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Morane-Saulnier G / MS.2
Grahame-White XIV




The appellation Type G was something of a generic designa­tion in that several very different Morane-Saulnier designs were known as such, the last of these being a single-seat fighter designed in the summer of 1915 and built after the initial production batch of Type N aircraft for the Aviation Militaire. A refined development of the basic Type G of 1912, but featuring a fully-faired fuselage and powered by an 80 hp Le Rhóne 9C, the Type G fighter had a centrally-mounted 8-mm Hotchkiss machine gun with standard bullet deflectors on the propeller.
The Morane-Saulnier G was a two-seat sport and racing monoplane produced in France before the First World War. It was a development of the racing monoplanes designed by Léon Morane and Raymond Saulnier after leaving Borel and, like its predecessors, was a wire-braced, shoulder-wing monoplane. Construction was of fabric-covered wood throughout, except for the undercarriage struts which were of steel tube.
The type was a sporting success. In April 1913, Roland Garros took second place in the inaugural Schneider Cup in a floatplane version, finishing with a time of 40 minutes 40 seconds. On 26 June, Claude Grahame-White flew another float-equipped example from Paris to London via Le Havre, Boulogne-sur-Mer, and Dover, covering some 500 km (310 mi) that day. Between 21 and 28 September the same year, two float-equipped Type Gs competed at the seaplane meeting at San Sebastián, with Lord Carbery winning the short takeoff prize on one, and Edmond Audemars winning the maneuverability prize on the other. The following week, Carbery flew his Type G in the Italian Waterplane Contest from Lake Como to Pavia and back, along with two other Type Gs in the field of fifteen competitors, these flown by Garros and Morane. Garros not only won the Grand Prize in the "general class", but also the prizes for best speed (127.7 km/h, 79.8 mph) and greatest altitude (2,100 m, 6,000 ft).
On 28 September 1913 Roland Garros became the first person to cross the Mediterranean Sea by air, flying from Fréjus in the south of France to Bizerte in Tunisia in a Morane-Saulnier G.
In 1914, Russian manufacturer Duks arranged to build the type under licence at their Moscow factory for the Russian Army, and the same year, the Turkish military ordered 40 examples. Before these could be delivered, however, war broke out, and the aircraft were impressed into the French Army. To these, the Army soon added an order of 94 aircraft, and the British Royal Flying Corps also acquired a number, these latter machines purchased from Grahame-White, who was manufacturing the type in the UK under licence. The Type XIV was the in-house designation given to Grahame-White license-built Morane-Saulnier Type G aircraft.
At the outbreak of war, the type's military value was found to be wanting, and the French machines were quickly relegated to training duties. Despite this, a dedicated single-seat fighter version was built in 1915, armed with an 8 mm Hotchkiss machine gun that fired through the propeller arc, the propeller blades being protected by deflector plates. Only one or two prototypes were built, and the type never entered service.
Some Type Gs were modified by Morane-Saulnier to have their wings mounted above the fuselage, parasol-fashion, rather than at the fuselage sides. This arrangement was found to offer far better visibility for the pilot, and formed the basis for the Morane-Saulnier L.
A Type G is preserved at the Museo del Aire (Madrid) (Museo del Aire de Cuatrovientos).
Operators included the Argentine Air Force, one aircraft in Cuba, the Imperial Russian Air Force and with their aircraft taken over by the Soviet Air Force, the Spanish Air Force, and Royal Flying Corps.
The French Aéronautique Militaire ordered 94, plus the 40 impounded from the Turkish order.
Type GA
version with 40 kW (60 hp) Le Rhône engine
Type GB
version with 60 kW (80 hp) Gnome engine
Type WB
version for export to Russia with glazed forward fuselage
official French government STAe designation for the G
Grahame-White Type XIV
License built by Claude Grahame-White in the United Kingdom
Span, 29 ft 11 in (9.12 m)
Length, 21 ft 8 2/3 in (6.62 m)
Height, 8 ft 4 in (2.54 m)
Engine: 1 × Gnome, 60 kW (80 hp)
Wingspan: 9.20 m (30 ft 2 in)
Wing area: 16 m2 (172 ft2)
Length: 6.30 m (20 ft 8 in)
Empty weight: 95 kg (208 lb)
Gross weight: 370 kg (815 lb)
Maximum speed: 123 km/h (76 mph)
Rate of climb: 1.8 m/s (345 ft/min)
Crew: one pilot
Capacity: one passenger

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