Aviafiber Canard-2 FL
Bucher Canard 2FL
Variously described as a rigid-wing hang-glider or as a foot-launched sailplane, the Canard 2FL was designed by Swiss aero-dynamicist Hans Farner. Of fibreglass construction, it consisted of a small fuselage, big enough to accommodate the pilot in a prone position, provided with doors in the bottom through which the pilot's legs could protrude for take-off and landing. A large canard was fitted at the nose, and the main lifting surfaces were supported atop tall, V-shaped pylons which both generated lift and acted as vertical fins. Wings, pylons and canard have Wortmann FX-67-170 airfoil section.
Construction is fiberglass to form in the matrix of the skin and spar fiberglass laminate, with extensive use of foam filler Styrofoam. To transport the wing unit disassembled into three sections of 4.8 meters (15.8 ft), to lay on the roof of a car or trailer.
Pylons (two "V" wings) attach a high wing at the mid-point of the span on both sides - positioning the main wing out of the flow of the canard. The vee-tail pylons have a core of solid hard foam unlike the styrofoam of the wings, while the ailerons have cores of hard foam cells. The wing has a Wortmann FX-63-137 section and is a single-spar structure with a vacuum-formed shell of laminated resin and glassfibre and a core of styrofoam plate. The canard did not hinge in the horizontal axis to produce pitching moments as convention dictates, but rather twisted about the glider's longitudinal axis to control adverse yaw, thus stall was impossible (unacellerated), and Vne could not be exceeded even by deliberate pilot action. The canard was positioned out front of a fully canopied pilot pod via a slender extension. The one piece canopy/windscreen is open at the rear and for landing there is a retractable front skid and a nonretractable tailskid. A monowheel is optional for downhill rolling take-offs.
The control system is mixed. The longitudinal control, pitch, is changed by the pilot the shifting center of gravity. The pilot rotates prone on a stomach board that slides fore and aft 80 cm (32 inches). Pilot weight at launch is supported on shoulder straps. Ailerons and all-moving canards (each console can rotate (or warp) on 5 degrees relative to the longitudinal axis of the machine). On the vertical tail is mounted brakes, to control the rate of descent giving a sink rate of 0.6 m/s (120 fpm).
At first the claim of 35:1 seemed excessive but consider this, Farner had Lockhead as his client. The joined wing concept allowed an effective span of the main wing plus the pylons of around 65 feet, without the tip drag induced by the vortices of biwings.
At the start of the pilot runs on his feet, after the lift-off, pulls his legs inside the fuselage, rotated horizontally, the bottom hatch (and lantern above) is closed for the streamlining of the fuselage. Landing can take place either on the ski under the fuselage, or the pilot's legs. After launch, doors under the pilot were closed, the pilot rotated prone and the rear canopy half was closed.
The construction and development of Canark 2FL began in August 1976 in a workshop in Hinwil, Switzerland, on the basis of a previous project by Hans Farner and Ernst Ruppert, the Colibri, dating back to 1972. The Canard-2 FL made its first flight on 7 September 1977.
Aviafiber Canard 2FL
Results of flight testing with the engine running encouraged Farner and Bucher to designa dedicated motor-glider version as the Canard Aviation Canard SCM, powered by a 15–18 kW (20–24 hp) engine. Farner had previously designed a motor-glider using the FL concept as the Farner HF Colibri 1 SL, which first flew in 1979.
Test flights of the Canard took place in Vaduz. Hans Farner was killed test flying the Canard after a small number were sold. The accident that claimed the designer's life was due to over-control of pitch. The pilot strapped into a dolly that pivoted flat after takeoff. The dolly slid forward and aft on rollers and changed the CG to control pitch. The designer slid off the dolly and ended up over-controlling and fell out of the final pull-up upside down.
Ten airframes were constructed by Ruppert Composites of Wald, Switzerland, including HB-3000 (Sept 1978), HB-3001 (Apr 1979, HB-3002 (Aug 1979), and HB-3003 (Aug 1981).
The business promoter (H. Bucher) decided to withdraw the Canard 2FL, Canard SC and Canard SCM from sale, buying back all the remaining four gliders after the accident and then redesign and re-release the Canard as a sailplane. The moulds were in the small town of Wald not too far from Zurich. Another incident finally ruined the reputation of the Canard 2FL design.
One of the glider remains in the Swiss Lucerne Transport Museum.
Rochelt Solair I
Length: 4.5 m (14 ft 9 in)
Wingspan: 13.5 m (44 ft 3 in)
Wing area: 13 sq.m (140 sq ft)
Airfoil: Wortmann FX-67-170
Height: 5 ft 11 in
Empty weight: 50 kg (110 lb)
Max weight: 372 lb
Aspect ratio: 20.0
Never exceed speed: 100 km/h (62 mph; 54 kn)
Stalling speed: 24 mph
Maximum glide ratio: 31 at 37.5 mph
Minimum sink: 0.6 m/s / 120 ft/min / 1.64 ft/sec at 31 mph
Packed size: 4.8 m (15.8 ft.)