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Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire

Bristol Siddeley Sapphire

Wright Aeronautical J-65

 

as-saph


Design evolution of the Sapphire started at Metropolitan-Vickers (Metrovick) in 1943 as an offshoot of the F.2 project. With the F.2 reaching flight quality at about 1,600 lbf (7,100 N), the Metrovick engineers turned to producing larger designs, both an enlarged F.2 known as the Beryl, as well as the much larger F.9 Sapphire, the names being chosen after they decided to use gemstones for future engine names. The Beryl was soon running and eventually developed 4,000 lbf (18 kN) thrust, but the only project to select it, the Saunders-Roe SR.A/1, was cancelled.

By this point the F.9 MVSa.1 was developing about 7,500 lbf (33 kN), more than its competitor from Rolls-Royce, the Avon. A number of companies expressed interest in the F.9, and it was considered as either the main or backup powerplant for most late-40s/early-50s British designs.

At about the same time, Metrovick exited the jet engine industry, with their design team being quickly acquired by Armstrong Siddeley. Although Armstrong Siddeley already had a turbine development of their own, the ASX, they were primarily focused on turboprops and the Metrovick team was a welcome addition.

Work on the F.9 continued, now renamed the ASSa.5, and was delivered at 7,500 lbf (33,000 N) ratings. First run on 1 October 1948. This early engine was used only on the English Electric P.1.A, prototype for the famed Lightning. The fit was not entirely a happy one, and the afterburning ASSa.5R did little to address this, delivering an improved 9,200 lbf (41,000 N) "wet", but doing so in an unreliable fashion that demanded a short period of "no use" while the problems were addressed. Future versions of the Lightning would be powered by the Avon instead.

The engine was soon passing tests at ever-increasing power settings. The ASSa.6 increased power to 8,300 lbf (37,000 N), and powered the Gloster Javelin FAW Mk.1, Hawker Hunter F.Mk.2 and F.Mk.5, and the prototype Sud Ouest SO 4050 Vautour. The dramatically more powerful ASSa.7 at 11,000 lbf (49 kN) was the first British engine to be rated above 10,000 lbf (44 kN), powering the Gloster Javelin FAW Mk.7, Handley Page Victor B.Mk.1 and a prototype Swiss fighter-bomber, the FFA P-16.

Afterburners of limited pergormance, (given the colloquialism "weeheat", were also added to the ASSa.7, producing the 12,390 lbf (55,100 N) wet ASSa.7LR, used on some Gloster Javelin FAW Mk.8's. An improved model produced 15,000 lbf (67 kN) above 20,000 ft (6,100 m), appearing on other FAW Mk.8's and all FAW Mk.9's.

Curtiss-Wright purchased a license for the Sapphire in 1950, with plans to have the production lines running

in 1951. However a series of delays led to its service introduction slipping a full two years, by which point the Pratt & Whitney J57 was on the market and took many of the J65's potential sales.

 

Wright-J65
Sectioned Wright J65

 

Nevertheless, once it entered production it proved to be as good as the British versions, and along with the Martin B-57, its original target, the J65 went on to power versions of the North American FJ Fury, Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, Republic F-84F Thunderstreak, and the two Lockheed XF-104 Starfighter prototypes.

A 6,500-10,380ehp turboprop version of the J65 (Sapphire) was developed by Curtiss-Wright as the Wright T49.

 

Variants:

MVSa.1
Ministry of supply designation of the original Metropolitan-Vickers F.9 Sapphire, derived from the Metropolitan-Vickers F.2/4 Beryl, design work on this much larger engine started in 1943.

Metropolitan-Vickers F.9 Sapphire
Company designation for the MVSa.1

ASSa.5
Early Armstrong Siddeley developed Sapphire engines.

ASSa.5R
Reheated engines fitted to the English Electric P.1A with limited success.

ASSa.6
Later engines developed for the Gloster Javelin FAW Mk.1, Hawker Hunter F.Mk.2, F.Mk.5 and the prototype Sud Ouest SO 4050 Vautour

ASSa.7
Rated at 11,000 lbf (49 kN), powering the Gloster Javelin FAW Mk.7, Handley Page Victor B.Mk.1 and the prototype FFA P-16.

ASSa.7LR
Engines with a 12% augmentation reheat system for use above 20,000 ft (6,100 m) for use at altitude, powering the Gloster Javelin FAW Mk.8.

Wright J65
Licence production in the United States by Wright Aeronautical

Applications:

Sapphire
English Electric P.1.A
FFA P-16
Gloster Javelin
Handley Page Victor
Hawker Hunter

Wright J65
Douglas A-4 Skyhawk
Grumman F-11 Tiger
Martin B-57 Canberra
Lockheed XF-104
North American FJ-3 Fury
North American FJ-4 Fury
Republic F-84F Thunderstreak



Specifications:

ASSa.7 / 7LR
Type: ASSa.7 Turbojet, ASSa.7LR Augmented turbojet
Length: ASSa.7 125.2 in (3,180 mm), ASSa.7LR 293 in (7,442 mm)
Diameter: 37.55 in (954 mm)
Dry weight: ASSa.7 3,050 lb (1,383 kg), ASSa.7LR 3,180 lb (1,442 kg)
Compressor: 13 stage axial flow
Combustors: Annular with 24 hockey-stick vaporisers
Turbine: Two stage
Fuel type: Avaition kerosene to DERD 2482 or DERD 2486
Oil system: Flood feed, minimum oil pressure 12 psi (83 kPa), tank capacity 18 imp pt (10 l), oil grade to DERD 2487.
Maximum thrust: ASSa.7 11,000 lbf (49 kN) at sea level at 8,000 rpm, ASSa.7LR 12,390 lbf (55 kN) above 20,000 ft (6,096 m).
Specific fuel consumption: 0.885 lb/hr/lb (90.214 kg/kN/hr) at Take-off rating
Thrust-to-weight ratio: 3.607 lbf/lb (0.035 kN/kg)

 

F.9 Sapphire MVSa.1
Type: Turbojet
Length: ~122in (~3098 mm)
Diameter: ~37.52in (~953 mm)
Dry weight: ~2776lb (~1259 kg)
Compressor: 13-stage axial
Combustors: annular
Turbine: 2-stage axial
Maximum thrust: 7250lbf (32.25KN)
Overall pressure ratio: 7:1
Turbine inlet temperature: ~849C (1560F)
Specific fuel consumption: ~0.916lb/hr/lbf (~25.95g/s/KN)
Thrust-to-weight ratio: ~2.61

 

Wright J65-B
Type: Turbojet
Length: ~122in (~3098 mm)
Diameter: 37.52in (953 mm)
Dry weight: 2776lb (1259 kg)
Compressor: 13-stage axial
Combustors: annular
Turbine: 2-stage axial
Maximum thrust: 7239lbf (32.2KN)
Overall pressure ratio: 7:1
Turbine inlet temperature: ~848C (1558F)
Specific fuel consumption: ~0.916 lb/(lbf·h) (25.9 g/(kN·s))
Thrust-to-weight ratio: 2.61

 

Wright J65-W-16A
Type: Turbojet
Length: 122in (3098 mm)
Diameter: 37.52in (953 mm)
Dry weight: 2743lb (1244 kg)
Compressor: 13-stage axial
Combustors: annular
Turbine: 2-stage axial

 

 

 

 

 

 


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