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Bisnovat 302
Kostikov KB-3
Tijonrarov I-302
Model of the "302" with its reactive power plant.
The "302” reactive interceptor fighter was designed in 1940. It was the world's first fighter with combined reactive powerplant.
This fighter appears interchangeably in the specialized literature as a product of MK Tijonrarov (head of the project design brigade and specialist of aerodynamic calculations during the construction of the prototype), AG Kostikov (main engineer of the RNII (NII-3) during the design of the project and main constructor of the OKB-55 during the construction process or MR Bisnovat (head of the OKB-55 designated for the development and construction of the model. In some literature it has also been called Kostikov KB-3 and Tijonrarov I-302.
Between 1939 and 1940 in the USSR began to develop a design process for aircraft powered by reactive engines. Due to the short working time of these engines, their use was conceived in the form of interceptors of very high speed and short radius of action. The three most prominent developments in this line were the Tijonrarov "302", the "Malyutka" and the Bereznyak / Isayev BI. The three projects were conceived to use liquid reactive engines using kerosene as fuel and nitric acid as oxidizing agent, with powers between 1,100 and 1,200 kg. Of these three projects, only the BI was further developed. The projects "302" and Malyutka were kept as Secret for many years and information about them is scarce and little known.
The "302" appeared in 1940 as a project for the world's first fighter with a combined reactive powerplant. The project was developed by a group of specialists led by MK Tijonrarov under the general direction of AG Kostikov, who at that time was serving as the chief engineer of the RNII (NII-3). In the spring of 1941 the project was presented to the technical council of the institute, being approved. After the defense of the project before the commission of the VVS, AG Kostikov directed the request for approval to the NKAP, where between June 17 and 18, 1942 it was approved by a commission made up of SA Jristianovich, AV Chesalov, SN Shishkin, VI Polikovski.
In the second half of 1942 the project was presented to Kliment Efremovich Voroshilov and that same day, during a reception with Stalin, the "302" was approved and Kostikov was appointed principal constructor of the OKB-55 and director of the experimental factory of the same name. As head of the OKB was appointed MR Bisnovat and as his replacement AA Andreyev. VD Yarovitsky was selected for the resistance calculations and the aerodynamic calculations were carried out by MK Tijonrarov.
Structurally the “302” was conceived as a low-wing cantilever monoplane. The construction was of wood. The wing had a RAF-34 profile with 15% at the root and NACA-230 with 8% at the wingtips. The tail was made of wood with a plywood coating. The fuselage was designed with a monocoque structure.
Structure of the "302"
The landing gear was designed as a traditional type with single wheels on all units. The retraction system was hydraulic.
The "302" was conceived as a fighter with a liquid reactive engine (ZhRD) RD-1400 produced by LS Dushkin and with 1400 kg of thrust located under the tail and two ramjets (PVRD according to its acronym in Russian and also known as Ramjets in English) designed by V.S. Zuyev, located under the wings.
The interceptor was armed with two ShVAK 20mm cannons located in the nose and two similar ones below the cockpit, all with 400 rounds. Under the wing were detachable mounts for unguided rockets (RS-82 and RS-132) or two FAB-125 bombs.
The "302P" during testing.
By the summer of 1943 it was found that the development schedule for Zuyev's ramjet was seriously overdue. Only a 1: 2 scale model had been completed and the tests could not be executed. Dushkin's 1100kg D-1 Liquid Reactive Engine, with an additional 450kg chamber, was not yet ready as testing had just begun. For this reason it was decided to equip the “302” with a RD-2M double chamber liquid reactive motor, which also presented problems.
Given the lack of availability of the engines, it was decided to finish the cell and test it in the form of a glider, which received the name " 302P ". All the weapons and some of the equipment were removed from the plane in order to lighten it. In the tail section a model of a reactive single chamber engine was located, which was exposed, without the fairing.
Glider "302P", rear view showing the reactive engine model
At the end of August 1943 in this configuration the " 302P " was delivered to the LII. The tests showed excellent stability characteristics and the "302P" was sent to the TsAGI, where it was tested in the wind tunnel. During the “blows” in the T-104 tunnel of the TsAGI, it was possible to obtain an aerodynamic quality K = 15, which promised excellent results. Several dozen flights were carried out towed by a Tupolev Tu-2 and a North American B-25 Mitchell. The evaluation given by the USSR honorary test pilot S. N. Anojin on the “302P” was highly positive. Positive evaluations were also received from other experienced test pilots such as ML Galai, BN Kudrin and VN Yelagin. In the tests it was possible to calculate a landing speed of 115 - 120 km / h. The powered flights were not carried out due to the lack of completion of the reactive engines.
The first motorization variant with one ZhRD and two PVRDs yielded a possible speed of 900 km / h, a ceiling of 9000 meters and a time to reach this ceiling of 2 minutes.
The calculations obtained with the “302P” yielded a speed of 800 km / h, a ceiling of 18000 m and a reach time of a height of 5000 meters of 2.1 minutes and 2.8 minutes for the 9000 meters. The calculated range was 100 km. The only real data obtained were the take-off with a run of 16 - 18 seconds and a speed of 200 km / h. The empty weight of the plane was 1502 kg and with a military load of projectiles for the 4 guns, 505 kg of fuel and 1230 kg of oxidant, the takeoff weight reached 3358 kg.
In 1944 a government commission led by AS Yakovlev made the decision to stop all work related to "302". The results obtained during development were not lost and many of the constructive decisions employed during the construction of the “302P” were later employed by SM Alexeyev during the construction of the I-211 and I-215 fighters.
Model 302
Powerplant: 1 x ZHRD RD-1400 with 1,400 kg thrust + 2 x PVRD
Wingspan: 11.4 m
Length: 8.708 m
Wing area: 17.8 m²
Takeoff weight: 3800 kg
Empty weight: 1856 kg
Maximum speed at height: 900 km / h
Time at 9000 m: 2 min.
Service ceiling: 9000 m
Armament: 4 x ShVAK 20 mm cannons
Bombload: unguided rockets (RS-82 and RS-132) or two FAB-125 bombs
Seats: 1
Model 302P
Wingspan: 9.55 m
Length: 8.708 m
Wing area: 14.8 m²
Takeoff weight: 3358 kg
Empty weight: 1856 kg
Total load weight: 1502 kg
Weight of fuel and oil: 1735 kg
Wing loading: 227 kg / m²
Reactive fuel weight: 505 kg
Oxidizer weight: 1230 kg
Speed ​​at sea level: 800 km / h
Speed ​​at altitude: 900 km / h
Take-off speed: 200 km / h
Time to 5000 m: 2.1 min
Time at 9000 m: 2.8 min
Service ceiling: 18,000 m
Range: 100 km
Armament: 4 x ShVAK 20 mm cannons
Bombload: unguided rockets (RS-82 and RS-132) or two FAB-125 bombs
Seats: 1
302 with dotted lines the initial version with combined reactive plant.

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