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Yakolev AIR-10 / AIR-20 / UT-2



The preceding U-2 (Po-2) biplane was no longer a suitable trainer for the faster modern aircraft entering service, and to fill the role, the UT-2 was designed as a trainer.
The new aircraft was designed by Alexander Sergeevich Yakovlev's team at OKB-115. Originally designated AIR-10, it was based upon the AIR-9, but it was simpler, with tandem open cockpits, also omitting slats and flaps. It first flew on 11 July 1935. The AIR-10 won the competition in 1935 and, after minor changes, was accepted as the standard Soviet Air Force trainer. With the disgrace of Alexey Ivanovich Rykov under whom Yakovlev had been working, the initials AIR were replaced with Ya making what would have been the AIR-20 the Ya-20 (Я-20).
AIR 10
The wood-and-metal mixed construction of the AIR-10 was simplified to use only wood to facilitate production, and the AIR-10s 120 hp Renault inline engine was replaced with the 112 kW (150 hp) Shvetsov M-11E radial on the prototype, and the 82 kW (110 hp) M-11Gs in early production aircraft. Serial production started in September 1937. The Soviet VVS (Air Force) assigned the aircraft the designation UT-2 (uchebno-trenirovochnyi {учебно-тренировочный}, trainer).
The UT-2 (Russian: Яковлев УТ-2; NATO reporting name "Mink") was not easy to fly and easily entered into spins. The UT-2 model 1940 featured a lengthened forward fuselage, and a change to the 93 kW (125 hp) M-11D radial to attempt to rectify the problem. Despite improvements, the handling and flight characteristics remained challenging.
To further improve handling and stability, the new UT-2M (modernized) variant was developed in 1941 and it replaced the original UT-2 in production. The wing planform was redesigned, with a swept leading edge and a straight trailing edge, and the vertical stabilizer was enlarged.
Polish UT-2s post-war.
7,243 UT-2 of all types were produced in five factories between 1937 and 1946. In the 1950s, the UT-2 was replaced by the Yak-18 primary trainer and the Yak-11 advanced trainer.
Before and after World War II the UT-2 was used by civilian organizations, and after the war, UT-2s were also operated by the Polish and Hungarian Air Forces.
France Normandie-Niemen unit
Hungarian Air Force
Air Force of the Polish Army
Polish Navy
Mongolian People's Air Force
Romanian Air Force
Soviet Air Force
SFR Yugoslav Air Force
1st Training Aviation Regiment (1945-1948)
104th Training Aviation Regiment (1948-1956)
Liaison Squadron of 5th Military district (1952-1956)
Liaison Squadron of 3rd Aviation Corps (1950-1956)
Letalski center Maribor
UT-2 survivor at Monino
The Central Air Force Museum at Monino has an example on display, as does the Technical Museum of Vadim Zadorogny near the Arkhangelskoye Palace, and the Nikola Tesla Technical Museum in Zagreb, Croatia.
Soviet stamp showing UT-2
Engine: 120hp Renault
initial production variant
Engine: 1 x M-11, 74kW
Max take-off weight: 856 kg / 1887 lb
Empty weight: 616 kg / 1358 lb
Wingspan: 10.2 m / 33 ft 6 in
Length: 7.0 m / 23 ft 12 in
Height: 3.0 m / 10 ft 10 in
Wing area: 17.1 sq.m / 184.06 sq ft
Max. speed: 200 km/h / 124 mph
Cruise speed: 160 km/h / 99 mph
Ceiling: 3200 m / 10500 ft
Range: 750 km / 466 miles
Crew: 1
Passengers: 1
UT-2 (1940 standard)
improved spin characteristics.
Engine: Shvetsov M-11D, 93.2 kW (125.0 hp)
Propeller: 2-bladed fixed-pitch
Wingspan: 10.2 m (33 ft 6 in)
Wing area: 17.12 m2 (184.3 sq ft)
Airfoil: Göttingen 387
Length: 7.15 m (23 ft 5 in)
Height: 2.99 m (9 ft 10 in)
Empty weight: 628 kg (1,385 lb)
Gross weight: 940 kg (2,072 lb)
Maximum speed: 210 km/h (130 mph, 110 kn)
Cruise speed: 99 km/h (62 mph, 53 kn)
Range: 1,130 km (700 mi, 610 nmi)
Service ceiling: 5,000 m (16,000 ft)
Rate of climb: 3.3 m/s (650 ft/min)
Crew: 2
Armament: 8 x RS-82 rockets or 2-4 x 50 kg (110 lb) bombs
UT-2 (1944 standard)
UT-2 with MV-4
inline engine for tests.
improved 1940 standard with canopy and engine cowling, fuselage similar to early Yak-18 but had fixed undercarriage.
production from 1941, new wings and empennage
interim light bomber
air cushion landing gear testbed
bomber trainer
floatplane variant of basic UT-2
Yakovlev UT-2


Yakolev AIR-20 / UT-2


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