Polikarpov R-1 / R-2
Airco DH-4 production in Russia at the Dux factory was about to start in October 1917, but manufacturing was frozen due to the absence of the engines, though preparations did not stop. N.N.Polikarpov was steadily working on blueprints for the assembly lines. During the Civil War some of the latest DH-9 and DH-9A were captured, and modifications were included into the project.
When the Bolshevik government decided to gain airpower, one of the simplest solutions was to restart old projects. Intermediately DH-4, DH-9/R-1, DH-9/R-2 were built (1921-1923), using parts imported from the Great Britain. Production of the M-5/Liberty engine allowed the first Soviet mass production aircraft. First combat ready R-1 were built on the GAZ-1 factory under the supervision of N.N.Polikarpov in 1923. They were named "Imeni Izvestij VTsIK" and "Moskowskij Bolshevik". Mass production started same year at GAZ-10 (Taganrog).
The first squad of 19 aircraft was designated 'Lenin' and presented to XIII Congress of the RKP(b) on May 23-31 1924.
It is not correct to call the R-1 a copy of DH-4/9. It was build from all domestic materials, whole construction was revised to utilize technologies available in war burnt Russia. It was heavier, carried more payload and had a substantially strengthened construction.
Group of R-1s performed a Moscow-Peking-Tokyo flight (M.M.Gromov as a leader), proving high quality and reliability of the first Soviet series aircraft.
The R-1 became the first Russian aircraft to be exported - Afghanistan purchased some 20 in 1923-1924.
During 1924-1931 approximately 2800 were produced.
Engine: 1 x M-5, 295kW
Max take-off weight: 2200 kg / 4850 lb
Empty weight: 1450 kg / 3197 lb
Wingspan: 14.0 m / 46 ft 11 in
Length: 9.2 m / 30 ft 2 in
Height: 3.3 m / 11 ft 10 in
Max. speed: 200 km/h / 124 mph
Cruise speed: 185 km/h / 115 mph
Ceiling: 5000 m / 16400 ft
Range w/max.fuel: 700 km / 435 miles
Armament: 2 machine-guns, 200kg of bombs