Lockheed 12 Electra Junior / 212A / C-40 / JO-1
Lockheed decided to produce a reduced-scale version of the 10 Electra which would accommodate six passengers,a crew of two, and, by retaining the powerplant of the 10 Electra, offer enhanced performance. The resulting aircraft, designated Lockheed 12 Electra Junior, was flown for the first time on 27 June 1936 and a total of 130 were built.
The Model 12 was first introduced with a choice of two powerplants: twin 400-hp Wasp Juniors or twin 420-hp Wright Whirlwinds. The largest engine installed in later years was the 450-hp Pratt & Whitney Wasp Junior; this version of the lightweight Lockheed survived in the greatest numbers. In 1936, the Model 12 had the distinction of being the fastest airplane in its class (commercial twin) produced in the United States.
The majority of production aircraft were designated Lockheed 12-A, but many of the total entered military service. The US Army Air Corps acquired three seven-seat C-40 (later UC-40), 10 five-seat C-40A (later UC-40A) and one experimental C-40B aircraft with fixed tricycle landing gear; the designation C-40D (later UC-40D) was allocated to 10 Lockheed 12-As impressed for wartime service. The US Navy received one seven-seat JO-1, five six-seat JO-2 aircraft (one of which was allocated for US Marine Corps use), and a single XJO-3 with fixed tricycle landing gear which was used for carrier deck-landing trials. The type was used also by the air arms of Argentina, Canada, Cuba and the UK, as well as by the Netherlands East Indies army, this last service being the major military user with a total of 36. Of this number, 16 were specially-developed Model 212 crew trainers, with a forward-firing 7.7mm machine-gun, a similar weapon in a dorsal turret, and under-fuselage racks for up to 363kg of bombs.
One aircraft was acquired by NACA, predecessor of NASA, was used to evaluate a wing de-icing system that utilised hot gases from the engine exhaust.
Australian Sidney Cotton who, under the cover of his position as an executive of the Dufaycolour Company, used his specially modified camera-carrying Lockheed 12-A to take clandestine reconnaissance photographs of German military installations in the three months leading up to the beginning of World War II.
A total of 114 were built between 1936 and 1942.
Engines two 420-hp Wright Whirlwinds
Gross wt. 8,650 lb
Empty wt. 6,090 lb
Fuel capacity 200 USG
Top speed 225 mph
Cruise 202 mph
Stall 65 mph
Initial climb rate 1,460 ft
Ceiling 21,300 ft
Range 784 miles
Engine: 2 x Pratt & Whitney Wasp R985 Junior SB radial, 336kW / 450 hp
Cruise: 212 mph
Pax cap: 6
Lockheed 12 Electra Junior