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Kawasaki Ki-10 / Type 95



The single-seat Ki-10 was Kawasaki's second attempt to evolve a replacement for the Japanese army air force's Type 92 Intercepter Fighter. The first had been the Ki-5 monoplane which proved to have a per-formance and manoeuvrability below that specified by the army air force.

A fighter competition was held in 1934 to evaluate new designs from Kawasaki, Mitsubishi and Nakajima, designated Ki-10, Ki-8 and Ki-11 respectively. This time the manoeuvrability of the Kawasaki design won the day, and it was ordered into production as the Army Type 95 Fighter. It proved to be the last biplane combat aircraft to serve with the army air force.

Designed by Takeo Doi (who had succeeded Richard Vogt as Kawasaki's chief designer), the Ki-10 closely resembled the earlier Type 92 in appearance, but powered by an 850-hp Kawasaki Ha-9-11a 12-cylinder V-type engine. The first of four prototypes was flown in the spring of 1935, and production aircraft were based on the third prototype which had a three-blade metal propeller, and a flush -riveted light-alloy skin over the forward fuselage. The Ki-10 was selected in competition with Nakajima's Ki-11 low-wing monoplane, the Japanese Army preferring the Ki-10 biplane's manoeuvrability to its opponent's slightly superior speed.

Production Ki-10-1 aircraft were powered by the 633kW Kawasaki Ha-9-IIa liquid-cooled engines, and 300 built between December 1935 and October 1937 went into service as the Army Type 95 Fighter. The biplane wings of unequal span were braced by N-struts and with ailerons on the upper wing only. The divided undercarriage had wheel spats. The all-metal structure was alloy sheet and fabric-covered. Armament was two synchronised 7.7mm Type 89 machine-guns.

The improved Type 95 Model 2, flown in prototype form in May 1936, differed primarily in having slightly larger wings of 10.02 m (32 ft 10 in) span, a fuselage lengthened to 7.55 m (24 ft 9 in), and a gross weight increased to 1740 kg (3836 lb), and vertical tail surfaces of greater area. The powerplant and performance remained es-sentially unchanged, but stability was greatly improved and the service ceiling was increased from 10 000 m (32,810 ft) to 11500 m (37,730 ft). This version was built between June 1937 and December 1938, 280 completed.

Standard armament of both models was a pair of 7.7-mm (0.303-in) Type 89 machine-guns mounted in the upper engine decking.

Over the period in which they were in service Ki-10s equipped seven, different Rentais (wings) and six other Sentais (corps) of the army air force. They operated in China, Formosa, Korea, and Manchuria, as well as at home bases, before and during the Second World War. By the time that conflict began, however, most Ki-10s (codenamed Perry by the Allies) had been reallocated to training or other second-line duties.

One Ki-10-1 Kai and two Ki-10-11 Kai prototypes appeared in 1936 and 1937 respectively, embodying aerodynamic, structural and powerplant improvements, but neither of these models entered production.

Ki-10 Prototype
Engine: 850-hp Kawasaki Ha-9-11a
Seats: 1
No built: 4

Ki-10 Type 95 Fighter 1
Engine: 633kW Kawasaki Ha-9-IIa
Span: 9.55 m (31 ft 4 in)
Length: 7.2 m (23 ft 7 in)
Gross weight: 1650 kg (3638 1b)
Maximum speed: 400 km/h (249 mph)
Service ceiling: 10 000 m (32,810 ft)
Seats: 1
Armament: 2 x 7.7mm Type 89 machine-guns
No built: 300

Ki-10 Type 95 Fighter 2
Engine: 633kW Kawasaki Ha-9-IIa
Wingspan: 10.02 m (32 ft 10 in)
Length: 7.55 m (24 ft 9 in),
Height: 3.0 m / 9 ft 10 in
Wing area: 23.0 sq.m / 247.57 sq ft
Empty weight: 1360 kg / 2998 lb
Max take-off weight: 1740 kg (3836 lb)
Max. speed: 400 km/h / 249 mph
Service ceiling 11500 m (37,730 ft)
Range: 1100 km / 684 miles
Seats: 1
Armament: 2 x 7.7mm Type 89 machine-guns
No built: 280

Ki-10-1 Kai
Seats: 1
No built: 1

Ki-10-11 Kai
Seats: 1
No built: 2






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