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Itoh Emi 3
Though by around 1916 demonstration flights by early Japanese aircraft were beginning to be commercially viable, there were no suitable seaplanes. Otojiiro Otoh, who had designed and built Japan's second commercial landplane, the Itoh Emi 1, was encouraged to fill the gap. The result was the Emi 3, completed in August 1917.
Like most aircraft of its time, it was a wooden-framed and fabric covered biplane. It was a two-bay design with wings braced by two pairs of parallel, vertical interplane struts on each side but, as the upper wing had a significantly longer span, there was also pairs of parallel, outward- leaning struts to brace the overhang. Only the upper wings carried ailerons.
Its water-cooled 80 hp (60 kW) Hall-Scott V-8 engine drove a two-bladed propeller. Close behind it there was an open cockpit for one passenger; the pilot's cockpit was just aft of the upper wing trailing edge. The Emi 3's fuselage was flat-sided and quite slender, with the horizontal tail mounted on its top. Its fin had a triangular profile and carried a rudder of roughly parallelogram profile.
It had twin floats, mounted with a pair of single struts to the fuselage forward and a transverse W-form strut to the fuselage and lower wing aft.
The Emi 3 was built at Itoh's Inage Beach site and, assisted by Toyokichi Daiguchi and Toyotaro Yamagata, and with the help of student pilots, the aeroplane was completed in August 1917. Flight tests by several pilots found its performance, stability and handling were good.
Test flights over, the Emi 3 was taken by rail to Osaka. In preparation for demonstration flights, the Emi 3 Seaplane was assembled and maintained in a hangar located on the beach at Nishinomiya, just west of Osaka. Spectators' fees made these flights a commercial success for Japan's first passenger-carrying floatplane. Itoh named the only example Seagull (Kamome, かもめ).
Powerplant: 1 × Hall-Scott water-cooled V8, 60 kW (80 hp)
Propeller: 2-bladed wooden
Upper wingspan: 15.41 m (50 ft 7 in)
Wing area: 46.5 sq m (501 sq ft)
Length: 7.27 m (23 ft 10 in)
Height: 4.51 m (14 ft 10 in)
Empty weight: 580 kg (1,279 lb)
Maximum speed: 43kt (50mph)
Crew: one
Capacity: one passenger
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