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Junkers Ju.88

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At the beginning of 1935, a requirement was issued by the RLM for a high-speed bomber with three man crew.

The RLM required an armament of a mg 15 and 700-800 kg of bomb load, short wave radio, oxygen breathing plant, radio telephone system, special navigation equipment, UKW landing aid, de-icing equipment. A take-off distance of 700 m, and landing distance of 400 m was required. The time to 7000 m was to be 25 minutes, and a 1300 km rangewas required.

The Junkers Ju 88 was originated to meet the requirement. Building of the first prototype, the Ju 88 V-l, started in March 1936. Powered by two 746kW Daimler-Benz DB 600Aa engines, its initial flight was on 21 December 1936.


After the V-1 prototype crashed, the second prototype, the V-2 was completed and first flew on 10 April 1937. This machine, D-ASAZ, reached 460 km/h. The Ju 88 V-3 with 746kW Junkers Jumo engines achieved 504 km/h, and peaked at 520 km/h.


The Ju 88 V-4 was substantially slower than the V-3.


A further unarmed prototype was the Ju 88 V-5 with the identification D-ATYU. It was equipped with two Jumo 211-engines. In March 1939 the fifth prototype set a 1,000km closed-circuit record of 517km/h and 500.786 km/h over 2000 km both carrying a 2000kg payload.

The first for the RLM requirements was the Ju 88 V-6, which first flew on 18 June 1938. It corresponded to the Ju to 88 A-1-Series. The bomb load was 1000 kg.

 

Junk-Ju88-02
Ju-88A-1

 

Goering, in the autumn 1938, assigned an order for mass production on the Ju 88. At that time the Ju 88 still was in the development stage, and at the end of 1939 only 69 were delivered.


The prototype of the destroyer variant was the Ju 88 V-7, which completed its first flight on 27 September 1938. Three further prototypes followed up to 3 February 1939.


A total of 10 prototypes was completed, and the first of the pre-production Ju 88A-0 bombers flew in early 1939, the initial Ju 88A-1 production version entering service in September 1939. On the 26th it undertook its first operational mission against British shipping in the Firth of Forth.

 

 Junk-Ju88-03
Junkers Ju88A4 with Junkers Jumo 004 turbojet

 

Early operational deployment showed that despite good performance and a worthwhile bombload, defensive armament was totally inadequate, leading to the Ju 88A-4 with increased span wings, structural strengthening to carry greater loads and gunpower increased substantially. This formed the basis for further diverse development of the type, ultimately in so many versions that a detailed listing of them is not possible: for example, the Ju 88A series extended over Ju 88A-1 to Ju 88A-17 sub-variants. While the Ju 88A was in production an improved Ju 88B was planned, with a more extensively glazed nose and power provided by two 1193kW B.M.W. 801MA radials, but flight testing showed only marginal performance improvement and only 10 pre-production Ju 88B-0 aircraft were built.

The Ju 88 was almost as fast as contemporary fighters, and such performance coupled with excellent manoeuvrability brought development of the Ju 88C series. The planned Ju 88C-1 with B.M.W. 801 MA engines was abandoned because the new Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighter had priority for this powerplant. As a result the first production version was the Ju 88C-2, this being the Ju 88A-1 converted on the production line to have a solid nose mounting three 7.92mm MG 17 machine-guns and a 20mm MG FF cannon. Defensive armament comprised two additional 7.92mm MG 15 machine-guns. The Ju 88C-4 was a heavy fighter/reconnaissance model, the Ju 88C-5 an improved heavy fighter, the Ju 88C-6a an improved Ju 88C-5, the Ju 88C-6b and Ju 88C-6c night-fighters, the Ju 88C-7a and Ju 88-C7b intruders, and the Ju 88C-7c, a heavy fighter. Alphabetically out of sequence were the Ju 88R-1 and Ju 88R-2 night-fighters, which were developed and powered by B.M.W. 801 MA engines when the supply position of this powerplant eased.

 

 


The Ju-88R-1 night fighter had radar aerials projecting from the nose.


The Ju 88D series was long-range reconnaissance aircraft based on the Ju 88A-4, in Ju 88D-1 to Ju 88D-5 variants that differed in engines, and detail. The Ju 88G series represented definitive night-fighter versions that from the early summer of 1944 replaced the earlier Ju 88C and Ju 88R aircraft. Equipped with airborne interception radar and bristling with weapons, the Ju 88Gs were extremely formidable night-fighters, taking a heavy toll of Allied night bombers. They were followed by small numbers of Ju 88H aircraft which had a lengthened fuselage to provide increased internal fuel capacity, providing extra long-range Ju 88H-1 reconnaissance and Ju 88H-2 fighter aircraft. The tank-busting Ju 88P was developed from the Ju 88A-4, the Ju 88P-1 with a 75-mm PaK 40 cannon and the ensuing Ju 88P-2 to Ju 88P-4 with different combinations of heavy anti-tank weapons.


The increasing capability of Allied fighters meant that losses began to rise, leading to the higher-performance Ju 88S bomber and Ju 88T photo-reconnaissance aircraft that represented the final production versions. When production ended almost 15,000 had been built, this total emphasising the significant role that the Ju 88 had played in Luftwaffe operations.


The designed developed into the Ju.388 and the Ju.188, with more powerful engines and improved performance.


During World War II Junkers and DFS (Deutsches Forschungsinstitut fur Segelflug) developed the Mistel (Mistletoe), which comprised an unmanned bomber packed with explosive and a pick-a-back fighter whose pilot would fly the missile to its target. Tests began in 1942, using a DFS 230 glider as the lower component, with Klemm and Focke-Wulf lightplanes as carriers. For full-scale trials a Junkers Ju 88A-4 bomber was selected as the missile, fitted with an armour-piercing warhead containing 1725 kg (3803 lb) of impact-fused high explosive. The mother ship (the Germans called it Vater or Father) was a Messerschmitt Bf I09F-4. In normal flight a three-axis autopilot steered the combination on command from the fighter pilot whose control inputs were made on two thumb-buttons (rudder and aileron were linked), but for coarse control inputs or large course corrections the Bf 109’s control column and rudder pedals could be used to operate the surfaces of both aircraft. The fighter separated from the bomber over the target by means of mechanical or explosive links. A number of different Mistel composites were developed, using Junkers Ju 88s and various marks of Messerschmitt Bf 109 and Focke-Wulf Fw 190, and others were planned which were to have used Messerschmitt Me 262, Arado Ar 234 and Heinkel He 162 jets as the upper components.


The first operational use of Mistel was to have been an attack on the Royal Navy anchorage at Scapa Flow from an airfield on the coast of Denmark, but the Allied in-vasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944 brought a hasty transference of 2/KG 101's Misteln I’s (Ju 88A-4/Bf 109F-4) to St Dizier, whence five Mistel composites attacked invasion shipping on the night of 24 June (all Misteln were operated under cover of darkness be-cause of their lack of defensive armament). Four successful hits were claimed, the fifth Ju 88 having to be jettisoned. Some 82 Misteln were ready for operation by March 1945, and were employed primarily in bridge attacks (the warhead was capable of pene-trating up to 18 m/60 ft of concrete), their final sortie taking place on 16 April against Soviet bridgeheads.

 

Gallery

 

Variants:

Junkers Ju 88 A series
Development of the prototype V-6 as production aircraft. Corresponding to the prototypes, only the armament were strengthened and the prop replaced by a three-blade. The front bomb bay was omitted, but the machines received four bomb racks under the wings. The electrical undercarriage was replaced by a hydraulic system.

Ju 88 A-0
Pre-production model, similar to the A-1.

Ju88 A-1
First standard type, production starting from 1939. Powered by two Jumo B-1. The machine served as horizontal and dive bombers. Crew of 4, 2500 kg bomb load, four mg 15.

Ju 88 A-2
Modification of the Ju 88 A-1 with special equipment for catapult takeoff.

Ju 88A-3
Training version of the A-1 with dual controls and more appropriate instruments.

Ju88A-4
Mass production version as horizontal and dive bombers with 20,08 m increased span, strengthened armament, increased bomb load, more efficient engines and strengthened airframe.
Type: Twin-engine middle horizontal and dive bomber.
Wing: Cantilever low-wing aircraft. Two-spar complete metal wing. Dive brakes at height of the front spar outside of the engine cowls under the outerwings. Warm air wing de-icing.
Structure made of metal, rudders material-covers. Trim tabs in all rudders. Inflatable rubber nose for the snow and ice removal of the horizontal stabilizer. Retractable undercarriage hydraulically operated. Hydraulically brakable main wheels. Tail landing gear retractable.
Engine: Two Junkers Jumo 211 J liquid-cooled with 1410 HP take-off power. Liquid and oil cooling sections containing ring radiators. Dreiblatt VDM or Junkers adjustable metal propellers. Fuel capacity of 2900 litres in 5 tanks, between the two cross-beams. 2 x of 415 litres, 2 x of 425 litres, and 1 x of 1220 litres fuel tanks. A further tank with 680 litres contents could be built in the bomb bay.
Crew: 4 men.
Armament: 4 x mg 81,  1 x mg 131
Bomb load up to 3000 kg.
Four bomb racks under the wing centre for 2 x 1000 kg or 4 x 500 kg or 2 x 1000 and 2 x 250/500 kg. In addition 10 x 50 kg in the bimb bay.
Dimensions: Span 20 m, length 14.4 m, height of 4.85 m. weight empty 9860 kg, maximum take-off weight 14000 kg.

Ju 88A-5
Version with two Jumo 211 g-engines and the increased bomb additional load of the A-4, otherwise as the A-1.

Ju 88A-6
Modification of the A-5 with balloon cutting device. The entire construction weighed 322 kg, which had to become balanced by 59 kg weight in the tail. In addition the cutter device reduced speed by 30 km/h.Only operated for a few months then converted to sea-reconnaissance aircraft, later joining 200 "Hohentwiel".

Ju 88A-7
Trainer aircraft, derived from the A-4, with two Jumo 211 H.

Ju 88A-8
Similarly to the A-4, but with "Kuto nose" with balloon cut-off press appliance. Equipped with two Jumo 211 H.

Ju 88A-9
Tropical version of the Ju 88 A-1. Additional special equipment included water tanks, sun visors, rifles and sleeping bags.

Ju 88A-10
Tropical version of the Ju 88 A-5.

Ju 88 A-11
Tropical version of the Ju 88 A-4.

Ju 88A-12
Training aircraft with dual controls, changes from the A-4, with the widened cockpit.

Ju 88A-13
Attack airplane derivative of the Ju 88 A-4, without dive brakes, but with increased armour. This version had, so-called "watering cans" with two containers under the wing centre, each container contained 4 x mg 81, fixed forward down aiming and four fixed rear down firing.

Ju 88A-14
Naval bomber for ship target engagement with stronger armour and without dive brakes. The machine was equipped with two Jumo 211 j-engines and had an additional MG/FF.

Ju 88A-15
Bomber with a wood bomb bay, an additional load of 3000 kg and two mg 15. Three man crew.

Ju 88A-16
Training aircraft. Derived from the A-14.

Ju 88A-17
Torpedo airplane with three man crew. Derived from A-14.

Ju 88 V27
D-AWLN, B-series prototype.

Ju 88 B-0
Ten airplanes as long-range reconnaissance aircraft. The cockpit resembled that of the Ju 188. Four man crew, 3 mg 81 Z armament.

Ju 88 V25
Prototype B-3 (destroyer) only one machine built.

Ju 88 B-3
Destroyer version with two BMWS 801-Motoren. Three mg 17 and a mg 151 were fixed. For reconnaissance missions type Rb 50/30 or 20/30 cameras could be carried.

Ju88 D0/D1
Recon aircraft with 2 x Jumo 211J-1 as A4 with radar equipment, 330 built since 1940


Manufacturing numbers:
Bomber        Hunter        Reconnaissance        Battle airplanes
1939             69                
1940            1816              62                330
1941            2146              66                568
1942            2270              257              567
1943            2160              706              394
1944            661                2518            52                                 3
1945                                   355        


Engines: 2 x 1,410 h.p. Junkers Jumo 211J.
Length: 47.1 ft. (14.33 m.).
Wing span: 65.8 ft. (20.1 m.).
Weight empty: 19,510 lb. (8,850 kg.).
Max. bomb load: 4, 190 lb. (1,900 kg.)
Max Speed: 300 m.p.h. (480 km.p.h.).
Range: 2,980 miles (4,795 km.).
Crew: 4.
Armament: Up to five machine-guns.


Ju-88A-4
Engines: 2 x Junkers Jumo 211J-1, 1007kW
Max take-off weight: 14000 kg / 30865 lb
Empty weight: 9860 kg / 21738 lb
Wingspan: 20.0 m / 65 ft 7 in
Length: 14.40 m / 47 ft 3 in
Height: 4.85 m / 15 ft 11 in
Wing area: 54.50 sq.m / 586.63 sq ft
Max. speed: 470 km/h / 292 mph
Ceiling: 8200 m / 26900 ft
Range w/max.fuel: 2730 km / 1696 miles
Armament: 5-7 machine-guns, 2000kg of bombs
Crew: 4

Ju.88A-5
Engines: 2 x Junkers Jumo 211G, 1100-1300 hp.


Ju.88G-6
Wing span: 65 ft 10.5 in
Length: 47 ft 1.5 in
Speed: 311 mph at 20,000 ft
Ceiling: 32,500 ft
Range: 1950 miles
Armament: 3 x 20mm cannon, 3 x 7.9mm mg, 2 x 20mm Schräge Musik cannon
Crew: 3

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