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Hispano-Suiza 12Y
Klimov M-100
Avia Vr. 36
Avia HS 12Ydrs
Hispano-Suiza HS-77


hs-12y
Hispano-Suiza 12Y


The 12Y was a fairly traditional in construction, a 36-litre water-cooled V-12 with the two cast aluminium cylinder banks set at 60 degrees to each other. The 12Y design was based on the earlier and smaller, 12X. The cylinder heads were not removable, instead the entire block could be quickly removed from the engine. This made it somewhat famous for being leak-proof, a design feature that was considered by other designers and almost became a part of the Rolls-Royce Merlin. The major design change from the earlier 12X was to use a master-articulated connecting rod system, instead of the fork-and-blade type. A single overhead camshaft (SOHC) drove the valves, which were filled with liquid sodium for cooling. Only a single intake and exhaust valve were used, unlike most designs of the era which had moved to three or four valves per cylinder. A single-stage, single-speed supercharger was standard, although the art of designing a useful intake was not as well developed as in other countries, and high altitude performance was always lacking.
The first 12Y test articles were constructed in 1932, and almost immediately the entire French aviation industry started designing around it. At the time the engine developed only 760 hp (570 kW), but it was clear it had potential to the 1,000 hp (750 kW) class. An early modification led to the Hispano-Suiza 12Ycrs which used a hollow propeller shaft to allow a 20 mm cannon to fire through the propeller spinner (a combination known as a moteur-canon). All later designs shared this feature. The 12Ydrs was the next major series, with a basic rating of 836 hp (623 kW) at sea level with a compression ratio of 5.8:1.
The Armée de l'Air changed their nomenclature, so the next version was the Hispano-Suiza 12Y-21, which increased the compression ratio to 7:1, when running on 100 octane gasoline. This boosted power to 867 hp (647 kW). In 1936 the connecting rod design was changed slightly to create the 12Y-31, but the lower 5.8:1 compression ratio was retained and the power was increased only slightly over the drs model to 850 hp (630 kW). Nevertheless this became one of the most used engine designs of the pre-war era, used in almost all French fighter designs and prototypes.
A real effort to improve the performance of the engine in 1938 resulted in the Hispano-Suiza 12Y-45, which used the S-39-H3 supercharger co-designed by André Planiol and Polish engineer Joseph Szydlowski. The Szydlowski-Planiol device was larger, but much more efficient than the indifferent Hispano-Suiza models. When used with 100 octane fuel, the supercharger boosted to the -21's 7:1, increasing power to 900 hp (670 kW). Combined with the fully adjustable Ratier propeller, this allowed the D.520 to perform as well as contemporary designs from Germany and England.
Another improvement in supercharging led to the Hispano-Suiza 12Y-49, whose performance improved from 850 hp (630 kW) at sea level to 920 hp (690 kW) at just over 10,000 ft (3,000 m). This improvement in power with altitude was a common feature of most engines of the era, the result of the supercharger "robbing" power at low altitudes.
The final major version was the 1,085 hp (809 kW) Hispano-Suiza 12Y-51, which had just started into production at the time of the Armistice with Germany. The -51 was the first version that came close to the performance limits of the engine, although the single-stage supercharging meant that it was unable to compete with designs from England and Germany above 15,000 ft (5,000 m).
Foreign derivatives
In the early 1930s the Czechoslovakian Republic gained rights to build a license version of the HS-12Y. This was initially known locally as the Avia Vr. 36 and was produced by Avia (Škoda) at Prag - Čakovice. The engine was intended to become the standard powerplant of all Czech military aircraft. Both the HS-12Ycrs and HS-12Ydrs were built in quantity and were more commonly known by these names rather than any Czech designation. Aircraft powered by these engines included the Avia B-34, Avia B-534, Avia B-71, Avia B-35 and Avia B-135.
In the mid-1930s, Russian engineer Vladimir Klimov was sent to France to obtain a license for local production of the 12Y. A series of design changes were added to cope with cold weather operation, and the engine entered production in 1935 as the Klimov M-100 with about 750 hp (560 kW). However a series of continual upgrades increased the allowable RPM from the 12Y's fairly low 2,400 to 2,700, thereby increasing power to 1,100 hp (820 kW). The resulting design, the Klimov M-105 (VK-105) became one of the major Soviet engine designs during the war, powering all Yakovlev fighters.

Variants:

Type 73 Hispano 12Yb
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1932
Compression: 6.4
Power: 785 hp
Max power rpm: 2,200
TO power: 785 hp
Output reduction: 1.5
Weight: 415 kg)
Rated power (650 hp) less than nominal 785 hp
Left turning

Type 73 Hispano 12Ygrs
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1932
Compression: 5.8
Power: 850 hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 800 hp
Output reduction: 1.5
Supercharger optimum altitude: 4,000 m
Weight: 430
Rated power (650 hp) less than nominal 850 hp
Left turning

Type 73 Hispano 12Y dr
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Compression: 6.4
Year: 1934
Power: 800 hp
Max power rpm: 2,200
TO power: 800 hp
Output reduction: 1.5
Weight: 440
Left turning

Type 73 Hispano 12Y drs
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1934
Compression: 5.8
Power: 860 hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 835 hp
Output reduction: 1.5
Supercharger optimum altitude: 4,000 m
Weight: 470 kg
Left turning

Type 73 Hispano 12Y 12Ydrs1
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1934
Compression: 5.8
Power: 880 hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 890 hp
Output reduction: 1.5
Supercharger optimum altitude: 2,400 m
Weight: 470 kg
Left turning

Type 73 Hispano 12Y drs2
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1934
Compression: 5.8
Power: 930 hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 992 hp
Output reduction: 1.5
Supercharger optimum altitude: 900 m
Weight: 470 kg
Left turning

Type 73 Hispano 12Y frs
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1934
Compression: 5.8
Power: 860
Max power rpm: 2,400 rpm
TO power: 835 hp
Output reduction: 1.5
Supercharger optimum altitude: 4,000 m
Weight: 470 kg
Right turning

Type 73 Hispano 12Y frs1
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1934
Compression: 5.8
Power: 880 hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 890 hp
Output reduction: 1.5
Supercharger optimum altitude: 2,400 m
Weight: 470 kg
Right turning

Type 73 Hispano 12Y frs2
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1934
Compression: 5.8
Power: 930 hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 992 hp
Output reduction: 1.5
Supercharger optimum altitude: 900m
Weight: 470 kg
Right turning

Type 73 Hispano 12Y 21

Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1935
Compression: 7.0
Power: 910 hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 880 hp
Output reduction: 1.5
Supercharger optimum altitude: 3,600m
Weight: 470 kg

Type 73 Hispano 12Y 25
Configuration: 60° V-12
Bore: 150 mm (5.906 in)
Stroke: 170 mm (6.693 in)
Capacity: 36.0 litres (2,199.9 cu,in)
Length: 1,722 mm (67.8 in)
Width: 764 mm (30.08 in)
Height: 935 mm (36.81 in)
Year: 1935
Compression: 5.8
Power: 860 hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 943 hp
Specific power: 17.08 kW/lt (0.38 hp/cu.in)
Specific fuel consumption: 328 g/(kW/hr) (0.54 lb/(hp/hr))
Oil consumption: 11 g/(kW/hr) (0.28 oz/(hp/hr))
Power-to-weight ratio: 1.32 kW/kg (0.8 hp/lb)
Output reduction: Spur, 1.5
Fuel system: Six Solex 56 S.V.C carburetors
Fuel type: 85/100 octane gasoline
Supercharger: Gear-driven single-speed centrifugal type, 10.0:1 gear ratio
Supercharger optimum altitude: 3,600m
Dry weight: 475 kg (1,050 lb)
Cooling system: Pressurised, Liquid-cooled: 600 litres/min.
Valvetrain: One intake and one sodium-filled exhaust valve per cylinder actuated via a single overhead camshaft per bank.
Left turning, variable ignition timing

Type 73 Hispano 12Y 27
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1935
Compression: 5.8
Power: 900 hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 950 hp
Output reduction: 1.8
Supercharger optimum altitude: 850m
Weight: 483 kg

Type 73 Hispano 12Y 33
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1936
Compression: 7.0
Power: 965 hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 960 hp
Output reduction: 1.5
Supercharger optimum altitude: 2,250 m
Weight: 490 kg

Type 73 Hispano 12Y 39
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1936
Compression: 7.0
TO / Max Power: 1000 hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
Output reduction: 1.5
Supercharger optimum altitude: 3,400m

Type 73 Hispano 12Y 5

Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1938
Power: 920 hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 950 hp
Output reduction: 1.5
Supercharger optimum altitude: 10,000m
3 speed compressor

Type 77 Hispano 12Y crs
Configuration: 60° V-12
Bore: 150 mm (5.906 in)
Stroke: 170 mm (6.693 in)
Capacity: 36.0 litres (2,199.9 cu,in)
Length: 1,722 mm (67.8 in)
Width: 764 mm (30.08 in)
Height: 935 mm (36.81 in)
Year: 1934
Compression: 5.8
Power: 860 hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 835 hp
Specific power: 17.08 kW/lt (0.38 hp/cu.in)
Specific fuel consumption: 328 g/(kW/hr) (0.54 lb/(hp/hr))
Oil consumption: 11 g/(kW/hr) (0.28 oz/(hp/hr))
Power-to-weight ratio: 1.32 kW/kg (0.8 hp/lb)
Output reduction: Spur, 1.5
Supercharger: Gear-driven single-speed centrifugal type, 10.0:1 gear ratio
Supercharger optimum altitude: 4,000m
Weight: 470 kg
20 mm calibre Hispano-Suiza 404 cannon between cylinder banks, firing through propeller shaft.
Fuel system: Six Solex 56 S.V.C carburetors
Cooling system: Pressurised, Liquid-cooled: 600 litres/min.
Valvetrain: One intake and one sodium-filled exhaust valve per cylinder actuated via a single overhead camshaft per bank.

Type 77 Hispano 12Y brs
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1934
Compression: 5.8
Power: 860hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 835hp
Output reduction: 1.0625
Supercharger optimum altitude: 4,000m
Weight: 470kg
20 mm calibre Hispano-Suiza 404 cannon between cylinder banks, firing through propeller shaft.

Type 77 Hispano 12Y 29
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Compression: 7.2
Power: 920hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 910hp
Output reduction: 1.5
Supercharger optimum altitude: 3,600m
Weight: 475kg
20 mm calibre Hispano-Suiza 404 cannon between cylinder banks, firing through propeller shaft.

Type 77 Hispano 12Y 31
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1936
Compression: 5.8
Power: 860hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 830hp
Output reduction: 1.5
Supercharger optimum altitude: 3,250m
Weight: 468kg
20 mm calibre Hispano-Suiza 404 cannon between cylinder banks, firing through propeller shaft.
Redesigned connecting rods

Type 77 Hispano 12Y 37
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1936
Compression: 7.0
Power: 960hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 1,050hp
Output reduction: 1.8
Supercharger optimum altitude: 1,250m
Weight: 483kg
20 mm calibre Hispano-Suiza 404 cannon between cylinder banks, firing through propeller shaft.

Type 77 Hispano 12Y 41
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1936
Compression: 7.0
Power: 920 hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
Output reduction: 1.5
Supercharger optimum altitude: 3,600m
Weight: 483kg
20 mm calibre Hispano-Suiza 404 cannon between cylinder banks, firing through propeller shaft.

Type 77 Hispano 12Y 45
Configuration: 60° V-12
Bore: 150 mm (5.906 in)
Stroke: 170 mm (6.693 in)
Capacity: 36.0 litres (2,199.9 cu,in)
Length: 1,722 mm (67.8 in)
Width: 764 mm (30.08 in)
Height: 935 mm (36.81 in)
Compression: 7.0
Power: 920hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 935hp
Output reduction: Spur, 1.5
Fuel system: Six Solex 56 S.V.C carburetors
Fuel type: 92/100 octane gasoline
Specific power: 17.08 kW/lt (0.38 hp/cu.in)
Specific fuel consumption: 328 g/(kW/hr) (0.54 lb/(hp/hr))
Oil consumption: 11 g/(kW/hr) (0.28 oz/(hp/hr))
Power-to-weight ratio: 1.32 kW/kg (0.8 hp/lb)
Supercharger: Gear-driven single-speed centrifugal type, 10.0:1 gear ratio
Supercharger optimum altitude: 4,200m
Dry weight: 515 kg (1,140 lb)
Cooling system: Pressurised, Liquid-cooled: 600 litres/min.
Valvetrain: One intake and one sodium-filled exhaust valve per cylinder actuated via a single overhead camshaft per bank.
20 mm calibre Hispano-Suiza 404 cannon between cylinder banks, firing through propeller shaft.
Szydlowsky-Planiol (SP) supercharger

Type 77 Hispano 12Y 47
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1936
Compression: 5.8
Power: 860 hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 830 hp
Output reduction: 1.5
Supercharger optimum altitude: 3,250m
Weight: 468 kg
20 mm calibre Hispano-Suiza 404 cannon between cylinder banks, firing through propeller shaft.

Type 77 Hispano 12Y 49
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Compression: 7.0
Power: 910hp
Max power rpm: 2,400
TO power: 910hp
Output reduction: 1.5
Supercharger optimum altitude: 5,250m
Weight: kg
20 mm calibre Hispano-Suiza 404 cannon between cylinder banks, firing through propeller shaft.
Szydlowsky-Planiol (SP) supercharger, variable ignition timing

Type 77 Hispano 12Y 51
Configuration: V-12
Bore: 150 mm
Stroke: 170 mm
Capacity: 36.0 litres
Year: 1939
Compression: 7.0
Power: 1,000hp
Max power rpm: 2,500
TO power: 1,100hp
Output reduction: 1.5
Supercharger optimum altitude: 3,260m
Weight: 492kg
20 mm calibre Hispano-Suiza 404 cannon between cylinder banks, firing through propeller shaft.
Szydlowsky-Planiol (SP) supercharger, variable ignition timing

Licence built variants:

Avia Vr. 36
License production in Czechoslovakia.

Klimov M-100
License production in the USSR.

Hispano-Suiza HS-77
Licence-built 12Ycrs produced in Switzerland.

Applications:
Amiot 370
Arsenal VB 10
Arsenal VG-33
Avia 156
Avia B-534
Bloch MB.177
Dewoitine D.510
Dewoitine D.513
Dewoitine D.520
EKW C-35
Fairey Fantôme
Farman NC.223.3
Farman NC.223.4
Ikarus IK-2
Latécoère 298
Latécoère 521
Loire-Nieuport 161
Morane-Saulnier M.S.406
Morane-Saulnier M.S.475
ANF Les Mureaux 110-119 series
Renard R-36
Rogozarski IK-3
Wibault 366

12Y Derivatives Applications:
Arkhangelsky Ar-2
Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Goudkov LaGG-1
Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Goudkov LaGG-3
Mörkö-Morane
Petlyakov Pe-2
Petlyakov Pe-3
Yakovlev Yak-1
Yakovlev Yak-2
Yakovlev Yak-3
Yakovlev Yak-4
Yakovlev Yak-7
Yakovlev Yak-9
Yermolayev Yer-2

 

 


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