100rpm. With a cylinder bore of 4.5in and stroke of 5in, displacement was 319cu.in (5.231t).

 

It was soon developed further into the 120 hp (89 kW) Gipsy II with its stroke increased to 5.5in. Both types were to be used in the D.H.60G Gipsy Moth. The new engine proved itself to be docile, easy to maintain and, as demonstrated in many long distance flights by the new Gipsy Moth, reliable.

 

The new engine still had its cylinders built on top of the crankshaft and therefore were sticking out of the top of the fuselage, right in the pilot’s field of vision. Lowering the engine was impossible as the crankshaft was directly connected to the propeller and the propeller could not be placed too low. The solution came as several pilots boasted that they would be able to fly their Moth upside down for as long as they wanted if it were not for the carburettor and fuel tank now being inverted. Halford decided to test this by mounting a Gipsy engine upside down and then inverting its carburettor so it was now right side up again. The design proved to run just as flawlessly as the regular Gipsy engine and soon the Gipsy I and II were replaced on the production lines by the Gipsy III inverted four-cylinder engine. The Moth with this new engine became the D.H.60 G-III; as the Gipsy III was quickly developed further into the Gipsy Major, the D.H.60 G-III was baptised the Moth Major.

 

Building on the success of the D.H.60, de Havilland now started building other sports aircraft and trainers, all of which were powered by its own Gipsy engines. The company now produced Gipsy engines for other manufacturers as well and the Gipsy Major in particular became the engine of choice for scores of light aircraft designs, British as well as foreign. Most notably it was the engine of the D.H.82A Tiger Moth trainer.

 

Variants:

Gipsy I
Original production version. 1,445 built.

Gipsy II
Stroke increased to 5.5 in (140 mm). Power 120 hp (90 kW) at 2,300 rpm. 309 built

Gipsy III
As Gipsy II, inverted. 611 built.

Gipsy IV
A smaller inverted four-cylinder in-line engine, derived from the Gipsy III, intended for light sporting aircraft. Forerunner of Gipsy Minor. Power 82 hp (61 kW).

Gipsy R
Racing engine for de Havilland DH.71 Tiger Moth. 135 hp (100 kW) at 2,850 rpm.

Wright-Gipsy L-320
Licence production in the USA of the Gipsy I

 

Applications:

Gipsy I
Avro Avian
Bartel BM-4
Blackburn Bluebird IV
Breda Ba.15
de Havilland DH.60G Gipsy Moth
de Havilland DH.60T Gipsy Moth Trainer
de Havilland D.H.71 Tiger Moth racer
PZL.5
Simmonds Spartan
Southern Martlet
Spartan Arrow
Westland Widgeon

Gipsy II
Airspeed Ferry
Avro Avian
Blackburn Bluebird IV
de Havilland DH.60G Gipsy Moth
de Havilland DH.60T Gipsy Moth Trainer
PZL.5
RWD-4
Saro Cutty Sark
Saro Windhover
Short Mussel
Simmonds Spartan
Southern Martlet
Spartan Arrow
Spartan Three Seater

Gipsy III
Airspeed Ferry
Arrow Active
Avro Avian
Bartel BM-4
Blackburn Bluebird IV
Blackburn B-2
Blackburn-Saro Meteor
Breda 33
Cierva C.24
Comper Swift
Darmstadt D-22
de Havilland Fox Moth
de Havilland DH.60G Gipsy Moth
de Havilland Hornet Moth
de Havilland DH.60GIII Moth Major
de Havilland Leopard Moth
de Havilland Puss Moth
de Havilland DH.82A Tiger Moth I
de Havilland T.K.1
Desoutter Mk.II
Heinkel He 64C
Klemm Kl 26
Klemm Kl 27
Klemm Kl 32
Miles Hawk
Miles Hawk Major
Pander P-3
PZL.19
Saro Cutty Sark
Saro-Percival Mailplane
Spartan Cruiser
Westland-Hill Pterodactyl

Gipsy IV
de Havilland Swallow Moth

Gipsy R
de Havilland DH.71 Tiger Moth racer

 

Specifications:

Gipsy I
Type: 4-cylinder air-cooled inline piston aircraft engine
Bore: 4.5 in (114.3 mm)
Stroke: 5 in (127 mm)
Displacement: 318.1 cu in (5.21 L)
Length: 40.5 in (1028.5 mm)
Width: 20 in (508 mm)
Height: 29.9 in (759.5 mm)
Dry weight: 285 lb (129.3 kg)
Valvetrain: Overhead valve
Fuel system: Zenith carburettor with altitude control
Fuel type: Petrol (Aviation grade fuel not required)
Cooling system: Air-cooled
Power output: 85 hp at 1,900 rpm (sea level): 98hp / 73kW at 2100rpm
Compression ratio: 5:1
Power-to-weight ratio: 0.3 hp/lb

 

Gipsy II
Power output: 120 hp (89 kW)
Stroke: 5.5in

 

 


Copyright © 2017 all-aero. All Rights Reserved.
Joomla! is Free Software released under the GNU General Public License.