Main Menu

North American T-28 Trojan / Fennec / NA-260

Pacific Airmotive Nomad


T-28C Trojan

During and immediately following WWII, NAA developed the next generation, high performance, advanced trainer to serve as a successor to the NAA T-6/SNJ Texan. The result was the T-28 Trojan series.

First flown on 26 September 1949 as the XT‑28A, the Trojan was put into production as the T-28A two-seat basic trainer for the USAF. Power was provided by a 596kW Wright R-1300-1 radial engine. 1,194 "A" models were built with the Aero Product 2-blade propeller. The Air Force used these aircraft for training and various other roles from 1950 to 1956. The "A" model also replaced the Mustang fighters in the reserve units until 1959.

Ordered into production by the USAF in 1950 as the T-28A, the US Navy evaluated the T-28A in 1952 and decided that the Wright Cyclone R1300, with 800 hp and a two bladed propellor left the aircraft under-powered for carrier operations.

In 1952, the Navy contracted with NAA to build 489 T-28Bs, an improved version. The T-28B was the initial US Navy version fitted with a 1425 hp / 1,062kW Wright R-1820-86 engine, Hamilton Standard 3-blade propeller, belly mounted speed brake, and a two-piece sliding canopy (as fitted to late production T-28A). 489 "B" models were built and used from the middle 50's to the middle 80's.



The T-28C was built for the Navy starting in 1955. The T-28C is equipped with a tail hook, a smaller diameter propeller, and other minor changes to allow aircraft carrier landings. 299 "C" models were manufactured with production ending in 1957.

In 1958 many T-28As were declared surplus and North American designed a modification scheme to convert the into two-seat utility aircraft, under the name Nomad. The main change involved replacing the original 800 hp Wright R-1300 engine with the more powerful R-1820. Supplementary modifications were drawn up to convert the Nomad into a military light strike-reconnaissance aircraft.

In 1959, several hundred surplus "A" models were shipped to France and were modified with the 1,062kWR-1820-56Sengine, structural improvements, and armament for combat use, by Sud Aviation for the French Air Force. Sud-Aviation were given a contract for 135 conversions of ex-USAF T-28As under licence to PacAero, who had taken over the Nomad conversion programme from North American. These aircraft are commonly referred as Fennec, T-28S (Sud), or T-28F. After success in combat in Algeria in the early sixties, they continued to serve France and several other countries for many years.


Sud-Aviation Fennec


Similar to the FENNEC but converted by various contractors in the U.S., the T-28D-5 also started as a surplus "A" model. Almost 250 "D" models were supplied to U.S. and other forces fighting in Southeast Asia. Additionally, "B" & "C" models, known as the T-28D-10, were also modified and used in combat.

During the early 1960s the United States Tactical Air Command (TAC) was directed to develop a counter-insurgency (COIN) force tailored to train friendly air forces to fight in limited wars against guerrilla forces. As a result of this directive TAC began evaluating existing aircraft types to find an available and inexpensive aircraft that could be modified for use as a COIN aircraft.

This decision resulted in the T-28D which was basically a rebuilt T-28A with a more powerful engine, six underwing hardpoints, and strengthened wings. The T-28D was powered by a 1425hp Wright Cyclone R-1820-56S nine cylinder air cooled radial engine, driving a three blade Hamilton Standard propeller. To allow the T-28D to perform in its intended role of tactical fighter-bomber, the wings were strengthened to enable the aircraft to carry a variety of under wing stores up to 4,000 pounds.

Between early 1961 to late 1969, North America received a total of thirteen production contracts covering conversion of a total of 321 T-28As to the AT-28D configuration.

The first T-28Ds to see action were assigned to the 4400 Combat Crew Training Squadron (CCTS). In October 1961 President Kennedy authorised deployment of a detachment from the 4400 CCTS to Vietnam under the code name Farm Gate. The detachment was to train South Vietnamese pilots in the T-28 and was authorised to fly combat missions, providing there was a South Vietnamese national in the rear cockpit.

The South Vietnamese Air Force (VNAF) found the T-28D to be well suited to their needs. The short field performance and ease of maintenance made the Trojan ideally suited for forward basing in small detachments, allowing a rapid response to enemy activities. The T-28D served with the VNAF until the increasing anti-aircraft capabilities of the Viet Cong made it necessary to replace the Trojan with a more powerful and faster fighter bomber.


Despite modifications to strengthen wings to carry up to 4000 lb bombload, at least three T-28 crashes in strikes against Viet Cong may have resulted from structural failure. This contributed to T-28 withdrawals from Vietnam.

After its withdrawal from combat in Vietnam during 1964, T-28Ds continued to serve with the USAF in Thailand until 1972. T-28Ds were assigned to the 60th Special Operations Squadron (SOS), 56th Special Operations Wing in the fighter-bomber role flying missions over Laos and Cambodia. T-28Ds were also supplied to the air forces of Thailand, Cambodia and Laos.

The T-28D proved itself in combat to be an excellent gun and bomb platform, and was able to withstand a surprising amount of battle damage. The Trojan was well liked equally by its pilots and hard working ground crews. As in all previous T-28s, maintenance crews appreciated the fact that the T-28 was rugged, easy to maintain and required very few maintenance hours per flight hour.

Many T-28Ds were operated in the Congo and Vietnam, and have equipped the Thai Air Force, with the French as the Fennec as well as with the Argentine Navy. T-28Ds served with the air forces of Bolivia, Ethiopia, Kampuchea, South Korea, Laos, Taiwan, Thailand, the United States and Zaire.

In civilian use, the T-28 continues to gain in popularity. It looks, sounds, and performs comparable to a WWII fighter at a fraction of the cost. With its two roomy cockpits, tricycle landing gear, huge flaps, and superb flying characteristics, general aviation pilots can learn how to operate this aircraft. In addition, maintenance and parts availability remains reasonable with plenty of technical support available.

With 2,450 hp Lycoming T55 turboprop, underwing attachments for 4,000 lb. of weapons, and a long-range fuel tank in place of the rear crew-member's position, the YAT-28E was a conversion of the T-28 piston-engined basic trainer.




In 1958 North American modified one T-28, as NA-260 Nomad, to a general-purpose prototype plane. Pacific Airmotive Corp converted surplus North American T-28 to the general-purpose Nomad in 1958.

Pacific Airmotive Corp Nomad



Engine: Wright R-1300-1, 7-cylinder radial, 800 hp
Propeller: Aero Products 10' 2-blade, constant speed
Wing Span: 40' 1" (12.23 m)
Length: 32 ft (9.76 m)
Height: 12' 8"
Wing area : 269.1 sq.ft / 25.0 sq.m
Empty, 5,111 lb (2318 kg)
Loaded weight, 7,463 lb (3642 kg)
Fuel capacity: 125 USgallon
G Loading: +4.5, -2
Normal cruise: 180 mph at 35 USgph
Max speed, 285 mph (458 kph) at 5,800 ft (1768 m)
Service ceiling : 36089 ft / 11000 m
Initial climb, 2,030 fpm (10.3 m/sec)
Range: 1,055 mls (1698 km)
Controls: Dual

Engine: Wright Cyclone R-1820--86, 9-cylinder radial, 1425 hp / 1063kW
Propeller: Hamilton Standard Hydromatic 3-blade, constant speed
Wing Span: 40 ft 8 in (12.4m)
Length: 32' 9"
Height: 12' 7"
Wing area: 24.90 sq.m / 268.02 sq ft
Empty weight: 2914 kg / 6424 lb
Normal Gross Weight: 8600 lbs.
G Loading: +4.5, -2
Controls: Dual
Max. speed: 552 km/h / 343 mph
Ceiling: 10820 m / 35500 ft
Range: 1706 km / 1060 miles
Normal cruise: 235 mph at 50 Usgph
Fuel capacity: 177 USgallon
Endurance: 3 hr w/res
Rate of climb: 3000+ fpm
Crew: 2


Engine: Wright Cyclone R-1820, 9-cylinder radial, 1425 hp
Propeller: Hamilton Standard Hydromatic 3-blade, constant speed
Wing Span: 40 ft 8 in (12.4m)
Length: 32' 9"
Height: 12' 7"
Normal Gross Weight: 8600 lbs.
Empty weight: 6400 lb
G Loading: +4.5, -2
Controls: Dual
Normal cruise: 235 mph at 50 Usgph
Fuel capacity: 177 USgallon
Endurance: 3 hr w/res
Rate of climb: 4,200 fpm
Ceiling: 35,000 ft
Maximum speed: 343 mph
Range: 1060 miles
Stall speed: 67 kts
Hard points: 6

T-28D Trojan

Engine: Wright R-1820-86A Cyclone 1,425hp
Propeller: Hamilton Standard Hydromatic three blade constant speed
Fuel: Aviation Gasoline 100 Octane
Wingspan: 40' 1" / 12.19 m
Length: 32' 10" / 10.0 m
Wing Area: 271.2 sq. ft / 25.19 sq. m
Height: 12' 8" / 3.86 m
Empty weight: 6,251 lbs / 2.811 kg
Normal Gross Weight: 8600 lbs.
Armament: Up to 4,000lb (1,813kg) of external stores including gun pods
Maximum Speed: 340 knots / 391 mph / 629 km/h
Cruise Speed: 200 knots / 230 mph / 370 km/h BAS
G Loading: +4.5, -2
Controls: Dual
Normal cruise: 235 mph at 50 Usgph
Fuel capacity: 177 USgallon
Endurance: 3 hr w/res
Rate of climb: 3000+ fpm
Armament: 2 x 0.5in mg
Hardpoints, wing: 6

Engine: Wright Cyclone R-1820, 9-cylinder radial, 1425 hp
Propeller: Hamilton Standard Hydromatic 3-blade, constant speed
Wing Span: 40 ft 8 in (12.4m)
Length: 32' 9"
Height: 12' 7"
Wing area: 271 sq.ft
Empty weight: 6615 lb
Normal Gross Weight: 8600 lb
MTOW: 9370 lb
Fuel capacity: 177 USgallon
Max speed: 340 mph at 18,000 ft
Normal cruise: 235 mph at 50 USgph at 15,000 ft
Endurance: 3 hr w/res
Service ceiling: 36,480 ft
Rate of climb: 3000+ fpmI
Max range: 1180 mi
Hardpoints: 2
Bombload: 4 x 300 lb
G Loading: +4.5, -2
Controls: Dual

Engine: 2,450 hp Lycoming T55 turboprop.


Pacific Airmotive Nomad Mk I
Engine: 1300hp Wright R-1820-56S
Prop: three-blade
Pacific Airmotive Nomad Mk II
Engine: 1425hp Wright R-1820-76A
Prop: three-blade
Wingspan: 40'1"
Length: 32'0"
Useful load: 1401 lb
Max speed: 381 mph
Cruise: 203 mph
Stall: 83 mph
Range: 1,180 mi
Ceiling: 36,480'





Copyright © 2021 all-aero. All Rights Reserved.
Joomla! is Free Software released under the GNU General Public License.