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GAZ / Leningrad North Factory State Enterprise
GAZ No.3 Krasni Liotchik
 
 GAZ-3
Central building of the former GAZ No.3 aviation factory in Leningrad.
 
The V. A. Liebediev Aviation Factory Stock Company was created on the outskirts of Petersburg, near the village of Novaya Dirievnya and very close to the Komendantski airfield. Its origins are linked to the sportsman and aviation lover V. A. Liebediev. A law student at the University of Petersburg, he decided to abandon his studies and cycling to study aviation at the Farman School in Paris, France. Upon returning to Russia in 1909, he decided, together with his brother and Captain S. A. Ulyanin, to create the Petersburg Aviation Society (PTA), with the financial support of the businessman Lomach.
 
In 1914 Liebediev built several productive buildings next to the village of Novaya Dirievnya and very close to the Komendantski airfield, which formed the basis of the new aviation factory known as the “VA Liebediev Aviation Stock Company” and intended primarily for the construction of low-cost aviation models. license, although a short time later, models of their own design began to emerge, which carried the brand “Lievied” (Swan).
 
By 1917 Liebediev decided to increase production, but unfortunately his plot at the Komendantski airfield did not allow an increase, so he was forced to build new facilities in Taganrog, Penza and Yaroslavl.
 
By that time around the Komendantski airfield, several aviation factories had already sprung up with their assembly workshops and hangars. Among them the “Gamayún” factory of S. S. Schetinin, the Russian-Baltic Wagon Factory, the factories of Slysarienko, Porojóvchkov, Meltser, Zass, Lanski. By 1918, more than half of the country's aeronautical technology factories were located around this aerodrome.
 
On March 13, 1918, by order of the newly created Soviet government, it was decided to close all the aeronautical factories in Petrograd, move the production of the "Ilya Muromets" bomber to the interior of the country and evacuate all the machinery and equipment from the city. This measure affected the small factories of Slyusarienko, Porojovschikov and Grigorovich, which were closed and their personnel and machinery transferred to other factories.
By the decree published on June 28, 1918, all aviation factories were nationalized and the Main Directorate of the Aeronautical Industry known as Glavnoavia was created for their direction. This organization, which began to function on January 1, 1919, was originally subordinated to the United Council of the Economy (VSNJ according to the acronym of Vsiesoyuzni Soviet Narodnovo Jozyaistva), but as of December 22, 1919 it was led by the Council of the Military Industry (SVP).
 
Created in Saint Petersburg in 1919 as GAZ No.3 “Krasni Liotchik”, on the basis of the nationalized Russian-Baltic Wagon Factory (RBVZ), Slyuzarienko Factory, Schetinin “Gamayún” Factory and V. A. Liebediev Factory. Between 1925 and 1927 it was the productive base of the OMOS directed by D. P. Grigorovich.
 
The first task of the new organization was to continue the development of hydrofoils for naval aviation. It was decided to develop new models on the basis of the successful Grigorovich / Schetinin M-9. In the "Gamayun" factory in Petrograd there were still several M-9s in different stages of construction, as well as parts and pieces of these models. Unfortunately on June 16, 1921 this factory caught fire, being practically destroyed. The little that was saved was sent to the RBVZ and the old factory in Lievediev.
 
After the restructuring of the economy and by Resolution of the SNJ SR of December 17, 1918, the aviation factories of Schetinin, Liebediev, Slyusarienko, Grigorovich, Meltser, Semionov, Russo-Baltic and Russian Renault were unified into a productive group under the Directorate of the Petrograd Aviation Factories Directorate (“Aviapravlenie”), subordinate to the SNJ Metal Section in the Northern Region. The balance report of this organization relating to the period between September 1918 and October 1919 defined:
 
“In January of this year the large factories of the Petrograd region were nationalized: Aeronautical Stock Company of SS Schetinin (“ Gamayún ”), Aeronautical Stock Company of VA Liebediev, aeronautics department of the Russian Wagon Factory -*Baltic. Small factories such as the Grigorovich Experiment Factory and the Porojovchikov Experiment Station were closed and their personnel and materials transferred to other factories in Petrograd. The plans were partly delivered to the "Gamayún" dedicated to naval airplanes and partly to Mosca, which builds the Porojóvchikov-4 training aircraft. The machine tools have been distributed among other factories. The factories of the Petrograd region have been unified in terms of management under Aviachast and Glavnoavia, being subordinate to the latter ”.
 
In April 1919 the “Aviaprablenie” was reorganized as the Directorate of the North Region and on December 22, 1919, in correspondence with Resolution No. 1171 of the Presidium of the VSNJ, Glavnoavia and its 10 companies were transferred to the jurisdiction of the Council of the Military Industry (SVP), known as Promsoviet, with the main objective of supplying the Red Army and the Fleet. The unified Petrograd factory was renamed the State Aviation Factory (GAZ) No.3 “Krasni Liotchik” (Red Pilot).
 
In 1920 the Directorate of the North Region became the First Unified State Aviation Factory and between 1921 and 1923 the Directorate of the First Central Unified Aviation Factory of the PSNJ in Petrograd.
 
In 1924, Factory No.3 was damaged by a flood, destroying several models and damaging the hangars and workshops. At the end of that year, D. P. Grigorovich arrived in Petrograd from Moscow, who engaged in work to recover this facility and here in 1925 he would organize the Experimental Department of Naval Construction (OMOS according to the acronym of Otdiel Morskovo Opytnovo Samoliotostroyenia).
 
OMOS brought together the best Soviet specialists in the construction of naval aviation and most of them some years later would end up becoming successful aeronautical constructors. In October 1925 as Grigorovich's second was A. N. Sidielnikov; construction manager - V. L. Korvin; aerodynamic and resistance calculations - K. A. Vigand and V. N. Belyayev (for a short time), A. L. Guimmelfarb and Z. I. Zhurbin; builders - P. D. Samsonov and V. B. Shavrov; drawing bureau - N. G. Mijelson. The group numbered only a few dozen people.
 
The first major task of the GAZ No.3 was the preparation for the serial construction of the I-2 fighter and its development I-2bis. This model remained in production together with the U-1 and its version with MU-1 floats.
 
The OMOS would be responsible for the design and construction of a series of experimental models that accumulated failure after failure, so that at the end of November 1927 Grigorovich and his collective were transferred to Moscow, located at Factory No.22 in Fili, in a new structure subordinate to the TsKB, which received the designation OPO-3 (Opytni Otdiel - 3 or Experimental Department - 3).
 
Until the mid-1920s the facilities at the Komendantski airfield were used solely for aeronautical maintenance and repair.
 
As of February 1925, GAZ No.3 became subordinate to the State Trust of the Aeronautical Industry of the USSR VSNJ.
 
On October 1, 1927, aeronautical construction became subordinate to the NKAP. In this period all the factories (not only those of aviation), began to work in the closed (secret) military system and received a new name. The GAZ No.3 was renamed NKAP Factory No.23. With the beginning of the Great Patriotic War she was evacuated to Novosibirsk (a small part to Kazan). Only repair shops remained in Leningrad.
 
On September 22, 1944, in the facilities of repair bases No.1 and No.2 of the evacuated Factory No.23 a new aviation factory was created, which received number 272 from the NKAP.
 
This factory mass-produced various models of light and trainer aircraft, primarily designed by A. S. Yakovlev's OKB. These models include the Yak-11, the Yak-12 multipurpose aircraft, the Yakovlev Yak-18 trainer and multifunctional aircraft, and the Yak-24 heavy twin-rotor helicopter.
 
After the end of the war, the Aviation Factory No.272 was established in its facilities, which at the end of the 1950s was reoriented to the production of anti-aircraft systems. From 1967 it was renamed the North Leningrad Factory.
 
From 1967 the factory was renamed the North Leningrad Factory.
 
In 1976 the factory became the North Leningrad Factory Productive Union.
 
Since the late 1970s the company began production of the advanced S-300 PMU multi-channel launch container missiles. In parallel and as part of the diversification of production towards the civil market established by the CPSU congress, the manufacture of some 20 lines of electrical appliances and household utensils was assumed.
As of November 1994, the factory changed its name again to the Leningrad North Factory State Enterprise.
 
In the company since 1994 began the introduction into production of the motorcycle "Pegas". Currently the factory continues to produce a whole family of motorcycles with domestic and imported engines.
 
 
 
 


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