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Boeing 787

 

boeing787


The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is a long range, mid-sized, wide-body, twin-engine jet airliner developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It seats 210 to 330 passengers, depending on the variant. Boeing states that it is the company's most fuel-efficient airliner and the world's first major airliner to use composite materials for most of its construction.


The 787 was designed to become the first production composite airliner, with the fuselage assembled in one-piece composite barrel sections instead of the multiple aluminum sheets and some 50,000 fasteners used on existing aircraft. Boeing selected two new engine types to power the 787, the General Electric GEnx and Rolls-Royce Trent 1000. The two different engine models compatible with the 787 use a standard electrical interface to allow an aircraft to be fitted with either Rolls-Royce or General Electric engines. This aims to save time and cost when changing engine types.

During the design phase the 787 underwent extensive wind tunnel testing at Boeing's Transonic Wind Tunnel, QinetiQ's five-meter wind tunnel at Farnborough, UK, and NASA Ames Research Center's wind tunnel, as well as at the French aerodynamics research agency, ONERA. The final styling of the aircraft was more conservative than earlier proposals, with the fin, nose, and cockpit windows changed to a more conventional form. By the end of 2004, customer-announced orders and commitments for the 787 reached 237 aircraft. Boeing initially priced the 787-8 variant at US$120 million, a low figure that surprised the industry. In 2007, the list price was US$146–151.5 million for the 787-3, US$157–167 million for the 787-8 and US$189–200 million for the 787-9.

First offered in late 2003, the program was officially launched in April 2004. The aircraft's initial designation 7E7 was changed to 787 in January 2005. Assembly started in 2006, the first 787 unveiled in a roll-out ceremony on July 8, 2007, at Boeing's Everett assembly factory, by which time it had become the fastest-selling wide-body airliner in history with 677 orders. First flown in December 2009, by September 2010, 847 Boeing 787s had been ordered by 56 customers. As of 2010, launch customer All Nippon Airways has the largest number of 787s on order.

 

Boe-787


The 787 is being assembled at the Boeing Everett Factory in Everett, Washington. Aircraft will also be assembled at a new factory in North Charleston, South Carolina. Both sites will deliver 787s to airline customers. Originally planned to enter service in May 2008, the project has suffered from repeated delays and is now more than three years behind schedule. The airliner's maiden flight took place on December 15, 2009.


Boeing announced on December 16, 2003, that the 787 would be assembled in its factory in Everett, Washington. Instead of building the complete aircraft from the ground up in the traditional manner, final assembly would employ just 800 to 1,200 people to join completed subassemblies and to integrate systems. Boeing assigned its global subcontractors to do more assembly themselves and deliver completed subassemblies to Boeing for final assembly. This approach was intended to result in a leaner and simpler assembly line and lower inventory, with pre-installed systems reducing final assembly time by three-quarters to three days.


Subcontracted assemblies included:
wing manufacture (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Japan, central wing box)
horizontal stabilizers (Alenia Aeronautica, Italy; Korea Aerospace Industries, South Korea)
fuselage sections (Global Aeronautica, Italy; Boeing, North Charleston, USA; Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan; Spirit AeroSystems, Wichita, USA; Korean Air, South Korea)
passenger doors (Latécoère, France)
cargo doors, access doors, and crew escape door (Saab, Sweden)
floor beams (TAL Manufacturing Solutions Limited, India)
wiring (Labinal, France)
wing-tips, flap support fairings, wheel well bulkhead, and longerons (Korean Air, South Korea)
landing gear (Messier-Dowty, France)
power distribution and management systems, air conditioning packs (Hamilton Sundstrand, Connecticut, USA).
tail (Alenia).


To speed delivery of the 787's major components, Boeing modified several used 747-400s into 747 Dreamlifters to transport 787 wings, fuselage sections, and other smaller parts. Japanese industrial participation was very important to the project, with a 35% work share, the first time Japanese firms had taken a lead role in mass production of Boeing airliner wings, and many of the subcontractors supported and funded by the Japanese government. On April 26, 2006, Japanese manufacturer Toray Industries and Boeing announced a production agreement involving US$6 billion worth of carbon fiber, extending a 2004 contract and aimed at easing production concerns.

Boeing had originally planned for a first flight by the end of August 2007 and premiered the first 787 at a rollout ceremony on July 8, 2007, which matches the aircraft's designation in the US-style month-day-year format (7/8/07). However, the aircraft's major systems had not been installed at that time, and many parts were attached with temporary non-aerospace fasteners requiring their later replacement with flight fasteners. Although intended to shorten the production process, 787 subcontractors initially had difficulty completing the extra work, because they could not procure the needed parts, perform the subassembly on schedule, or both, leaving remaining assembly work for Boeing to complete as "traveled work".


The 787 Dreamliner's first public appearance was webcast live on July 8, 2007.

On September 5 Boeing announced a three-month delay, blaming a shortage of fasteners as well as incomplete software. On October 10, 2007, a second three-month delay to the first flight and a six-month delay to first deliveries was announced due to problems with the foreign and domestic supply chain, including an ongoing fastener shortage, the lack of documentation from overseas suppliers, and continuing delays with the flight guidance software. Less than a week later, Mike Bair, the 787 program manager was replaced. On January 16, 2008, Boeing announced a third three-month delay to the first flight of the 787, citing insufficient progress on "traveled work". On March 28, 2008, in an effort to gain more control over the supply chain, Boeing announced that it planned to buy Vought Aircraft Industries' interest in Global Aeronautica; the company later agreed to also purchase Vought's North Charleston, S.C. factory.

On April 9, 2008, Boeing officially announced a fourth delay, shifting the maiden flight to the fourth quarter of 2008, and delaying initial deliveries by around 15 months to the third quarter of 2009. The 787-9 variant was postponed to 2012 and the 787-3 variant was to follow with no firm delivery date. On November 4, 2008, the company announced a fifth delay due to incorrect fastener installation and the Boeing machinists strike, stating that the first test flight would not occur in the fourth quarter of 2008. After assessing the 787 program schedule with its suppliers, Boeing confirmed on December 11, 2008 that the first flight would be delayed until the second quarter of 2009.

On June 15, 2009, during the Paris Air Show, Boeing said that the 787 would make its first flight within two weeks. However, on June 23, 2009, Boeing announced that the first flight is postponed "due to a need to reinforce an area within the side-of-body section of the aircraft". Boeing provided an updated 787 schedule on August 27, 2009, with the first flight planned to occur by the end of 2009 and deliveries to begin at the end of 2010. The company expects to write off US$2.5 billion because it considers the first three Dreamliners built unsellable and suitable only for flight tests.

The first Boeing 787 underwent taxi tests at Paine Field in November and December 2009.


As Boeing worked with its suppliers on early 787 production, the aircraft design had proceeded through a series of test goals. On August 7, 2007, on-time certification of the Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 engine by European and US regulators was received. On August 23, 2007, a crash test involving a vertical drop of a partial composite fuselage section from about 15 ft (4.6 m) onto a 1 in (25 mm)-thick steel plate occurred in Mesa, Arizona. The results matched what Boeing's engineers had predicted, allowing modeling of various crash scenarios using computational analysis instead of further physical tests. On June 20, 2008, the 787 team achieved "Power On" of the first aircraft, powering and testing the aircraft's electrical supply and distribution systems


On May 3, 2009, the first test 787 was moved to the flight line following extensive factory testing, including landing gear swings, systems integration verification, and a total run through of the first flight. Boeing spent most of May 2009 conducting tests on the first 787 prototype in preparation for the first flight. On March 28, 2010 the 787 completed the ultimate wing load test which requires that the wings of a fully assembled aircraft be loaded to 150% of design limit load and held for 3 seconds. The wings were flexed approximately 25 ft (7.6 m) upward during the test.


On December 15, 2009, Boeing conducted the Dreamliner's maiden flight with the first 787-8, originating from Snohomish County Airport in Everett, Washington at 10:27 am PST, and landing at Boeing Field in King County, Washington at 1:35 pm PST. Originally scheduled for four hours, the test flight was shortened to three hours because of bad weather.

 

The third Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner (N7874 c/n 40693 ZA004) joined the test programme in February 2010.


The 787 flight test program is composed of 6 aircraft, ZA001 through ZA006, four with Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 engines and two with GE GEnx-1B64 engines. The second 787, ZA002 in All Nippon Airways livery, flew to Boeing Field on December 22, 2009 to join the flight test program; the third 787, ZA004 joined the test fleet with its first flight on February 24, 2010, followed by ZA003 on March 14, 2010. On March 24, 2010, testing for flutter and ground effects was completed, clearing the aircraft to fly its entire flight envelope.


On April 23, 2010 Boeing delivered their latest 787 to a hangar at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida for extreme weather testing in temperatures ranging from 115 °F to -45 °F (46 °C to -42 °C), with all steps necessary to prepare for takeoff taken once the plane stabilizes at either temperature extreme. Dreamliner ZA005, the fifth 787 and the first with General Electric GEnx engines began ground engine tests in May 2010. ZA005 made its first flight on June 16, 2010 and joined the flight test program. In June 2010, gaps were discovered in the horizontal stabilizers of test aircraft, due to improperly installed shims; all aircraft produced then were to be inspected and repaired. The 787 made its first appearance at an international air show at the Farnborough Airshow, UK on July 18, 2010.


As of November 8, 2010, the six 787 test aircraft had flown 2,290 hours in 735 flights combined.

On November 9, 2010, Boeing 787, ZA002 made an emergency landing after smoke and flames were detected in the main cabin during a test flight over Texas. A Boeing spokeswoman said the airliner landed safely and the crew was evacuated after landing at the Laredo International Airport, Texas. The electrical fire caused some systems to fail before landing. Following this incident, Boeing suspended flight testing on November 10, 2010. Ground testing has been performed instead. On November 22, 2010, Boeing announced that the in-flight fire can be primarily attributed to foreign object debris (FOD) that was present in the electrical bay. After electrical system and software changes, 787s returned to company flight testing on December 23, 2010.


The 787 features lighter-weight construction. Its materials (by weight) are: 50% composite, 20% aluminum, 15% titanium, 10% steel, 5% other. The craft will be 80% composite by volume. Each 787 contains approximately 35 short tons of carbon fiber reinforced plastic, made with 23 tons of carbon fiber. Aluminum is used on wing and tail leading edges, titanium used mainly on engines and fasteners, with steel used in various places.


The 787-8 is the base model of the 787 family with a length of 186 feet (57 m) and a wingspan of 197 feet (60 m) and a range of 7,650 to 8,200 nautical miles (14,200 to 15,200 km) depending on seating configuration. The 787-8 seats 210 passengers in a three class configuration. The variant will be the first of the 787 line to enter service. Boeing is targeting the 787-8 to replace the 767-200ER and 767-300ER, as well as expand into new non-stop markets where larger planes would not be economically viable. The bulk of 787 orders are for the 787-8.


In August 2011 the 787 received FAA certification for commercial operations. The first customer, All Nipon Airways was scheduled to receive the first delivery at Tokyo on 28 September, 2011 (about three years behind schedule), and orders stood at 827 aircraft (at US$185 million).

 

The Boeing 787-9 made its inaugural flight on 17 September 2013 at Paine Field in Everett, WA. The stretched 787 took off at 11:02 AM and completed a 5 hour and 16 minute flight, landing at Boeing Field in Seattle. During the flight, 787-9 Senior Project Pilot Mike Bryan and 787 Chief Pilot Randy Neville departed to the north, reaching an altitude of 20,400 feet and an airspeed of 250 knots, customary for a first flight. While captains Bryan and Neville tested the airplane's systems and structures, onboard equipment transmitted real-time data to a flight-test team on the ground in Seattle.

 

Boeing-787-9

Boeing 787-9

 

Powered by two Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 engines, the first 787-9 was to be joined in flight test by two additional airplanes, one with General Electric GEnx engines.

 

Gallery

 

Boeing 787-3 Dreamliner
Engines: 2 x General Electric OR Rolls Royce Trent 1000 turbofan, 53,000lbs thrust
Length: 186.02ft (56.7m)
Width: 170.60ft (52.00m)
Height: 55.45ft (16.90m)
Maximum Speed: 587mph (945kmh; 510kts)
Maximum Range: 3,511miles (5,650km)
Service Ceiling: 42,979ft (13,100m)
Accommodation: 2 + 290
Empty Weight: 222,667lbs (101,000kg)
Maximum Take-Off Weight: 374,786lbs (170,000kg)

 

787-8 Dreamliner
Engines: 2 x General Electric Genx, 64,000 lbf (280 kN) or Rolls-Royce Trent 1000, 71,000 lbf (320 kN)
Cockpit crew: Two
Seating: 210-290
Length:  186 ft (56.7 m)     
Wingspan: 170 ft 6 in (52.0 m)     
Wing area: 3,501 sq ft (325 m2)
Wing sweepback: 32.2 degrees
Height: 55 ft 6 in (16.9 m)
Fuselage Width: 18 ft 11 in (5.77 m)
Fuselage Height: 19 ft 7 in (5.97 m)
Maximum cabin width: 18 ft (5.49 m)
Cargo capacity: 4,822 cu ft (137 cu.m)
28× LD3 or 9x (88x125) pallets or 8x (96x125) pallets + 2x LD3     
Maximum takeoff weight: 502,500 lb (228,000 kg)     
Maximum landing weight: 380,000 lb (172,000 kg)     
Operating empty weight: 242,000 lb (110,000 kg)     
Cruising speed: Mach 0.85 (567 mph, 490 knots, 913 km/h at 35,000 ft/10,700 m)
Maximum speed: Mach 0.89 (593 mph, 515 knots, 954 km/h at 35,000 ft/10,700 m)
Range, fully loaded: 7,650–8,200 nmi (14,200–15,200 km; 8,800–9,440 mi)     
Maximum fuel capacity: 33,528 US gal (126,920 L)     
Service ceiling: 43,000 ft (13,100 m)

787-9 Dreamliner
Engines: 2 x General Electric Genx, 64,000 lbf (280 kN) or Rolls-Royce Trent 1000, 71,000 lbf (320 kN)
Cockpit crew: Two
Seating: 210-290
Length: 206 ft (62.8 m)
Wingspan: 197 ft 3 in (60.1 m)
Wing area: 3,501 sq ft (325 sq.m)
Wing sweepback: 32.2 degrees
Height: 55 ft 6 in (16.9 m)
Fuselage Width: 18 ft 11 in (5.77 m)
Fuselage Height: 19 ft 7 in (5.97 m)
Maximum cabin width: 18 ft (5.49 m)
Cargo capacity: 6,086 cu ft (172 cu.m)
36× LD3 or 11x (88x125) pallets or 11x (96x125) pallets
Maximum takeoff weight: 545,000 lb (247,000 kg)
Maximum landing weight: 425,000 lb (193,000 kg)
Operating empty weight: 254,000 lb (115,000 kg)
Cruising speed: Mach 0.85 (567 mph, 490 knots, 913 km/h at 35,000 ft/10,700 m)
Maximum speed: Mach 0.89 (593 mph, 515 knots, 954 km/h at 35,000 ft/10,700 m)
Range, fully loaded: 8,000–8,500 nmi (14,800–15,700 km; 9,210–9,780 mi)
Maximum fuel capacity: 33,428 US gal (126,540 L)
Service ceiling: 43,000 ft (13,100 m)

 

 


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