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E.N.V. Motor Syndicate V-8
 
ENV-8-01
ENV engine installation in the Cody Mark IC Cathedral
 
E.N.V.'s V-8 engines appeared in six different models. Most of these were identified by a letter, though contemporary sources often refer to them by power. The assignment of the letters C, D, F and T is known from contemporary sources. The one type known to have pre-dated the C has been assigned the letter A by a later historian, a notation followed here. The last engine is usually known as the 1914 100 hp E.N.V.
 
The physical details of all the engines, such as bore and stroke etc. are known from both contemporary records and surviving examples. There were also variations within types, as development proceeded. Nonetheless, all the V-8s had much in common. They all had their cylinder banks separated by 90°, leaving space within the V for inlet manifolds and valvegear. All were water-cooled; each cylinder was enclosed with an electrolytically formed copper jacket. Initially these were produced with a variant of the lost wax process. The cylinders were coated with wax, which was then coated with black lead to make it electrically conductive and copper plated. Afterwards the wax was removed by heating. Later, the insulating wax was replaced with electrically conducting, low melting point white metal, simplifying the process. Pistons were made of steel, with cast iron rings, and the crankcases were cast aluminium. There was one plug per cylinder, supplied by a gear-driven magneto alone or with an additional battery-driven ignition coil and distributor for dual ignition.
 
The types A, C, D and F were all side-valve engines, with valves operated by push rods running exposed and parallel to the cylinder axes, driven within the V from a central, gear-driven camshaft above the crankshaft. All camshafts were hollow for lubrication. The cylinder cooling jackets surrounded the cylinders, then turned inward with flattened faces for inlet and exhaust manifolds and push rods. The exhaust stubs were vertical, each bank of cylinders feeding its own horizontal pipe. The inlet stubs entered the cylinder head at right angles. The earliest type A engines had a pair of inlet tubes, one for each bank and fed from a carburettor at the front.
 
Slightly later model As and types C and F placed the carburettor between the cylinder banks, halfway along the engine axis. Fuel and air was passed to a spherical copper mixing chamber above the carburettor, then via four radial copper tubes which finally branched into pairs the feed the inlet ports symmetrically. The smaller type D retained the end positioned carburettor. These engines all had cast iron cylinders. The types A and C were very similar in construction as well as capacity, but a major change in crankshaft design was introduced with the smaller type D and inherited by the F. The A and C types had a crankshaft supported by only three plain bearings and the width of the central one required a greater space between the second and third cylinder of each bank, visibly dividing each into blocks of two. The crankshafts of the D and F types had five ball race bearings, one between each cylinder and two end bearings; the output thrust bearing was a double race to allow for pusher or tractor configurations. The new bearing arrangement permitted an equal cylinder spacing. The type FA was a type F with an extended crankshaft, mounted in a very prominent, conical crankcase extension. The type T, discussed below, had a similar extension, which in that case at least allowed a larger diameter thrust bearing to be used.
 
Though heavy, the E.N.V. models A and C provided some of the earliest European fliers with a relatively powerful engine. Some Voisin biplanes used them between 1908 and 1910 and S.F. Cody fitted his first pusher biplane with a type C in the second half of 1909. His second aircraft also used that engine in the autumn of 1910. The types D and F had significantly better power-to-weight ratios than the first two models and become E.N.V.'s most popular products, being widely used in 1910 and 1911. After that they were eclipsed by the new, light rotary engines.
 
ENV-8-02
November 1911
 
The last two V8's, the T and the 100 hp were not successful. Though tested, they never flew. The type T introduced steel cylinders and was an overhead-valve engine with vertically mounted valves operated from a central camshaft by thin pull rods and rockers. The carburettor was mounted centrally at the front, feeding a central tube which ran to the back of the engine, divided and ran back along each cylinder bank. Dual magneto/coil and battery ignition was provided. The 100 hp engine was also an overhead-valve engine in the sense that the port opened directly into the cylinder head, though the valves were mounted horizontally. This arrangement required an unusual shape of combustion chamber but enabled the valves to be operated directly from a central crankshaft raised on pillars to cylinder head height. Vibrations of this crankshaft and weakness of a new cylinder head restraint system dogged the engine, the last E.N.V. made.
 
A
Type: 90° V-8
Year: 1908
Power: 50 hp @ 1,000 rpm
Maximum Power: 60 hp
Valve configuration: side
Capacity: 8,171cc
Bore×Stroke: 100×130mm
Weight: 200kg
Manufactured in France
 
C
Type: 90° V-8
Year: 1908-9
Power: 65 hp @ 1,180 rpm
Maximum Power: 90 hp for 15 min claimed
Valve configuration: side
Capacity: 8,171cc
Bore×Stroke: 100×130mm
Weight: 170kg
Manufactured in France
 
D
Type: 90° V-8
Year: 1909-10
Power: 30 hp @ 1,000 rpm
Maximum Power: 40 hp @ 1,400 rpm
Valve configuration: side
Capacity: 4,087cc
Bore×Stroke: 85×90mm
Weight: 70kg
Manufactured in France & UK
 
F
Type: 90° V-8
Year: 1909-11
Power: 59 hp @ 1,000 rpm
Maximum Power: 88 hp @ 1,500 rpm
Valve configuration: side
Capacity: 7,623cc
Bore×Stroke: 105×110mm
Weight: kg
Manufactured in France & UK
 
FA
Type: 90° V-8
Year: 1909-11
Power: 59 hp @ 1,000 rpm
Maximum Power: 88 hp @ 1,500 rpm
Valve configuration: side
Capacity: 7,623cc
Bore×Stroke: 105×110mm
Weight: kg
Manufactured in France
 
T
Type: 90° V-8
Year: 1910-11
Power: 100 hp @ 1,000 rpm
Valve configuration: overhead
Capacity: 15,934cc
Bore×Stroke: 130×150mm
Weight: 238kg
Type: 90° V-8
Year: 1914
Power: 100 hp @ 1,620 rpm
Valve configuration: overhead
Capacity: 7,494cc
Bore×Stroke: 95×165mm
Weight: 204 kg 204 with radiator
Manufactured in UK
 
 
 
 


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