De Havilland DH 100 Vampire / Sea Vampire
Sud-Est SE 530 / 535 Mistral
The design began in 1941, to satisfy Air Ministry Specification E.6/41 for an interceptor fighter to be powered by the then-developing Halford-designed de Havilland H-1 Goblin turbojet of 2,700 lb St (1 226 kgp), the twin-boom configuration of this aircraft was virtually dictated by the chosen power plant. This was because a single turbojet was to provide the total thrust; as this was very limited in early engines, it was necessary to ensure that power loss from the jet tailpipe was restricted to an absolute minimum by keeping the tailpipe as short as possible.
The first flight of the prototype, made by Geoffrey de Havilland jr, took place at Hatfield in Hertfordshire on 20 September 1943 powered by a 12kN de Havilland Goblin turbojet, just 16 months after the start of design the aircraft (LZ548/G) featuring pointed fins. Two further prototypes (LZ551/G and MP838/G) quickly joined the flight programme, the latter car-rying the planned armament of four 20-mm Hispano cannon under the nose which, like the Mosquito, was of plywood and balsa construction, the remainder of the aircraft being metal. Like the Mosquito's fuselage, this was built in two half-shells which were joined top and bottom. The monoplane wing was an all-metal structure, incorporating the engine air intakes in the wing roots, split trailing-edge flaps, air brakes and ailerons. The pilot, was seated well forward in the central nacelle beneath a three-piece canopy (replaced later by a bubble canopy).
The name was changed from Spider Crab to Vampire when on 13 May 1944 a contract for 120 production examples of the Vampire F.Mk 1 (later increased to 300) was placed for manufacture by the English Electric Company, Preston. The first production aircraft (TG274/G), with square-cut fins and Goblin turbojet (as the Halford engine was named) was flown at Samlesbury on 20 April 1945, becoming the first British fighter with a speed of over 805 km/h (500 mph). Pre-service and handling trials occupied the remainder of 1945, however, and the Vampire saw no operational service during the war
The first production F.1 Vampire was powered by the same engine as the prototype, as were the next 39 aircraft. Subsequent F.1 had 3,100 lb / 13.8kN Goblin Gn.2 engines and a pressurised cockpit, the first 50 production Vampires lacking this feature. Entering service too late to make a contribution to World War II, the first squadron to operate the Vampire was 247 Squadron at Chilbolton in Hampshire, taking delivery of their first aircraft in March 1946 and becoming operational in April.
Production of the Vampire F Mk I, with 3,100 lb St (1407 kgp) Goblin II, was undertaken by English Electric, which built a total of 174 for the RAF and 70 for Sweden’s Flygvapen, delivered from 1946; Switzerland’s Flugwaffe acquired four Vampire Is for evaluation in 1946 and El Cuerpo de Aviaçion Militar of Dominica acquired 25 from Flygvapnet in 1952. One supplied to RCAF.
Based on the positive test results achieved with the DH-100 Mk 1, the decision for a new combat aircraft foe the Swiss Air Force was at the end of 1948 and a series of 75 DH-100 MK6s were ordered. In May 1949, the first aircraft were taken over and replaced obsolete Me109 E-1/3 and Morane D-3800/01. All airplanes were flown to Switzerland from Hatfield, England to Emmen without any incidents. The 75 aircraft (J-1005 to J-1079) were delivered in the years 1949 and 1950.
A year later licence production of a second series of 100 aircraft by FFA began. The 100 licence built DH-100 Mk 6 Vampire (J-1101 to J-1200) were in service from 1951 onwards. Until 1960, all vampires were still in operation without Martin Baker's seats. Against the heat in the summer, due to the insufficient air conditioning, a light flightsuit and white helmets were introduced.At the beginning of the 1960s, the vampires were equipped with a Martin Baker sling seat, an emergency package, a new joystick and a new cabin roof with single glazing.
The DH-100 Mk 6 Vampire were operational from 1949 to 1973, but most aircraft were retired during 1968/1969. In Switzerland, they were in use from 1949 to 1990. On 12th June 1990, the last Vampire at the Emmen airfield were taken out of the pilot school. A respectable number was written off in 1974, but liquidations were still carried out until 1988. From 1953, two-seater (DH-115) were also used.
The Vampire F Mk 3 was similar to the Mk I but carried 100-imp gal (454-l) drop tanks and had a revised tail unit with lower tailplane, rounded rudders and a tailplane/fin acorn fairing. Production by EEC totalled 117 for the RAF and 85 for the RCAF. The RNoAF evaluated four Mk 3s and the Fuerza Aérea Mexicana acquired 15 from the RCAF in 1961. To adapt the Vampire for ground attack duties, de Havilland introduced a strengthened and clipped wing (first flown on a Mk I airframe on 29 June 1948) to produce the FB Mk 5. With the basic airframe of the F Mk 3 and a 3,100 lb st (1 407 kgp) Goblin 2 or 4,400 lb st (1 998 kgp) Goblin 2/2 turbojet, the Vampire FB Mk 5 had a longer-stroke undercarriage and in addition to the four 20-mm British Hispano cannon could carry, on wing strong points inboard and outboard of the booms, eight 60-lb (27-kg) RPs and two 500-lb (227-kg) or two 1,000-lb (454-kg) bombs, or two 200 Imp gal (9091) drop tanks. The first of 888 FB Mk 5s for the RAF flew on 23 June 1948; some of these were diverted either new or secondhand to the RNZAF, SAAF, Armée de lAir, Aeronautica Militare Italiana and the Lebanon Air Force. Specific export versions similar to the FB Mk Shad the 3,350 lb st (1 521 kgp) Goblin 3 and improved performance; these included the FB Mk 50 for Sweden’s Flygvapnet and the FB Mk 52 built for Egypt, Finland, Iraq, India, New Zealand, Norway and Venezuela.
In New Zealand it became the RNZAF’s first jet fighter, with 58 examples serving between 1951 and 1972 before their replacement by the Strikemasters and Skyhawks.
In the early 1950s, De Havilland produced a two-seat night-fighter version, the NF10, and these aircraft formed the backbone of the RAF's night-fighter force until the arrival of the Meteor NF11. A total of 95 two-seat NF.10 Vampire night-fighters also served in an interim capacity with the RAF from 1951, pending the introduction of Meteor and Venom night fighters.
The T11 trainer version was a development of the NF10 and the type continued in service until well into the 1980s.
The last major variant was the Vampire T.11 two- seat trainer, over 800 of which were built.
The Royal Navy had a small number of F.20 Sea Vampires, generally similar to the RAF's FB.5, and 74 T.22 two-seat trainers derived from the T.11.
Foreign licence production comprised 100 FB Mk 6 by FFA in Switzerland; 80 FB Mk 52A by Macchi and Fiat in Italy; 183 by SNCASE in France in addition to 67 assembled from British components and 281 by HAL in India including 34 from imported components.
Production of single-seat Vampires for the RAF ended with 381 FB Mk 9s, essentially a FB.Mk.5 with cockpit air conditioning for Far East service and 3350 lb thrust. Seventeen ex-Swedish FB Mk 50s were transferred to Dominica in 1956, and ex-RAF Mk 9s went to Rhodesia (5), Jordan and Ceylon.
Three Vampire Is were fitted with 4,500 lb St (2043 kgp) Rolls-Royce Nene 1 engines to Specification F. 11/4S for evaluation but no production of the proposed F Mk II to this standard was undertaken in the UK. After further modification by Boulton Paul to enlarge the wing-root air intakes, one of the three Nene-engined aircraft was shipped to Australia to become the pattern aircraft for 57 Vampire F Mk 30s built by de Havilland for the RAAF. With a 5,000 lb st (2270 kgp) Nene 2-VH assembled in Australia by CAC, the first Vampire 30 flew on 29 June 1948, this and subsequent aircraft having the same tail unit as the British Mk 3 and “elephant ear” intakes above the rear fuselage. Twenty-three FB Mk 31s had a similar airframe to that of the RAF’s FB Mk 5, and 28 Mk 30s were converted to the same standard. Two examples in 1951 became F Mk 32s with cockpit air conditioning, as in the British Mk 9, and ejection seats. The Mk T.35 Vampire was licence built at Bankstown during the 1950s for the Royal Australian Air Force and is outwardly identical to the de Havilland T.11 Vampire. One major dif-ference is that the T.35 has hydraulic “maxaret” anti-skid brakes compared to the T.11 s pneumatic system, and the engine is slightly different, being a Mk.5 Goblin compared to the Mk.11 engine. The Mk.T.35 was equipped with Martin Baker Mk.IB ejection seats.
On 14 July 1948 six Vampire 3s of No.54 Squadron became the first ever jet aircraft to fly across the Atlantic under their own power.
Only the F. 1, and the Nene powered F.2 (not adopted by the RAF, but later Nene powered aircraft were built under licence in Australia and France, the latter being named Mistral) had the original, squared off style tail. The F.3 had a smaller, more rounded type of a shape that was almost a De Havilland trademark. As for the two seaters: these initially had a tail similar to the F.3, etc, but with taller rudders, latter the acorn fairing was deleted and the fin area increased so it extended forward in a gentle curve. Up to the F.3 the wingtips were rounded, but on the FB.5 fighter-bomber the rounded portion was deleted, the result being a "clipped" wing of slightly reduced span.
After assembling 67 Vampire FB Mk 5 single-seat fighters from British-supplied components and licence-building a further 120 aircraft in their entirety, the Societe Nationale de Constructions Aeronautiques de Sud-Est (SNCASE) began production of a more powerful version of the basic aircraft. Assigned the designation Vampire Mk 53 by the parent company and given the appellation of SE 530 by Sud-Est, this was developed for the Armee de l'Air. It utilised the basic Mk 5 airframe mated with the 2270kg Hispano-built Nene 102, the wing root intakes being enlarged and the split-trunk intake of the Hawker P.1040 being adapted to provide the extra air demanded for the rear face of the Nene's double-sided impeller. Fuel tankage was increased, cabin pressurisation introduced and the pilot was provided with an SNCASO ejection seat. A pre-series of four aircraft was built, the first of these flying on 1 April 1951. Baptised Mistral, the type entered series production in SE 532 form, the first flying in December 1951 and 97 being built. These were followed by 150 examples of the SE 535, the last of which was delivered on 25 March 1954. The SE 535 was powered by the Nene 104 with similar rating to the Nene 102B of the SE 532, and, in addition to its four 20mm HS 404 cannon, could carry eight T-10 or HVAR rockets, or two 450kg bombs. The Mistral internal fuel tanks in the fuselage and wings can be supplemented by two large underwing tanks. The Mistral entered Armee dl'Air service in 1952 and was finally withdrawn in 1961.
Deck-landing trials with one of the prototype D.H. 100 Vampire fighters began aboard HMS Ocean as early as 3 December 1945, these being the first-ever carrier operations by a pure jet aircraft. Successful trials with two fully-navalised Vampire I conversions led to an order for 30 Sea Vampire F Mk 20s, the first of which flew in October 1948. Armed with four 20-mm cannon and with the basic airframe of the Vampire FB Mk 5, they served primarily in a training role to give Fleet Air Arm pilots jet experience. Six RAE Vampire F Mk 3s were converted to Sea Vampire 21s, with reinforced undersides and armament removed, for use in flexible deck landing trials at RAE Farnborough and on HMS Warrior in 1947-55.
The total built include 804 in UK, fifty in India and 109 in Australia.
The Sea Vampire T.22 land-based pilot trainer was ordered in 1952 by the RAAF. Thirteen were delivered, the first in June 1954 and the last in August 1959.
A total of 85 Vampires were delivered to the RCAF between 1948 and 1950. They were built for the RCAF in a contract dated June 13, 1946, the first aircraft flying on June 3, 1947. Construction of the entire batch was carried out by English Electric at their Preston, Lancashire, plant with test flying undertaken at Samlesbury. They received RCAF numbers 17001 to 17042 and 17044 to 17086. After their retirement, 27 were sold to Fliteways Inc at West Bend, Wisconsin, possibly in early 1958.
The President of Fliteways Ine, Merle C Zuelilke, wanted to introduce these former military jets onto the private market as fast hacks or executive aircraft - some had already been sold to private owners. However, the American Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) was not keen on the idea of Cessna/Piper Cub pilots zipping about in jets, and so introduced a number of restrictions. New Vampire F.3 owners suddenly found that they could only register them in the experimental/exhibition category - as was the case with N6877D (formerly 17069, constructor's number EEP 42387) - which meant that every flight had to be authorised ahead of time, be made under Visual Flight Rules conditions, and be registered on a flight plan. Intended destinations, be they airports or runways, also had to be approved by an FAA safety agent before a flight could take place. Not surprisingly the FAA killed the market stone dead in the US, leaving Fliteways with a number of Vampires it could not sell.
At about the same time (1960) the Mexican Air Force was looking for a fighter aircraft.
The aircraft were flown to Mexico in groups initially by Minnesota Air National Guard pilots, but this idea was abandoned after the local ANG Commanding Officer suffered an engine blow-out in FAM-4 (N6875D, formerly RCAF 17019). This was later repaired at a cost of $9,000 for a new wing, nose landing gear, new engine, electrical system and hydraulic system. It is reported that Mr Leo Geib of West Bend ferried most of the aircraft in Mexico and helped to check out the Mexican pilots. One group of FAM Vampires (FAM-13, FAM-6 and FAM-1) were photographed during their stopover at Love Field, Dallas, Texas in February 1961, as they made their way to Mexico.
It was reported in the Mexican Air Force magazine Anuahuac, that by February 14, 1961, 12 of the 15 Vampires had been delivered to BAM- 1 (Base Aerea Militar - Military Air Base No 1) at Santa Lucia, outside Mexico City. Eventually all 15 were delivered, but it appears that one was damaged en route at Acapulco, Gueffero - repairs to FAM-6 cost $2,000 and required, among other things, new landing gear. Only 14 Vampires were flown operationally, the 15th aircraft was possibly used as a spares source. The number FAM-15 was later allocated to one of the two Mk 11 trainers. The Escuadron Aireo 200 was chosen to receive the Vampires.
One thing that the Escuadron Aireo Jet de Pelea 200 lacked was a suitable training aircraft to convert pilots to the Vampires. By 1962 the Mexican Air Force had acquired two de Havilland Vampire T.11 two-seat trainers, one being WZ414 which was the first production Mk 11 to enter service in the RAF in 1952. It had been built by de Havilland at Christchurch and spent some time at the Aeroplane & Armament Experimental Establishment at Boscombe Down and with the Empire Test Pilot School. It was declared a non effective airframe on January 29, 1960 and sold to Shackleton Aviation on January 5, 1962. The other was XD439 (built by de Havilland at Chester) which was delivered to the RAF in 1954, and had once served at the Central Navigation and Control School at Shawbury. It was retired to 19 Maintenance Unit at St Athan on May 11, 1959 and was sold to Shackletons on the same date as WZ414. Their date of arrival in Mexico is not known.
In 1970 fears over safety, grounded the Vampires - even the Mk 11 trainers were considered to be unsafe as there were no more stocks of cartridges for their ejection seats. This occurred during the tenure of Gral Brig P A Jose Vergara Ahumada, as chief of the air force. For many years the surviving F.3s and the two T.11 s were stored in one of the hangars at BAM-1. It was later reported that some of the F.3s were sent as training aids to the Aviation Mechanic School at BAM-5 at Zapopan, Jalisco. Others provided background scenery for the 1969 Mexican movie Aguilas de Acero (Iron Eagles) filmed at BAM-1.
Years later some of the aircraft were scrapped - one of the Mk.IIs met a similar demise, but the cockpit section went to a private collector in Mexico City. The other Mk 11 is preserved at the main army base inside Mexico City - where, for many years, there was also Mk 3 No 5 acting as gate guard, wearing an incorrect camouflage scheme. It was removed in 1992, restored and, then put on display in the grounds of the new Mexican Air Force HQ building in Mexico City. No 13 is on display at the Military Aviation School (Colegio del Aire) at BAM--5 at Zapopan, as a tribute to the first jet fighters of the Fuerza Airea Mexicana.
3268 DH-100 Vampires were built, a quarter of them under licence.
Engine: one 1225-kg (2,700-lb) thrust de Havilland Goblin 1 centrifugal--flow turbojet.
Max speed 824 km/h (512 mph) at 10365 m (34,000 ft)
Initial climb 1235 m (4,050 ft) per mi-nute
Service ceiling 12620 m (41,400 ft)
Range 1190 km (740 miles)
Empty weight 2803 kg (6,180 lb)
Maximum take-off 4627 kg (10,200 lb)
Wing span 12.19 m (40 ft 0 in)
Length 9.37 m (30 ft 9 in)
Height 2.69 m (8 ft 10 in)
Wing area 24.71 sq.m (266.0 sq.ft)
Armament: four 20-mm Hispano cannon
Engine: 1 x de Havilland Goblin, 2700 lbst
Wingspan: 11.58 m / 38 ft 0 in
Length: 10.49 m / 34 ft 6 in
Max. speed: 885 km/h / 531 mph
Engine: 1 x de Havilland Goblin 2 engine, 3,100 lbst (1,407kgst).
Max take-off weight: 3890 kg / 8576 lb
Empty weight: 2890 kg / 6371 lb
Wingspan: 12.2 m / 40 ft 0 in
Length: 9.4 m / 30 ft 10 in
Height: 2.7 m / 8 ft 10 in
Wing area: 24.7 sq.m / 265.87 sq ft
Max. speed: 869 km/h / 540 mph
Range w/max.payload: 1175 km / 730 miles
Armament: 4 x 20mm cannons
F Mk 3
Engine: One 3,100 lb thrust de Havilland Goblin D.Gn.2 turbojet
Span, 40 ft 0 in (12,20 m).
Length, 30 ft 9 in (9,37 m).
Height, 6 ft 3 in (1,9 1 m).
Wing area, 266 sq ft (24,71 sq.m).
Empty weight, 7,134 lb (3239 kg).
Normal loaded weight, 12,170 lb (5 525 kg).
Maximum weight: 11,970 lb (5429 kg)
Max speed, 531 mph (854 km/h) at sea level and 505 mph (813 km/h) at 30,000 ft (9 145 m).
Range, 1,145 mls (1 842 km) at 30,000 ft (9 145 m) at 350 mph (563 km/h).
Initial climb, 4,375ft/min (22,2 m/sec).
FB Mk 5
Engine: de Havilland Goblin turbojet, 3100 lb thrust.
Max speed, 530 mph (846 km/h) at sea level, 540 mph at 20,000 ft, 482 mph (772 km/h) at 40,000 ft (12200 m).
Range, 1,145 mls (1 842 km) at 30,000 ft (15 150 m) at 350 mph (563 km/h).
Empty weight, 7,253 lb (3 310 kg).
Max loaded weight, 12,360 lb (5632 kg).
Span, 38 ft 0 in (11,50 m).
Length. 30 ft 9 in (9,37 m).
Height, 6 ft 3 in (1,91 m).
Wing area, 261 sq ft (24,25 sq.m).
Armament: 4 x 30mm mg + 2000 lb disposable stores.
Vampire Mk. 6
Engine: de Havilland Goblin 2, 3,100lbs (1,405kg)
Wing Span: 40ft (12.2m)
Length: 30ft 9in (9.4m)
Height: 8ft 10in (2.7m)
Speed: 531mph (855km)
Ceiling: 43,500ft (13,260m)
Max ROC: 15,0 m/s
Endurance: 1 hr
Engine: 3350 lb thrust.
Engine: Goblin centrifugal-flow.
Engine: 1 x 3,500 lbs.t. (1588 kgp) de Havilland Goblin 35.
Max speed, 549 mph (883 kph) at 20,000ft (6 096 m)
Cruise, 403 mph (649 kph)
Initial climb, 4,500 fpm. (22.86 m/sec)
Range, 853 mls (1373 km).
Empty weights: 7,380 lb (3 347 kg)
Loaded weight: 12,920 lb (5 860 kg).
Wingspan 38 ft (11.58 m)
Length, 34 ft 5 in (10.49 m)
Wing area, 262 sq.ft (24.33 sq.m).
Armament: Two 20-mm cannon.
Sea Vampire F.Mk.20
Span, 38 ft 0 in (11,50 m).
Length. 30 ft 9 in (9,37 m).
Height, 6 ft 3 in (1,91 m).
Wing area, 261 sq ft (24,25 sq.m).
Max speed, 526 mph (846 km/h).
Time to 25,000 ft (7620 m), 10 min.
Range, 1,145 mls (1 842 km) at 30,000 ft (9 144 m) at 350 mph (563 km/h).
Loaded weight, 12,660 lb (5 748 kg).
Sea Vampire T.22
Engine One 3,500lb thrust De Havilland Goblin 35 centrifugal turbojet
Empty weight 7,380 lb
Loaded weight 12,920 lb
Wing Span: 38 ft 10 in
Length: 34 ft 5 in
Height: 6 ft 2 in
Initial Rate of Climb: 4,500 ft per minute
Ceiling: 43,000 ft
Speed: 538 mph
Range: 623 miles
Armament 2 x 20 mm cannon , 8 x 60lb rockets
SNCASE SE 535 Mistral
Engine: Hispano-built RR Nene 104, 5000 lbst
Span: 38 ft 0 in (11,50 m).
Length: 30 ft 9 in (9,37 m)
Height: 6 ft 2 in
Wing area: 262 sq ft (24,25 sq.m).
Empty weight: 7,665 lb (3840kg).
Loaded weight (with drop tanks): 12,643 lb (5740 kg).
Max take-off weight: 13,448 lb / 6100 lb
Max speed: 575 mph (925 km/h) at sea level and 557 mph (896 kmh) at 19,685 ft (6000 m).
Initial climb: 7,086 ft/min (36 m/sec).
Service ceiling: 49,200 ft
Range w/max.fuel: 1118 miles / 1800 km
Armament: 4 x 20 mm cannon
Hardpoints: 2 x 1000 lb
Sud-Est SE 530 Mistral