PZL Warszawa-Okecie PZL-130 Orlik
Design of the P.Z.L. 130 Orlik (Spotted Eaglet) piston-engined two-seat primary and basic trainer began in 1981 as a successor to the TS-8 Bies. Construction of four airframes, one for static test plus three flying prototypes, began in 1982
The first aircraft flew on 12 October 1983, followed quickly by the second. However, the third aircraft did not fly until January 1985, and the two pre-production machines which followed did not take to the air until February 1988, owing to serious delays in deliveries of the 246kW Vedeneyev M14Pm nine-cylinder Russian powerplant.
By that time P.Z.L. was seriously looking for another engine, and one contender was the company-produced but less powerful Kalisz K8-AA, which took the underpowered second pre-production aircraft into the air in March 1988. Although testing continued over the next two years, and included an evaluation by the Polish air force, the piston-engined Orlik was abandoned in 1990.
The original piston-engined PZL-130 Orlik was powered by a 268kW Vedeneyev radial engine driving a three-blade fixed-pitch propeller. The Orlik is of all-metal construction with a low-set cantilever wing and pneumatically operated retractable tricycle landing gear, and is of typical trainer configuration with the pupil and instructor seated in vertically staggered tandem seats under a side-hinged single-piece canopy. For the primary and basic stages of the flight training program, the Poles considered a piston engine adequate, and with this unit driving a constant-speed propeller the Orlik is suitable for all stages of the program between preselection and acrobatics. The provision of two underwing hardpoints also allows the type to be used in the weapon training, counter-insurgency, and reconnaissance roles.
Modular cockpit instrumentation allows rapid conversion between roles. Two underwing stores pylons are provided on the piston-powered version. Other uses envisaged include reconnaissance, light ground-attack, and target towing. Its maximum level speed is 197kt, with a cruise speed of 174kt. Range with maximum fuel is 765 n.m. and ceiling is over 17,000ft.
The three pre-production aircraft built all had different powerplants and ratings. These were the 560kW Motorlet M601D (P.Z.L. 130TM), the 410kW PT6A-25A (P.Z.L. 130T), and the 708kW PT6A-62 (P.Z.L. 130TP), and all flew in 1989/90.
In 1985, while waiting for supplies of M14Pm powerplants, PZL re-engined the third prototype with a Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-25A turboprop. The prototype PZL-130T Turbo-Orlik, developed in collaboration with AirTech of Canada, flew for the first time on 13 July 1986. Aimed primarily at export customers, the Turbo-Orlik has four underwing hardpoints, and was to be marketed by AirTech.
The -130T was provisionally certificated in January 1987, but the prototype PZL-130T crashed that month in Colombia during a demonstration to the Air Force, killing AirTech’s president.
In 1991, following the powerplant tests, the Polish air force placed an order for 48 P.Z.L. 130TBs powered by the Czech M601E engine and the first production Turbo-Orlik was delivered at the end of 1992.
Export sales were being sought for the PT6A-62-engined P.Z.L. 130TC, the PT6A-25C-equipped P.Z.L. 130TD, and the PT6A-25A-engined P.Z.L. 130TE 'economy' version, with a limited equipmentfit and minus ejection seats.
Engine: one 330-hp (245-kW) Vcdencycv M-l4Pm radial
Maximum speed 211 mph (340 km/h) at optimum altitude
Initial climb rate 1,378 ft (420 m) per minute
Service ceiling 13,945 ft (4,250 m)
Range 880 miles (1,416 km)
Empty weight, 2,529 lb (1,147 kg)
Maximum take-off 3,527 lb (1,600 kg)
Wing span 26 ft 3 in (8.00 m)
Lngth 27 ft 8.75 in (8.45 m)
Heght 11 ft 7 in (3.53 m)
Wing area 132.19 sq ft (12.28 sq.m)
Engine: 1 x Motorlet M601E turbo-prop, 560kW
Max take-off weight: 2000 kg / 4409 lb
Loaded weight: 1600 kg / 3527 lb
Wingspan: 9.0 m / 30 ft 6 in
Length: 9.0 m / 30 ft 6 in
Height: 3.5 m / 12 ft 6 in
Wing area: 13.0 sq.m / 139.93 sq ft
Max. speed: 501 km/h / 311 mph
Range w/max.fuel: 970 km / 603 miles
PZL 130 TM Turbo Orlik
Engine: M 601 E, 483 shp
Length: 28.543 ft / 8.7 m
Height: 11.483 ft / 3.5 m
Wingspan: 26.247 ft / 8.0 m
Wing area: 132.397 sq.ft / 12.3 sq.m
Max take off weight: 4359.3 lb / 1977.0 kg
Weight empty: 2976.8 lb / 1350.0 kg
Max. weight carried: 1382.5 lb / 627.0 kg
Max. speed: 274 kt / 507 km/h
Landing speed: 80 kt / 149 km/h
Cruising speed: 237 kt / 438 km/h
Initial climb rate: 3188.98 ft/min / 16.20 m/s
Service ceiling: 32808 ft / 10000 m
Wing loading: 33.01 lb/sq.ft / 161.0 kg/sq.m
Range: 540 nm / 1000 km
Hard points: 6
External load: 720kg