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Gnome-Rhône Mistral Major
Gnome-Rhône 14K
Manfred Weiss WM K.14
Piaggio P.XI
IAR 14K
Tumansky M-87
ИАМ 14К

 

 Gnome-14
Gnome-Rhône 14s, 1943

 

The Gnome-Rhône 14K Mistral Major was a 14-cylinder, two-row, air-cooled radial engine. It was Gnome-Rhône's major aircraft engine prior to World War II, and matured into a highly sought-after design that would see licensed production throughout Europe and Japan. Thousands of Mistral Major engines were produced, used on a wide variety of aircraft.

In 1921 Gnome-Rhône purchased a license for the highly successful Bristol Jupiter engine and produced it until about 1930, alongside the smaller Bristol Titan. Starting in 1926, however, they used the basic design of the Titan to produce a family of new engines, the so-called "K series". These started with the 5K Titan, followed by the 7K Titan Major and 9K Mistral. By 1930, 6,000 of these engines had been delivered.

However, the aircraft industry at that time was rapidly evolving and producing much larger aircraft that demanded larger engines to power them. Gnome-Rhône responded by developing the 7K into a two-row version that became the 14K Mistral Major. The first test examples were running in 1929.

The Piaggio P.XI was a licensed derivative of the French Gnome-Rhône Mistral Major 14K produced in Italy. Isotta Fraschini also produced a version of the 14K called the K.14. Further development led to the P.XIX. This featured an increased compression rate from 6:1 to 7:1 and rpm from 2,400 to 2,600.

 

Piaggio-PXI
Piaggio P.XI

 

The Industria Aeronautică Română  / IAR K14 was a licensed derivative of the French Gnome-Rhône Mistral Major 14K produced in Romania.

 

Variants
IAR K14-II C32 693 kW (930 hp) engine. 44 for IAR P.24E
IAR K14-II C32 - 649 kW (870 hp) engine. 50 built for IAR 37, 1 built for IAR 80 prototype
IAR K.14-III C36 - 690 kW (930 hp) engine. 20 built for IAR 80, 95 built for IAR 37
IAR K.14-IV C32 - 716 kW (960 hp) engine. 30 built for IAR 80, 160 built for IAR 39, 2 built for IAR 47 prototypes
IAR K.14-IV C32 1000A - 764 kW (1025 hp) engine. 430 built for IAR 80A, IAR 80B, IAR 80C, IAR 81A, IAR 81B, IAR 81C

 

Piaggio P.XI Variants:
P.XI
P.XIbis
P.XI R.C.15
(geared, rated altitude 1,500 m (4,900 ft))
P.XI R.C.30
(geared, rated altitude 3,000 m (9,800 ft))
P.XI R.C.40D
P.XI R.C.40S
750 kW (1,000 hp) (geared, rated altitude 4,000 m (13,000 ft)), opposite rotation to 40D.
P.XI R.C.40bis
(geared, rated altitude 4,000 m (13,000 ft))
P.XI R.2C.40
750 kW (1,000 hp), (geared, rated altitude 4,000 m (13,000 ft)), two-speed supercharger.
P.XI C.40
(direct drive, rated altitude 4,000 m (13,000 ft))
P.XI R.C.44
(geared, rated altitude 4,400 m (14,400 ft))
P.XI R.C.50
(geared, rated altitude 5,000 m (16,000 ft))
P.XI R.C.60
(geared, rated altitude 6,000 m (20,000 ft))
P.XI R.C.72
(geared, rated altitude 7,200 m (23,600 ft))
P.XI R.C.l00
P.XI R.C.100/2v
(geared, rated altitude 10,000 m (33,000 ft))

 

Licence built derivatives:
Manfred Weiss WM K.14
IAR 14K
Tumansky M-87
ИАМ 14К

 

Applications:
Amiot 143
Aero A.102
Bloch MB.200
Bloch MB.210
Breguet 274
Breguet 460
Breguet 462
Breguet 470
Breguet 521
Dornier Do 17K
Farman F.222
Loire 46 C1
PZL P.24
PZL P.43
Potez 62
Potez 651

 

Aircraft powered by G-R 14K derivatives
Aero A.102
Heinkel He 70
IAR 37
IAR 80
Ilyushin DB-3
MÁVAG Héja
Sukhoi Su-2
Weiss WM-21 Sólyom

 

Piaggio P.XI Applications:
Breda Ba.65
Breda Ba.88
CANT Z.1007
CANT Z.1011
Caproni Ca.135
Caproni Ca.161
Reggiane Re 2000
Saab 17C
Savoia-Marchetti SM.79-II
Savoia-Marchetti SM.84

 

Specifications:

Gnome-Rhône 14Kdrs
Type: Fourteen-cylinder two-row air-cooled radial engine
Bore: 146 mm (5.75 in)
Stroke: 165 mm (6.5 in)
Displacement: 38.72 l (2,363 in³)
Diameter: 1,296 mm (51.02 in)
Dry weight: 540 kg (1,190 lb)
Valvetrain: Overhead valves
Supercharger: Single-speed centrifugal type supercharger
Fuel system: Stromberg carburetor
Fuel type: 87 octane rating gasoline
Cooling system: Air-cooled
Reduction gear: 2:3
Power output:
743 kW (996 hp) at 2,390 rpm for takeoff
821 kW (1,100 hp) at 2,390 rpm at 2,600 m (8,530 ft)
Specific power: 21.23 kW/l (0.47 hp/in³)
Compression ratio: 5.5:1
Specific fuel consumption: 328 g/(kW•h) (0.54 lb/(hp•h))
Oil consumption: 20 g/(kW•h) (0.53 oz/(hp•h))
Power-to-weight ratio: 1.52 kW/kg (0.92 hp/lb)

 

IAR K14
Type: Fourteen-cylinder two-row air-cooled radial engine
Bore: 146 mm (5.75 in)
Stroke: 165 mm (6.5 in)
Displacement: 38.72 l (2,363 in³)
Diameter: 1,296 mm (51.02 in)
Dry weight: 540 kg (1,190 lb)
Valvetrain: Overhead valves
Supercharger: Single-speed centrifugal type supercharger
Fuel system: Stromberg carburetor
Fuel type: 87 octane rating gasoline
Cooling system: Air-cooled
Power output:
743 kW (996 hp) at 2,390 rpm for takeoff
821 kW (1,100 hp) at 2,390 rpm at 2,600 m (8,530 ft)
Specific power: 21.23 kW/l (0.47 hp/in³)
Compression ratio: 5.5:1
Specific fuel consumption: 328 g/(kW•h) (0.54 lb/(hp•h))
Oil consumption: 20 g/(kW•h) (0.53 oz/(hp•h))
Power-to-weight ratio: 1.52 kW/kg (0.92 hp/lb)

 

Piaggio P.XI R.C.40
Type: 14-cylinder radial engine
Bore: 146 mm (5.75 in)
Stroke: 165 mm (6.50 in)
Displacement: 38.6 l (2,360 cu in)
Length: 1,700 mm (66.93 in)
Diameter: 1,328 mm (52.28 in)
Dry weight: 650 kg (1,433 lb)
Frontal Area: 1.39 sq.m (15.0 sq ft)
Valvetrain: 2 x overhead valves per cylinder operated by rockers and pushrods
Supercharger: Centrifugal compressor, geared to 7.9:1
Fuel system: 1 x Piaggio T2-100 dual downdraught carburettor with automatic boost and mixture control
Fuel type: 87 octane
Oil system: Pressure fed at 482.6 kPa (70 psi), dry sump
Cooling system: Air
Reduction gear: Epicyclic reduction gear ratio 0.62:1
Starter: Garelli compressed air starter
Ignition: 2 x Marelli MF14 magnetos, 2 x spark plugs per cylinder fed by a shielded ignition harness.
Power output:
Take-off: 1,000 hp (746 kW) at 2,200rpm
Military: 1,000 hp (746 kW) at 2,200rpm at 4,000 m (13,000 ft)
Cruising: 1,000 hp (746 kW) at 1,800rpm at 4,000 m (13,000 ft)
Specific power: 19.1 kW/l (0.49 hp/cu in)
Compression ratio: 6.0:1
Specific fuel consumption: 0.292 kg/kW/hr (0.48 lb/hp/hr)
Oil consumption: 0.0134 kg/k/w/hr (0.022 lb/hp/hr)
Power-to-weight ratio: 1.15 kW/kg (0.699 hp/lb)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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