Marske Aircraft Monarch
The first of James J Marske's Monarch hang-gliders was begun in 1973 and made its first flight on the 4 July 1974. Plans and kit were then made available to homebuilders and two years later more than 70 gliders were already in the course of construction, principally in the United States.
Aimed more at open-cockpit enthusiasts than at soaring pilots, it offers good slow-flight performance, allowing weak thermals to be exploited. The pilot is seated in the open behind a fairing, even with the leading edge and below the high-mounted wing, the latter slightly swept forward and reinforced by two struts. The flight controls are of the conventional 3-axis type, the rudder pedals operating the rudder and the stick controlling the ailerons and elevators.
The Monarch carries a full complement of controls including airbrakes for glide-path control. The nose fairing improves aerodynamics, provides crash protection, and it looks nice. The overhead control stick also acts as a crash barrier for the face in case of a collision with wires or fences. The Monarch can be flown at sub-stall speeds. without loss of control, which may be as low as 12 mph. Normal thermaling speed is 25 to 28 mph with an accompanying sink rate of slightly less than three ft./sec. Cruising speed at two m./sink rate is 53 mph.
Construction of the Monarch is nearly all plastic with some wood and steel. Steel provides stiffness and durability in control drives and fittings. Wood used in cap strips over the foam ribs, for trailing edges, and control-surfaces spars. The fiberglass fuselage is molded in two halves and bonded together after the control system and fittings are installed. The fiberglass nose, bucket seat, and instrument panel are bonded on and complete the fuselage. The wing leading-edge and spar are pre-shaped in molds and provide the wing's strength. The aft section of the wing and fin are covered with light weight dacron and doped for airtightness.
The Monarch may be transported to and from the soaring site with the fuselage carried in the back of a station wagon and the wings in a cradle on the rooftop. Assembly time is about 15 minutes.
An attempt was made in 1976 to motorise the Monarch using a McCulloch 12 hp engine installed behind the cockpit, driving a 0.6 m propeller. As this small diameter did not allow adequate performance to be achieved, the experiment was not pursued. The Monarch is easily trailerable; it is sold as a kit like the Pioneer. It allows narrow thermals to be exploited with complete safety thanks to its low stall speed (39 km/h).
The Monarch B appeared in 1976, turning into an ultralight through the expedient of a McCulloch Mc101 12hp engine, installed behind the pilot's seat and driving a twin -bladed pusher propeller of 25 inch (0.64 m) diameter, under the spar joining the 'tail' to the wing. Like its predecessor the type B used a skid underneath the fuselage as its landing gear.
However it became apparent that this model was under-powered and Jim Marske sells plans and kits for the Monarch C fitted with a tricycle undercarriage, or alter-natively a single main wheel tailwheel arrangement. The C model is intended for engines up to 20 hp output. By comparison to the type C, the latest variation tried by Jim Marske with 20hp instead of 12 gives a maximum straight and level speed of 87 mph (140 kph) and cruises at 76mph (122kph).
Monarch C; a single‑seat single‑engined high‑wing monoplane with conventional three‑axis control. Wing has 3° at the quarter-chord line swept forward leading and trailing edges, and tapering chord; no tail. Wing braced from below by single steel struts; wing profile NACA 43012R and NACA 43112; double‑surface. There is a glassfibre front spar and a moulded glassfibre D leading edge, and wood and foam plastics ribs between the front spar and the wooden rear spar and trailing edge, the wing aft of the front spar being fabric covered.
The fuselage is a simple minimal pod-and-boom type structure of laminated glassfibre, moulded in two halves and joined at the centreline; the forward section carries the pilot seated in the open without a transparent canopy, with a nose fairing over the instrument panel, and the rear boom section also forms the integral fin leading edge. There is a towing hook on each side of the nose fairing. The fin and rudder extend below as well as above the wing level, the fin having a glassfibre leading edge and the rudder a wooden trailing edge; both have foam ribs and fabric covering.
Pitch control by elevators on inboard trailing edges; yaw control by fin‑mounted rudder; roll control by ailerons and spoilers; control inputs through stick for pitch/roll and pedals for yaw. Both the ailerons in the conventional outboard positions and the elevators inboard of them have single Sitka spruce spars with foam plastics ribs, and there is a fixed tab in each elevator; all the control surfaces are Dacron-covered and there is an aluminium spoiler above each wing.
Marske Monarch C
Undercarriage has three wheels in tricycle formation (Two wheels in tandem optional) with additional tailwheel. Steel‑spring suspension on nosewheel and glass‑ribre suspension on main wheels. Push‑right go‑right nosewheel steering connected to yaw control. Glass‑fibre fuselage, partially enclosed. Engine mounted above wing driving pusher propeller.
Plans and kits were available to the homebuilder for the Monarch C ultralight motorglider. Power is supplied by a 12-hp McCulloch engine located behind the pilot’s seat; however, engines up to 20 hp can be used. The high wing makes use of a wooden rear spar with woodand-foam ribs. Fiberglass covers the leading edge, and the remainder of the wing is covered with fabric. Despite its fragile appearance, the Monarch C is stressed to +8Gs and -4Gs. The fuselage pod is molded in two pieces then joined at the centerline; there are no horizontal
tail surfaces. A single landing wheel is beneath the pilot.
The Monarch C is still transportable by road trailer and the work involved in rigging the wings and control runs does not exceed 15 min for two people. The price of the plans was $90 in 1982.
The D model has longer span ailerons than the C, and the E has relocated spoilers and a larger rudder. In the later 18 kW/ 24 bhp model (original had a 12 bhp engine), the wing is moved slightly backward for balance, and fuel is carried in the leading edge. There have been a number of other modifications including replacement of the original overhead stick with a conventrional stick and ailerons and rudder increased in size to improve low-speed handling.
According to the designer, the construction of a Monarch requires some 200 h of work using one of his kits and from 400 h using purely the plans. The construction of this high-quality machine makes extensive use of layers of glass-fibre with epoxy for leading edges, wing support struts, fuselage, nose fairing, seat, instrument panel and spoilers. The wing ribs and the tail surfaces are cut from polyurethene foam and plywood. Apart from the fuselage, the surfaces are covered in Dacron.
Wing span: 12.80 m /42ft
Length: 3.71 m
Wing area: 17.19 sq.m /185sq.ft
Airfoil: NACA 43012 - 75
Aspect ratio: 9.5
Empty weight: 100 kg / 220lb
Max. weight: 204 kg / 450lb
Payload: 104kg / 230lb
Wing Load: 11.72 kg/sq.m / 2.43 lb/sq.ft
Stall speed: 39 km/h
L/D Max: 19 64 kph / 35 kt / 45 mph
Min Sink: 0.85 m/s / 2.7 fps / 1.60 kt
Sink rate: 0.82 m/s
Airfoil: Modified NACA 43012
Wingspan: 36 ft.
Aspect Ratio: 8.3
Wing Area: 155 sq./ft.
Airfoil: NASA 43112
Span: 42 ft 0 in
Length: 11 ft 6 in
Wing area: 185.0 sqft
Aspect ratio: 9.5
Empty weight: 220 lb
Max weight: 450 lb
Max speed: 70 mph (smooth air)
Min sinking speed: 2.70 ft/sec at 30 mph
Best glide ratio: 19:1 at 40 mph
Engine: McCulloch Mc-101, 12 hp at 9000 rpm.
Prop-eller diameter 25 inch, 0.64m.
Power per unit area 0.06 hp/sq.ft, 0.7 hp/sq.m.
Fuel capacity 2.0 US gal, 1.7 Imp gal, 7.5 litre.
Length overall 11.4 ft, 3.45 m.
Height overall 7.9ft, 2.36m.
Wing span 42.0ft, 12.80m.
Mean chord 4.4ft, 1.32m.
Dihedral 2 deg.
Sweepback –3 deg at trailing edge.
Total wing area 185 sq.ft, 17.2 sq.m.
Wing aspect ratio 9.5/1.
Empty weight 250 lb, 113kg.
Max take-off weight 475 lb, 215 kg.
Payload 225 lb, 102 kg .
Max wing loading 2.56 lb/sq.ft, 16.8 kg/sq.m.
Max power loading 39.6 lb/hp, 17.9 kg/hp.
Load factors; +8.0, -NC ultimate.
Max level speed 78 mph, 126 kph.
Max cruising speed 68 mph, 109 kph.
Economic cruising speed 42 mph, 68 kph.
Stalling speed 27 mph, 43 kph.
Max climb rate at sea level 460 ft/min, 2.3 m/s.
Min sink rate 220 ft/min at 32 mph, 1.1 m/s at 51 kph.
Best glide ratio with power off 15/1 at 42 mph, 68 kph.
Take-off distance 235 ft, 72 m.
Landing distance 150 ft, 45 m.
Range at average cruising speed 60 mile, 97 km.
Speed max: 70 mph.
Cruise: 45 mph.
Stall: 26 mph.
Aspect ratio: 9.5:1.
Min sink: 162 fpm.
Landing dist: 90 ft.
Weight empty: 220 lbs.
Gross: 450 lbs.
Height: 5 ft.
Length: 12.5 ft.
Wing span: 42.6 ft.
Wing area: 186 sq.ft.
Landing gear: single wheel.
Span - 42.6 ft
Area -163 sq ft
Aspect ratio -11.1
Empty weight -180-200 lbs
Pilot Weight -120-220 lbs
Flying weight -300-420 lbs
Wing loading 1.8 -2.6 psf
Glide Ratio - 22 @36 mph
Min. sink rate - 138 fpm @ 30 mph