In May 1944 Arkhip Lyulka was ordered to begin development of a turbojet with a thrust of 12.3 kN (2,800 lbf). He demonstrated an eight-stage axial-flow engine in March 1945 called the S-18. In early 1946 the Council of Ministers ordered that the S-18 be developed into an operational engine with a thrust of 15.5 kN (3,500 lbf). The TR-1 was developed in early 1946 and had its first static run on 9 August. It was the first indigenous Soviet jet engine. It was tested in the air on a pylon fitted to a Lend-Lease B-25 Mitchell piston-engined bomber.
The TR-1 was not a success, proving to have less thrust and a higher specific fuel consumption than designed. Its failure led directly to the cancellation of the first Soviet jet bomber, the Ilyushin Il-22.
Lyulka further developed the engine into the TR-1A of 20.5 kN of thrust, but its specific fuel consumption was very high and it too was cancelled.