The Tupolev Tu-334 was a Russian short to medium range airliner project that was developed to replace the ageing Tu-134s and Yak-42s in service around the world. The airframe was based on a shortened Tu-204 fuselage and a scaled-down version of that aircraft's wing. Unlike the Tu-204, however, the Tu-334 has a T-tail and engines mounted on the sides of the rear fuselage instead of under the wings.
Power is from two D-436T-1 turbofan engines with reversers (2x73.6 kN, 2x7500 kgf) produced by Zaporozhie Engine Manufacturing Design Bureau provided . The engine was certified in 2000. Engine is produced in co-operation with "Motor Sich" JSC (Ukrain), "Moscow Engineering Manufacturing Corporation"Salut" JSC (Russia), "Ufa Engine Manufacturing Corporation" JSC (Russia). TU-334 aircraft variants were supposed to be provided with turbofan D-436T-2 engines with thrust of 80.4-83.4 kN (8200 kgf) each.
Work commenced on the Tu-334 in the early 1990s, but proceeded slowly due to funding problems arising from the break-up of the Soviet Union. A prototype was displayed in 1995, but this was little more than a mock-up with few systems installed. A functional aircraft first flew on February 8, 1999, and later that year, agreements were put in place for MiG to undertake part of the production of the airliner. A Russian type certificate was obtained – after some delay – on December 30, 2003.
Since then, development remained slow due to protracted budget problems. In turn, the certification of the aircraft and its planned entry into serial production was delayed multiple times. As of December 2006 there were firm orders for the Tupolev Tu-334 from seven airlines, including Atlant-Soyuz Airlines and there were letters of intent from 24 airlines to obtain another 297 airplanes. Price per unit for the business version is estimated to be around $43–44 million.
Production lines were established for the 102- seat -100 in Aviant's factory in Kiev, and for the 126-seat -200 in Aviacor's Samara factory. A second -100 factory was also planned by Tavia at Taganrog. By 1996 series production of the Tu-334 at the Aviant factory in Kiev was 90% ready, but on 05 October 1996 the Russian government decided that Russia's MIG MAPO was to take over from Kiev the manufacture of the new Tu-334 airliner. MIG MAPO had offered co-operation with Aviant: the Kiev plant would handover production tooling for half the aircraft parts to Moscow, the other half would be manufactured in Kiev and delivered to Moscow. Aviant had no choice since the rights for intellectual property of the aircraft belong to Russia. The assembly shop at the aircraft factory in Lukhovitsy was built especially for its production.
In February 2000 Vladimir Kravchuk, Deputy Director, Tu-334 program said the MiG Aircraft Concern was making production contracts and agreements on Tu-334 program with various aerospace enterprises in Russia and Ukraine. The Company had entered into an agreement with aircraft plants at Taganrog, which were expected to deliver a ready Tu-334 fuselage in March 2000. Ulyanovsk-based aircraft plant was to produce nose parts of Tu-334. These were made identical to nose parts of Tu-204 being mass-produced at Ulyanovsk. Russia's Government had designated MiG the principle facility for producing Tu-334. The production was to cost 370 mil US dollars. The plan envisages the cost recovery after 7.5 years under production of at least 67 planes.
Serial production of TU-334-100 preparation has started at KAPO n.a.Gorbunov in accordance with Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of 15 April, 2005 No.217 "On organization of serial production of TU-334 a/c and its versions at FGUP "KAPO n.a.Gorbunov". In January 2007 the oil-rich Russian republic of Tatarstan proposed to adopt the twinjet as the vehicle for the upgrade of its Gorbunov Aircraft Manufacturing Association (KAPO) manufacturing plant. The KAPO plant could take over production of dormant twinjet in exchange for $100 million to renovate factory.
In December 2007 it was reported that Iran was ready to make a purchase of up to 130 Tupolev Tu-214 and Tu-334 over ten years. The Iran Aviation Industries Organization (IAIO) was in negotiations to purchase licenses to assemble the aircraft in Iran by 2011 and manufacture them completely by 2015 alongside Tu-214. Nothing concrete became of these negotiations before the cancellation of the Tu-334 programme.
In June 2008 the Russian government bought 6 Tu-334. Four planes were Tu-334-100 with VIP-interiors and two planes were for the Federal Security Service. GTK Rossiya, the Russian government airline that provides flight services to the president and FSO federal security service, selected the Tupolev Tu-334 over Sukhoi's Superjet 100 and Antonov's An-148 in a tender for four aircraft, for delivery no later than 2010. Delivery under the state contract was planned as follows: 2010 - one plane, 2011 - two and in 2012 - three. KAPO resumed building Tu 334-100. This is the hull #03 of the experimental batch. While the second aircraft of this batch (#05 built by Aviant Kiev State Aviation Plant) was still flying to extend the certified conditions of operation, this one was likely to become the first Tu-334 sold as a product.
As late as 2008, Tupolev reported that a total of about 100 airlines had expressed an interest in placing orders for Tu-334s.
On 31 July 2008 Sergei Ilyushenkov, managing director of the Tupolev joint-stock company, said commercial production of a new Russian short-haul passenger airliner, the Tu-334, will start within the next six months. The Tu-334, including its business-class version, would be assembled at the KAPO Kazan aircraft plant. The project will be funded by a private investor. He said the Tu-334 business version would cost around $43-44 million, compared with over $60 million for a Bombardier business jet. Ilyushenkov also said the Tu-334's range could subsequently be increased to 6,400 km by using additional fuel tanks. The aircraft had gone through certification, and can be launched into serial production at a minor expense once there were reliable orders from air carriers.
In 2009, with the project years behind the projected schedule and only two examples built and flying ten years after first flight, the Tu-334 came under review during the rationalisation of the Russian aircraft companies, which led to the formation of United Aircraft Corporation. In mid-2009, the decision was taken to not continue with the Tu-334 programme and instead focus efforts on the Sukhoi Superjet 100 and the Antonov An-148.
A state-of-the-art short-haul aircraft designed on the basis of advanced developments in aerodynamics, structure, and avionics ensuring high-level comfort and safety, and high-quality standards traditional for "TUPOLEV" PSC. Various versions, universal layouts and up-to-date avionics allow operators to choose the TU-334 aircraft version that would be ideal for any flight mission.
A basic version designated to carry 102 passengers in tourist class. The aircraft is powered by D436T1 engines. In 2003 it was certified against AP-25 Russian Airworthiness Rules.
Engines: 2 x Progress D-436T1 turbofans, 7500kg
Wingspan: 29.77 m / 98 ft 8 in
Length: 31.26 m / 103 ft 7 in
Height: 9.38 m / 31 ft 9 in
Wing area: 83.23 sq.m / 895.88 sq ft
Empty weight: 30,050 kg (66,250 lb)
Max. takeoff weight: 47,900 kg / 105,380 lb
Payload: 11000kg / 24251 lb
Maximum speed: 865 km/h (465 kt, 545 mph)
Cruise speed: 820 km/h / 510 mph / 440 kt
Service ceiling: 11,100 m / 36,400 ft
Range: 2380 km / 1479 miles