Development began in the second half of the 1960s, as first fire support helicopter in USSR, with accommodation for eight armed troops. Twelve prototypes were built with the first flown on 19 September 1969. The Mi-24 has the NATO reporting name 'Hind'.
The Mi-24 has been developed in parallel forms as an assault transport with a crew of three and accommodation for an eight-man infantry squad, and as a battlefield helicopter with tandem cockpits for the gunner and pilot, a revised cabin for an armorer and reload missiles, and improved sensors for the delivery of more specialized ordnance.
First reported in the West in 1972, photographs became available in 1974 when two units of approximately squadron strength were based in East Germany. The Mi-24 uses the TV3 engines, transmission and rotor of the Mi-17 on a new fuselage, with stub wings carrying rockets and other offensive armament.
Two basic versions exist: the Hind A/B/C assault helicopter has a four-man crew under an extensive glasshouse canopy (about 250 built), while the anti-tank Hind D/E/F has a two-man crew under separate armoured glass canopies in a steel-plated forward fuselage. Both versions have stub wings to carry up to 1,500kg of stores, and eight combat equipped troops can be carried in the fuselage.
Identified by Nato is the anti-tank Hind E, armed with AT-6 Spiral missiles. A version of the Hind E without the 12.7mm Gatling-type gun in the nose, but with a twin-barrel cannon pod attached to the fuse-lage side, has been named Hind F by Nato. Hinds have also been reported carrying air-to-air missiles.
The Mi-24D has a gunship configuration, with stepped tandem seating for two crew and heavy weapon load on stub-wings, the fuselage is wide eniugh to carry eight troops. Dynamic components and power plant was originally as the Mi-8, but soon upgraded to Mi-17-type power plant and port-side tail rotor. Main rotor blade section NACA 230, thickness/chord ratio 11 to 12%; tail rotor blade section NACA 230M; stub-wing anhedral 12 degrees, incidence 19 degrees; wings contributing approximately 25% of lift in cruising flight; fin offset 3 degrees.
Five-blade constant-chord main rotor; forged and machined steel head, with conventional flapping, drag and pitch change articulation; each blade has aluminium alloy spar, skin and honeycomb core; spars nitrogen pressurised for crack detection; hydraulic lead/lag dampers; balance tab on each blade; aluminium alloy three-blade tail rotor; main rotor brake; all-metal semi-monocoque fuselage pod and boom; 5mm hardened steel integral side armour on front fuselage; all-metal shoulder wings with no movable surfaces; swept fin/tail rotor mounting; variable incidence horizontal stabiliser.
The landing gear is tricycle type; rearward-retracting steerable twin-wheel nose unit; single-wheel main units with oleo-pneumatic shock-absorbers and low-pressure tyres, size 720 x 320mm on mainwheels, 480 x 200mm on nosewheels. Main units retract rearward and inward into aft end of fuselage pod, turning through 90 degrees to stow almost vertically, discwise to longitudinal axis of fuselage, under prominent blister fairings. Tubular tripod skid assembly, with shock-strut, protects tail rotor in tail-down take-off or landing.
Power is from two Klimov TV3-117MT turboshafts, each with maximum rating of 1,434kW, side by side above cabin, with output shafts driving rearward to main rotor shaft through combining gearbox. There is 5mm hardened steel armour protection for engines. Main fuel tank in fuselage to rear of cabin, with bag tanks behind main gearbox. Internal fuel capacity 1,500kg; can be supplemented by 1,000kg auxiliary tank in cabin (Mi-24D); provision for carrying (instead of auxiliary tank) up to four external tanks, each 500 litres, on two inner pylons under each wing. Optional deflectors and separators for foreign objects and dust in air intakes; and infra-red suppression exhaust mixer boxes over exhaust ducts.
Pilot (at rear) and weapon operator on armoured seats in tandem cockpits under individual canopies; dual flying controls, with retractable pedals in front cockpit; if required, flight mechanic on jump-seat in cabin, with narrow passage between flight deck and cabin. Front canopy hinged to open sideways to starboard; footstep under starboard side of fuselage for access to pilot's rearward-hinged door; rear seat raised to give pilot unobstructed forward view; anti-fragment shield between cockpits. Main cabin can accommodate eight persons on folding seats, or four stretchers; at front of cabin on each side is a door, divided horizontally into two sections, hinged to open upward and downward respectively, with integral step on lower portion. Optically flat bulletproof glass windscreen, with wiper, for each crew member.
Systems include cockpits and cabin heated and ventilated. Dual electrical system, with three generators, giving 36, 115 and 208V AC at 400Hz, and 27V DC. Retractable landing/taxying light under nose; navigation lights; anti-collision light above tailboom. Stability augmentation system. Electrothermal de-icing system for main and tail rotor blades. AI-9V APU mounted transversely inside fairing aft of rotor head. Blind-flying instrumentation, and ADF navigation system with DISS-1SD Doppler-fed mechanical map display. Air data sensor boom forward of top starboard corner of bulletproof windscreen at extreme nose.
Mission equipment includes undernose pods for electro-optics (starboard) and Raduga-F semi-automatic missile guidance (port). Many small antennae and blisters, including SRO-2 Khrom (NATO 'Odd Rods') IFF transponder.
Sirena-3M radar warning antennae on each side of front fuselage and on trailing-edge of tail rotor pylon. Infra-red jammer (L-166V-11E Jspanka microwave pulse lamp: 'Hot Brick') in 'flower pot' container above forward end of tailboom. ASO-2V flare dispensers under tailboom forward of tailskid assembly initially; later triple racks (total of 192 flares) on sides of centre-fuselage. Gun camera on port wingtip.
Armament is one remotely controlled YakB-12.7 four-barrel Gatling-type 12.7mm machine gun, with 1,470 rounds, in VSPU-24 undernose turret with field of fire 60 degrees to each side, 20 degrees up, 60 degrees down; gun slaved to KPS-53AV undernose sighting system with reflector sight in front cockpit; four 9M17P Skorpion (NATO AT-2 'Swatter') anti-tank missiles on 2P32M twin rails under endplate pylons at wingtips; four underwing pylons for UB-32 rocket pods (each 32 S-5 type 57mm rockets), B-8V-20 pods each containing 20 80mm S-8 rockets, 130 mm S-13 and 250mm S-24 rockets, UPK-23-250 pods each containing a GSh-23L twin-barrel 23mm gun, GUV pods each containing either one four-barrel 12.7mm YakB-12.7 machine gun with 750 rounds and two four-barrel 7.62mm 9-A-622 machine guns with total 1,100 rounds or an AGS-17 Plamia 30mm grenade launcher, up to 1,500kg of conventional bombs, mine dispensers, night flares or other stores. R-60 (AA-8 'Aphid'), R-73 (AA-11 'Archer') and Igla air-to-air missiles fitted experimentally. Helicopter can be landed to install reload weapons carried in cabin. PKV reflector gunsight for pilot. Provisions for firing AKMS guns from cabin windows.
Reconfiguration of the front fuselage changed the primary role to gunship. The new version was first observed in 1977. In the early Mi-24A the pilot sat behind the armament operator and had relatively poor forward vision but the later Mi-24D provided a raised rear seating position for the pilot and a bubble nose for the weapons position.
The Mi-24 was used operationally in Chad, Nicaragua, Ceylon, Angola, Afghanistan, Chechnya and Iran/Iraq war, when at least one Iranian F-4 Phantom II destroyed by AT-6 (NATO 'Spiral') anti-tank missile from Mi-24. The Mi-25 was an export version of Mi-24D tandem-cockpit variant and Mi-35 as second and improved export variant based on upgraded versions of Mi-24.
Low-rate production continued for export until 1994. Late models continued to be available from Rostvertol. By 1991 more than 2,300 had been built at Arsenyev and Rostov. An FAI record was set by the A-10 experimental variant of the 'Hind' on 2 September 1978 over a 15/25km course it achieved a speed of 368.4km/h.
The Mi-24 has been widely exported and a number are in service on most continents, with examples delivered to, or operating in, Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bulgaria, Chad, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, India, Iraq, Libya, Mozambique, Nicaragua, North Korea, Peru, Poland, Sri Lanka, Syria, Vietnam and Yemen.
Some export variants of the Mi-24 are designated Mi-25 and Mi-35, indicating a different equipment standard. The Mi-35M having fixed undercarriage.
The Mil Experimental Design Bureau demonstrated a fundamentally modernized derivative, designated the Mi-24VM (Mi-35M), of the Mi-24 helicopter that has made a perfect showing under complicated combat conditions. The features of the modernization consist in modular updating of the Mi-24. Any module (unit) can be individually modernized in accordance with the customer's request and financial potentialities.
Installation of a new main rotor provided with blades made of glass fiber plastics, a hub furnished with elastolar bearings, and an X-shaped tail rotor developed for the Mi-28N helicopter, makes it possible to decrease the mass of the flying machine, increase its hovering ceiling and rate of climb, and improve its overall operating characteristics and invulnerability.
In modernizing the airframe, armament system and communications facilities, the Mil Design Bureau offers to install a shortened wing and nonretractable landing gear and retrofit the hydraulic system. The primary emphasis has been placed on an increase of weapon effectiveness. The Ataka air-to-ground guided missiles (ammunition establishment has been increased up to 16 missiles) have been introduced into the helicopter's armament system. The missiles can also be used against air targets similar to the Igla-V guided missiles. The 12.7mm machine-gun mount has been replaced by a 23mm aircraft cannon. The most up-to-date BVK-24 computer and a laser range finder have been introduced into the heliborne equipment. A modernization program on this scale makes it possible to increase the accuracy against a single target 1.5 times, while increasing the kill zone 2 to 2.5 times when delivering cannon fire. The combat effectiveness of employing the guided missiles increases twofold on average.
The use of night-vision goggles with flight information displayed in the field of view, and equipping the helicopter with an optronic fire-control station comprising of thermal imaging and TV channels, control channel, and laser range finder, as well as display systems, enables the crew to detect and recognize targets at night and employ the heliborne weapons both by day and night.
Most of over 2,500 built between 1970 and 1989, though smallscale production up to 1996.
Early production version, reported in 1972 but not seen until 1973; introduced into Soviet service in 1973/74
Second production model, with tail rotor moved from the starboard to port side of the tailfin; used as armed assault helicopter, carrying eight troops and three crew members
Initial production model with tail rotor on starboard side, wings without anhedral, no wingtip stations and only four underwing hardpoints; test use only
Dedicated training helicopter similar to 'Hind-A', but without nose-gun installation and wingtip stations
Modified 1973 for minesweeping.
Mi-24D: (Type 24-6; 'Hind-D')
Interim gunship version; design began 1971; entered production at Arsenyev and Rostov plants 1973; about 350 built 1973-77. Basically as late model 'Hind-A' with TV3-117 engines and port-side tail rotor, but entire front fuselage redesigned above floor forward of engine air intakes; heavily armoured separate cockpits for weapon operator and pilot in tandem; flight mechanic optional, in main cabin; transport capability retained; USUP-24 gun system, with rangefinding; undernose JakB-12.7 four-barrel 12.7mm machine gun in turret, slaved to adjacent KPS-53A electro-optical sighting pod, for air-to-air and air-to-surface use; Falanga P (Phalanx) anti-tank missile system; nosewheel leg extended to increase ground clearance of sensor pods; nosewheels semi-exposed when retracted.
Dual-control training version has no gun turret.
Mi-24K (korrektirovchik: corrector) ('Hind-G2')
As Mi-24R, but with large camera in cabin, f8/1,300mm lens on starboard side; six per helicopter regiment for reconnaissance and artillery fire correction; gun and B-8V-20 rocket pods retained. No target designator pod under nose; upward hingeing cover for IR sensor. About 150 built 1983-89.
Mi-24P (Type 24-3; 'Hind-F')
Development started 1974; about 620 built 1981-90; first shown in service in 1982 photographs; P of designation refers to pushka = cannon; as Mi-24V, but nose gun turret replaced by GSh-30-2 twin-barrel 30mm gun (with 750 rounds) in semi-cylindrical pack on starboard side of nose; bottom of nose smoothly faired above and forward of sensors.
Special version for Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs; prototype exhibited at Moscow Air Show '95. Equipment includes undernose FLIR, searchlight on port side, loadspeaker pack on starboard side; hoist, climbdown ropes, stations for radio operator.
Mi-24R 'Hind-G 1'
Fitted with wingtip 'grapplers' or 'clutching hands' apparently used in connection with NBC technology, the Mi-24R was first reported in 1986 after the Chernobyl disaster
Identified at Chernobyl after April 1986 accident at nuclear power station; no undernose electro-optical or RF missile guidance pods; instead of wingtip weapon mounts, has 'clutching hand' mechanisms on lengthened pylons, to obtain six soil samples per sortie for NBC (nuclear/biological/chemical) warfare analysis; air samples sucked in via pipe on port side, aft of doors; datalink to pass findings to ground; lozenge-shaped housing with exhaust pipe of air filtering system under port side of cabin; bubble window on starboard side of main cabin; small rearward-firing marker flare pack on tailskid; crew of four wear NBC suits; six helicopters are deployed per regiment throughout RFAS ground forces. Designation (also appearing as Mi-24RCh) indicates Razvedchik: reconnaissance/chemical. About 150 built 1983-89.
Derivative of Mi-24R for radiation reconnaissance.
Unarmed dual-control trainers (first flight 1972).
Mi-24V (Types 20-1 and 24-2; 'Hind-E')
As Mi-24D, but modified wingtip launchers and four underwing pylons; weapons include up to eight 9M114 (NATO AT-6 'Spiral') radio-guided tube-launched anti-tank missiles in pairs in Shturm V (Attack) missile system; ASP-17V enlarged undernose automatic missile guidance pod on port side, with fixed searchlight to rear; R-60 (K-60; NATO AA-8 'Aphid') air-to-air missiles optional on underwing pylons; pilot's HUD replaces former reflector gunsight. Deliveries to former Soviet Air Force began 29 March 1976; about 1,000 built at Arsenyev and Rostov 1976-86.
Proposed upgrade first shown in model form at Moscow Air Show '95.
Variant of Mi-24V with twin-barrel 23mm GSh-23 gun, with 450 rounds, in place of four-barrel 12.7mm gun in nose; photographed 1992; small production series built at Rostov.
Improved version of 'Hind-D' gunship first reported in early 1980s; equipped with 12 AT-6 'Spiral' radio-guided ATMs mounted on stub wings together with AA-8 'Aphid' air-to-air missiles for self-defence
Mi-24 Ecological Survey Version
Modification by Polyot industrial research organisation, to assess oil pollution on water and seasonal changes of water level. First seen 1991 with large flat sensor 'tongue' projecting from nose in place of gun turret; large rectangular sensor pod on outer starboard underwing pylon; unidentified modification replaces rear cabin window on starboard side.
Export Mi-24D 'Hind-D', including those for Afghanistan, Cuba and India with inferior electronics.
Export Mi-24V 'Hind-E'. Unarmed, dual-control trainer version also produced for India.
Upgraded Mi-24/35 designed to meet the latest air mobility requirements of the Russian Army.
Upgrade of production standard of Mi-24VP.
Export Mi-24P 'Hind-F'.
ATE 'Super Hind'
Upgrade configuration proposed by South Africa's Advanced Technologies and Engineering. Derived from Denel/Kentron PZL W-3WB Huzar upgrade. Extended nose in front of cockpit with undernose Kentron IR/EO sight and 20mm chain gun, cheek fairing to port for ammunition feed, designator, improved displays, new night vision systems and provision for Denel/Kentron Ingwe or Mokopa ATMs. Prototype ZU-BOI rolled out at Grand Central Airport, Midrand, by 15 February 1999.
Tamam Mi-24 HMOSP
Israeli upgrade configuration. US$20 million contract placed for upgrade of 25 (possibly Indian) Mi-24s based on existing Helicopter Multimission Optronic Stabilised Payload System, with TV, FLIR and automatic target tracker, integrated with helmet sight, digital moving map, integrated DASS and a new mission planning system. Cockpits can be reorganised to put pilot in front, weapon operator in rear.
Engine: 2 x Klimov TV3-117
Instant pwr: 1633 kW
Main rotor diameter: 18.8m
Empty weight: 8200kg
MTOW: 12,000 kg
Payload: 2600 kg
Max speed: 180 kts / 330km/h
Max cruise: 100 kts
Cruise speed: 217-270km/h
HOGE: 4920 ft / 1500m
Rate of climb: 12.5m/s
Service ceiling: 14,750 ft / 5000m
Armament: usually one 12.7 mm gun aimed from nose; two stub wings providing rails for four wire-guided anti-tank missiles and four other stores (bombs, missiles, rocket or gun pods). (Hind-B) two stub wings of different type with four weapon pylons.
Mi-24 Hind D
Engine: 2 x Isotov TV3, 2,200-shp
Installed pwr: 3280 kW
Rotor dia: 17 m
Fuselage length: 17.5 m
Length rotors turning: 21.5 m
Disc area: 226.98 sq.m
No. Blades: 5
Empty wt: 8400 kg
MTOW: 12,500 kg
Payload: 1500 kg
Max speed: 310 kph
ROC: 750 m/min
Service ceiling: 4500 m
HOGE: 2200 m
Range: 750 km
Armament: one 12.7-mm (0.5-in) multi-barrel machine gun and up to 5,732 lb (2,600 kg) of disposable stores.
Primary Function: Armed assault/attack helicopter
Engines: Two Klimov TV3-117 turboshafts, 1635 kW
Main rotor: five blade
Tail rotor: 3-blade
Length: 57 ft 5 in (17.51 m)
Rotor Diameter: 56 ft 9 in (17.30 m)
Height: 13 ft 1 in (3.97 m)
Empty: 18,078 lb (8200 kg)
Maximum Takeoff: 26,455 lb (12,000 kg)
Speed: 335 km/h
Ceiling: 14,750 ft
Range with aux. fuel: 1000 km
Cabin: 8 troops or 14 stretchers
Rotor diameter: 17.20m
Fuselage length with a gun: 18.57m
Max take-off weight: 10800-11500kg
Empty weight: 8090kg
Max speed: 310km/h
Cruising speed: 260km/h
Service ceiling: 5700m
Hovering ceiling: 3100m
Fuel: 2050 lt
Armament: 23mm cannon, 4 x "Ataka" anti-tank missiles, 2 x "Igla" anti-aircraft missiles, 40 x 80mm rockets
Mil Mi 24 W
Engines: 2 x TW3-117WM, 2195 shp
Length: 57.448 ft / 17.51 m
Height: 17.946 ft / 5.47 m
Rotor diameter: 56.759 ft / 17.3 m
Max take off weight: 25357.5 lb / 11500.0 kg
Max. speed: 181 kts / 335 km/h
Service ceiling: 15092 ft / 4600 m
Range: 607 nm / 1125 km
Armament: 1x MG 12,7mm JakB-12,7, 1200kg ext.