Royal Aircraft Factory RAF 1
First run in 1913, the RAF 1 was a British air-cooled, V-8 engine developed for aircraft use during World War I. Based on a French design it was designed by the Royal Aircraft Factory but built by six different British companies including Daimler, Rolls-Royce and Wolseley Motors Limited.
The RAF 1 was based on the Renault 70/80 hp engine, being intended specifically to replace that engine in the B.E.2c. It featured larger cylinders (3.9 in × 5.5 in (99 mm × 140 mm)) for a total displacement of 540 cubic inches (8.8 L). It was rated at 92 hp (70 kW) at 1,600 rpm. The heads were cast integrally with the cylinders, with the intake and exhaust valves set one above the other in an upside-down F-head configuration. The engines featured a large diameter lightweight flywheel at the rear, enclosed in a cast housing. Engine oil was picked up from the bottom of the crankcase and slung into a reservoir at the top. From there it was gravity fed, via a gallery high on the right side of the engine block, to the main bearing caps, and then to the connecting rod journals by centrifugal effect of the turning crankshaft. The main bearings were ball bearings and were splash fed. Engine oil from the gallery was also supplied to the 1 : 2 reduction gearbox at the front. This drove the four-bladed propeller at one half engine speed, and the single camshaft was splined into the rear of the short propeller shaft. This arrangement meant that no mechanical oil pump was needed. Excess engine oil from the flywheel overflowed the reservoir and trickled over the large surface area of the round flywheel cover. Two passages cast into the cover took air-fuel mixture from the carby mounted at the bottom to a copper U-shaped inlet manifold mounted between the banks of cylinders, and the flywheel cover acted as a heat exchanger, preheating the fuel-air. In late 1915, the bore was increased to 4.1 inches (100 mm), leading to an increased displacement of 590 cubic inches (9.7 L) and power of 86 kW (115 hp) at 1,800 rpm.
Built under licence by the Lanchester Motor Company Ltd in Birmingham, the RAF 1A is fitted with a Claudel-Hobson carburettor.
In late 1915 a supercharged experimental version of the RAF 1a was developed, the engine being flown in a B.E.2c improving the climb from taking 36 minutes to reach 8,500ft without the supercharger, to reaching 11,500ft in the same time.