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Junkers Ju.88

junkju88


At the beginning of 1935, a requirement was issued by the RLM for a high-speed bomber with three man crew.

The RLM required an armament of a mg 15 and 700-800 kg of bomb load, short wave radio, oxygen breathing plant, radio telephone system, special navigation equipment, UKW landing aid, de-icing equipment. A take-off distance of 700 m, and landing distance of 400 m was required. The time to 7000 m was to be 25 minutes, and a 1300 km range was required.

The Junkers Ju 88 was originated to meet the requirement. Designed by W.H.Evers and Al Gassner (an American), building of the first prototype, the Ju 88 V-l D-AQEN, started in March 1936. Powered by two 746kW Daimler-Benz DB 600Aa engines, its initial flight was on 21 December 1936.
 
 Junk-88-6
V-1 D-AQEN
 
After the V-1 prototype crashed on 10 April 1937, the second prototype, the V-2 W/no 4942 was completed and first flew on 10 April 1937. This machine, D-ASAZ, reached 460 km/h initially powered by two Daimler-Benz 600 engines, these were later changed to Junkers Jumo engines. The type was initially fitted with two auxiliary tail fins but these were later abandoned in favour of the single tail fin. The V-2 was later modified and fitted with a fairing in the shape of the cockpit for the Ju.288.
 
The V-3 prototype, w/no 4943 D-AREN first flew on 13 September 1937 powered by two 1000 hp Junkers Jumo 211A engines with direct fuel injection with two speed superchargers. The Ju 88 V-3 achieved 504 km/h, and peaked at 520 km/h. It featured full military equipment and with the redesigned raised cockpit roof and a rearward firing 7.92mm machine gun.
 
The Ju 88 V-4 w/no 4944 D-ASYT first flew on 2 February 1938, with the redesigned nose and was also powered by Junkers Jumo engines. Accommodation was for a crew of four, it was fitted with dive brakes, solid nose and the gondola under the nose for the rearward firing 7.92mm MG 15 machine gun with the gunner in the prone position.
was substantially slower than the V-3.
 
A further unarmed prototype was the Ju 88 V-5 with the identification D-ATYU. It was equipped with two Jumo 211-engines. In March 1939 the fifth prototype set a 1,000km closed-circuit record of 517km/h and 500.786 km/h over 2000 km both carrying a 2000kg payload.
 
The first for the RLM requirements was the Ju 88 V-6, which first flew on 18 June 1938. It corresponded to the Ju to 88 A-1-Series. The bomb load was 1000 kg.

 

Junk-Ju88-02
Ju-88A-1

 

Goering, in the autumn 1938, assigned an order for mass production on the Ju 88. At that time the Ju 88 still was in the development stage, and at the end of 1939 only 69 were delivered.


The prototype of the destroyer variant was the Ju 88 V-7, which completed its first flight on 27 September 1938. Three further prototypes followed up to 3 February 1939.


A total of 10 prototypes was completed, and the first of the pre-production Ju 88A-0 bombers flew in early 1939, the initial Ju 88A-1 production version entering service in September 1939. On the 26th it undertook its first operational mission against British shipping in the Firth of Forth.

 

 Junk-Ju88-03
Junkers Ju88A4 with Junkers Jumo 004 turbojet

 

Early operational deployment showed that despite good performance and a worthwhile bombload, defensive armament was totally inadequate, leading to the Ju 88A-4 with increased span wings, structural strengthening to carry greater loads and gunpower increased substantially. This formed the basis for further diverse development of the type, ultimately in so many versions that a detailed listing of them is not possible: for example, the Ju 88A series extended over Ju 88A-1 to Ju 88A-17 sub-variants. While the Ju 88A was in production an improved Ju 88B was planned, with a more extensively glazed nose and power provided by two 1193kW B.M.W. 801MA radials, but flight testing showed only marginal performance improvement and only 10 pre-production Ju 88B-0 aircraft were built.

The Ju 88 was almost as fast as contemporary fighters, and such performance coupled with excellent manoeuvrability brought development of the Ju 88C series. The planned Ju 88C-1 with B.M.W. 801 MA engines was abandoned because the new Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighter had priority for this powerplant. As a result the first production version was the Ju 88C-2, this being the Ju 88A-1 converted on the production line to have a solid nose mounting three 7.92mm MG 17 machine-guns and a 20mm MG FF cannon. Defensive armament comprised two additional 7.92mm MG 15 machine-guns. The Ju 88C-4 was a heavy fighter/reconnaissance model, the Ju 88C-5 an improved heavy fighter, the Ju 88C-6a an improved Ju 88C-5, the Ju 88C-6b and Ju 88C-6c night-fighters, the Ju 88C-7a and Ju 88-C7b intruders, and the Ju 88C-7c, a heavy fighter. Alphabetically out of sequence were the Ju 88R-1 and Ju 88R-2 night-fighters, which were developed and powered by B.M.W. 801 MA engines when the supply position of this powerplant eased.

 

 


The Ju-88R-1 night fighter had radar aerials projecting from the nose.


The Ju 88D series was long-range reconnaissance aircraft based on the Ju 88A-4, in Ju 88D-1 to Ju 88D-5 variants that differed in engines, and detail. The Ju 88G series represented definitive night-fighter versions that from the early summer of 1944 replaced the earlier Ju 88C and Ju 88R aircraft. Equipped with airborne interception radar and bristling with weapons, the Ju 88Gs were extremely formidable night-fighters, taking a heavy toll of Allied night bombers. They were followed by small numbers of Ju 88H aircraft which had a lengthened fuselage to provide increased internal fuel capacity, providing extra long-range Ju 88H-1 reconnaissance and Ju 88H-2 fighter aircraft. The tank-busting Ju 88P was developed from the Ju 88A-4, the Ju 88P-1 with a 75-mm PaK 40 cannon and the ensuing Ju 88P-2 to Ju 88P-4 with different combinations of heavy anti-tank weapons.


The increasing capability of Allied fighters meant that losses began to rise, leading to the higher-performance Ju 88S bomber and Ju 88T photo-reconnaissance aircraft that represented the final production versions. When production ended almost 15,000 had been built, this total emphasising the significant role that the Ju 88 had played in Luftwaffe operations.


The designed developed into the Ju.388 and the Ju.188, with more powerful engines and improved performance.


During World War II Junkers and DFS (Deutsches Forschungsinstitut fur Segelflug) developed the Mistel (Mistletoe), which comprised an unmanned bomber packed with explosive and a pick-a-back fighter whose pilot would fly the missile to its target. Tests began in 1942, using a DFS 230 glider as the lower component, with Klemm and Focke-Wulf lightplanes as carriers. For full-scale trials a Junkers Ju 88A-4 bomber was selected as the missile, fitted with an armour-piercing warhead containing 1725 kg (3803 lb) of impact-fused high explosive. The mother ship (the Germans called it Vater or Father) was a Messerschmitt Bf I09F-4. In normal flight a three-axis autopilot steered the combination on command from the fighter pilot whose control inputs were made on two thumb-buttons (rudder and aileron were linked), but for coarse control inputs or large course corrections the Bf 109’s control column and rudder pedals could be used to operate the surfaces of both aircraft. The fighter separated from the bomber over the target by means of mechanical or explosive links. A number of different Mistel composites were developed, using Junkers Ju 88s and various marks of Messerschmitt Bf 109 and Focke-Wulf Fw 190, and others were planned which were to have used Messerschmitt Me 262, Arado Ar 234 and Heinkel He 162 jets as the upper components.


The first operational use of Mistel was to have been an attack on the Royal Navy anchorage at Scapa Flow from an airfield on the coast of Denmark, but the Allied in-vasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944 brought a hasty transference of 2/KG 101's Misteln I’s (Ju 88A-4/Bf 109F-4) to St Dizier, whence five Mistel composites attacked invasion shipping on the night of 24 June (all Misteln were operated under cover of darkness be-cause of their lack of defensive armament). Four successful hits were claimed, the fifth Ju 88 having to be jettisoned. Some 82 Misteln were ready for operation by March 1945, and were employed primarily in bridge attacks (the warhead was capable of penetrating up to 18 m/60 ft of concrete), their final sortie taking place on 16 April against Soviet bridgeheads.

 

Manufactured by Hunkers Flugzeug und Motorwerke AG, Dressau, Aschersleben, Bernberg. Halberstadt, Leopoldshall and the Leipziig factories. The Ju.88 manufacture was sub-contracted to Arado - c/nos 880001-88199, ATG – c/nos 886001-886999, Henschel – c/nos 883001-883999, Heinkel – c/nos 885001-885999, Norddeutsche Dornier Werke c/nos 88401-884999 & 887001-887999, and Siebel – c/nos 888001-888999.
 
SNCASE & AAB of France later manufactured the type, mainly out of captured/wrecked or sabotaged parts.
 
The total production of Ju.88’s was around 14,676 plus 104 prototypes – of which 3,900 were fighter or ground attack variants.
 
Some of the type were also sold to other countries, mainly ex-Luftwaffe aircraft –
Bulgaria
Finland – 24 during 1943
France – mainly captured aircraft
Hungary – 23 D-1/D-5 during 1942 + 20 + 2 C types during 1943 + 12 during 1944
Italy – approx 70 during 1943
Japan – some during 1943
Romania – 20 aircraft + 77 A-4 during 1943
Russia – 2 K type during 1940, W/no 0885023 D-AXVL & W/no 0885025 D-AXVM
Spain – around 20 A-0 type during 1940
RAF – approx 5 captured aircraft

 

Gallery

 

Variants:

Engines: 2 x 1,410 h.p. Junkers Jumo 211J.
Length: 47.1 ft. (14.33 m.).
Wing span: 65.8 ft. (20.1 m.).
Weight empty: 19,510 lb. (8,850 kg.).
Max. bomb load: 4, 190 lb. (1,900 kg.)
Max Speed: 300 m.p.h. (480 km.p.h.).
Range: 2,980 miles (4,795 km.).
Crew: 4.
Armament: Up to five machine‑guns.
 
Ju.88 V-1
Range: 1200 miles normal
 
Ju.88 V-2
Maximum speed: 289 mph
Service ceiling: 19,680 ft
Range: 1240 miles
 
Ju.88 V-5
Maximum speed: 321.25 mph
 
Ju.88 V-6
Maximum speed: 301 mph
Service ceiling: 22,300 ft
Range: 1520 miles
 
Ju.88 V-7
Maximum speed: 340 mph
Service ceiling: 32,800 ft
Range: 1660 miles
 
Ju 88 V25
Prototype B-3 (destroyer) only one machine built.
 
Ju 88 V27
D-AWLN, B-series prototype.
 
Junkers Ju 88 A series
Development of the prototype V-6 as production aircraft. Corresponding to the prototypes, only the armament were strengthened and the prop replaced by a three-blade. The front bomb bay was omitted, but the machines received four bomb racks under the wings. The electrical undercarriage was replaced by a hydraulic system. 
Service ceiling: 22,700 ft
 
Ju 88 A-0
Pre-production model, similar to the A-1.
 
Ju88 A-1
First standard type, production starting from 1939. Powered by two Jumo B-1. The machine served as horizontal and dive bombers..
Maximum speed w/ext bombload: 276 mph
Max speed SL: 279 mph
Max speed 16,000 ft: 281 mph
Cruise speed: 220 mph
Landing speed: 87 mph
Climb rate: 1370 fpm
Climb to 16,400 ft: 25 min 35 sec
Service ceiling: 26,700 ft
Range: 935 miles
Range: 1550 miles max
Fuel capacity: 369-638 gal + 788 gal aux aft bomb bay tank
Crew of 4
2500 kg bomb load, four mg 15
 
Ju 88 A-2
Modification of the Ju 88 A-1 with special equipment for catapult takeoff.
Maximum speed: 266 mph
Climb to 16,400 ft: 25 min 35 sec
Service ceiling: 22,300 ft
Range: 1550 miles max
 
Ju 88A-3
Training version of the A-1 with dual controls and more appropriate instruments.
Maximum speed: 266 mph
Climb to 16,400 ft: 25 min 35 sec
Service ceiling: 22,300 ft
Range: 1550 miles max
 
Ju88A-4
Mass production version as horizontal and dive bombers with 20,08 m increased span, strengthened armament, increased bomb load, more efficient engines and strengthened airframe.
Type: Twin-engine middle horizontal and dive bomber.
Wing: Cantilever low-wing aircraft. Two-spar complete metal wing. Dive brakes at height of the front spar outside of the engine cowls under the outerwings. Warm air wing de-icing.
Structure made of metal, rudders material-covers. Trim tabs in all rudders. Inflatable rubber nose for the snow and ice removal of the horizontal stabilizer. Retractable undercarriage hydraulically operated. Hydraulically brakable main wheels. Tail landing gear retractable.
Engine: Two Junkers Jumo 211 J liquid-cooled with 1410 HP take-off power. Liquid and oil cooling sections containing ring radiators.
Dreiblatt VDM or Junkers adjustable metal propellers.
Wingspan: 20.0 m / 65 ft 7 in
Length: 14.40 m / 47 ft 3 in
Height: 4.85 m / 15 ft 11 in
Wing area: 54.50 sq.m / 586.63 sq ft
Max take-off weight: 14000 kg / 30865 lb
Empty weight: 9860 kg / 21738 lb
Fuel capacity of 2900 litres in 5 tanks, between the two cross-beams. 2 x of 415 litres, 2 x of 425 litres, and 1 x of 1220 litres fuel tanks. A further tank with 680 litres contents could be built in the bomb bay.
Crew: 4
Max. speed: 470 km/h / 292 mph
Max speed 17,500 ft: 292 mph
Max speed 19,680 ft: 280 mph
Cruise speed: 240 mph
Climb rate: 1312 fpm
Climb to 16,400 ft: 25 min 35 sec
Climb to 17,500 ft: 23 min 0 sec
Service Ceiling: 8200 m / 26900 ft
Range: 1112 miles normal
Range w/max.fuel: 2730 km / 1696 miles
Armament: 4 x mg 81, 1 x mg 131
Bomb load up to 3000 kg.
Four bomb racks under the wing centre for 2 x 1000 kg or 4 x 500 kg or 2 x 1000 and 2 x 250/500 kg. In addition 10 x 50 kg in the bimb bay.
 
Ju.88A-4R
Max speed 17,500 ft: 273 mph
Climb to 16,400 ft: 25 min 35 sec
Climb to 17,500 ft: 23 min 0 sec
Service ceiling: 27,850 ft
Range: 1550 miles max
Range: 650 miles
Range: 1110 miles full bombload
 
Ju 88A-5
Version with two Jumo 211 g-engines 1100-1300 hp and the increased bomb additional load of the A-4, otherwise as the A-1.
Maximum speed: 280 mph
Climb to 16,400 ft: 25 min 35 sec
Service ceiling: 27,850 ft
Range: 1398 miles
 
Ju 88A-6
Modification of the A-5 with balloon cutting device. The entire construction weighed 322 kg, which had to become balanced by 59 kg weight in the tail. In addition the cutter device reduced speed by 30 km/h.Only operated for a few months then converted to sea-reconnaissance aircraft, later joining 200 "Hohentwiel".
Range: 1550 miles max
 
Ju.88A-6U
Maximum speed: 260 mph
Climb to 16,400 ft: 25 min 35 sec
Service ceiling: 23,620 ft
Range: 1860 miles
 
Ju 88A-7
Trainer aircraft, derived from the A-4, with two Jumo 211 H.
Maximum speed: 289 mph
Climb to 16,400 ft: 25 min 35 sec
Service ceiling: 23,620 ft
Range: 1550 miles max
 
Ju 88A-8
Similarly to the A-4, but with "Kuto nose" with balloon cut-off press appliance. Equipped with two Jumo 211 H.
 
Ju 88A-9
Tropical version of the Ju 88 A-1. Additional special equipment included water tanks, sun visors, rifles and sleeping bags.
 
Ju 88A-10
Tropical version of the Ju 88 A-5.
 
Ju 88 A-11
Tropical version of the Ju 88 A-4.
 
Ju 88A-12
Training aircraft with dual controls, changes from the A-4, with the widened cockpit.
Maximum speed: 260 mph
Climb to 16,400 ft: 25 min 35 sec
Service ceiling: 23,620 ft
 
Ju 88A-13
Attack airplane derivative of the Ju 88 A-4, without dive brakes, but with increased armour. This version had, so-called "watering cans" with two containers under the wing centre, each container contained 4 x mg 81, fixed forward down aiming and four fixed rear down firing.
Maximum speed: 260 mph
Climb to 16,400 ft: 25 min 35 sec
Service ceiling: 23,620 ft
 
Ju 88A-14
Naval bomber for ship target engagement with stronger armour and without dive brakes. The machine was equipped with two Jumo 211 j-engines and had an additional MG/FF.
Maximum speed: 273 mph
Climb to 16,400 ft: 25 min 35 sec
Service ceiling: 23,620 ft
Range: 1550 miles max
 
Ju 88A-15
Bomber with a wood bomb bay, an additional load of 3000 kg and two mg 15. Three man crew.
Service ceiling: 23,620 ft
Range: 1550 miles max
 
Ju 88A-16
Training aircraft. Derived from the A-14.
 
Ju 88A-17
Torpedo airplane with three man crew. Derived from A-14.
Maximum speed: 295 mph
Climb to 16,400 ft: 25 min 35 sec
Service ceiling: 28,215 ft
Range: 1860 miles
 
Ju 88 B-0
Ten airplanes as long-range reconnaissance aircraft. The cockpit resembled that of the Ju 188. Four man crew, 3 mg 81 Z armament.
Maximum speed: 332 mph
Cruise speed: 310 mph
Landing speed: 109 mph
Service ceiling: 30,840 ft
Range: 1550 miles norm
Range: 1770 miles max
 
Ju 88 B-3
Destroyer version with two BMWS 801-Motoren. Three mg 17 and a mg 151 were fixed. For reconnaissance missions type Rb 50/30 or 20/30 cameras could be carried.
 
Ju.88C
Engines: Junkers Jumo
Maximum speed: 311 mph
Cruise speed: 278 mph
Climb to 16,400 ft: 13 min 48 sec
Service ceiling: 22,400 ft
Range: 650 miles
Range: 1540 miles aux tanks, no load
 
Ju.88C-6
Max speed 19,680 ft: 306 mph
Landing speed: 90 mph
Climb to 19,680 ft: 12 min 45 sec
Service ceiling: 32,500 ft
Range: 645 miles normal
Range: 1243 miles max
 
Ju.88C-6c
Climb rate: 1770 fpm
 
Ju88 D0/D1
Recon aircraft with 2 x Jumo 211J-1 as A4 with radar equipment, 330 built since 1940
 
Ju.88D-1
Maximum speed: 295 mph
Cruise speed: 264 mph
Landing speed: 87 mph
Service ceiling: 28,215 ft
Range: 1830 miles
 
Ju.88G
Max speed SL: 270 mph
Max speed 29,855 ft: 389 mph w/MW-50 boost
Endurance: 3 hr 45 min
 
Ju.88G-1
Max speed 27,900 ft: 342
Service ceiling: 32,500 ft
Range: 1550 miles max
 
Ju.88G-6
Wing span: 65 ft 10.5 in
Length: 47 ft 1.5 in
Speed: 311 mph at 20,000 ft
Ceiling: 32,500 ft
Range: 1950 miles
Armament: 3 x 20mm cannon, 3 x 7.9mm mg, 2 x 20mm Schräge Musik cannon
Crew: 3
 
Ju.88G-7
Max speed 33,455 ft: 363 mph
Climb rate: 1645 fpm
Climb to 30,185 ft: 26 min 24 sec
Range: 1420 miles
 
Ju.88G-7b
Service ceiling: 32,800 ft
 
Ju.88G-7C
Maximum speed: 402 mph
 
Ju.88H
Range: 2980 miles norm
Range: 3200 miles max
Endurance: 12 hr
 
Ju.88H-1
Maximum speed: 260 mph
Cruise speed: 230 mph
Landing speed: 87 mph
Service ceiling: 26,240 ft
Range: 1240 miles
 
Ju.88K
Max speed 15,600 ft: 317 mph
Cruise speed: 264 mph
Service ceiling: 29,800 ft
Range: 1310 miles
Endurance: 5 hr 30 min
 
Ju.88P-4
Maximum speed: 260 mph
Cruise speed: 230 mph
Landing speed: 87 mph
Service ceiling: 26,240 ft
Range: 1240 miles
 
Ju.88R-2
Maximum speed: 360 mph
Cruise speed: 315 mph
Landing speed: 99 mph
Service ceiling: 30,175 ft
Range: 1860 miles
 
Ju.88S-1
Maximum speed: 372 mph
Max speed 26,250 ft: 379 mph w/GM-1 boost
Max speed 27,900 ft: 382 mph
Cruise speed: 289 mph
Climb rate: 1804 fpm
Service ceiling: 34,450 ft / 37,750 w/GM boost
Range: 1240 miles
Endurance: 5 hr 45 min
 
Ju.88S-2
Max speed 32,800 ft: 384 mph
 
Ju.88T-3
Max speed 3290 ft: 404 mph
Max speed 27,900 ft: 410 mph w/GM-1 boost
Range: 2000 miles

 

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