Mil Mi-8 / Mi-9 / Mi-19
Designed originally in May 1960, the V-8 'Hip-A' prototype helicopter was basically a turbine-powered version of the Mi-4, retaining initially its rotor, transmission and a number of other components. Intended powerplant was two Isotov turboshaft engines, but as these were not fully developed when the V-8 was nearing completion, it was powered instead by a single large 2700 shp Soloviev AI-24V turboshaft derated to the 2013kW limit of the transmission, for its first flight in 24 June 1960. However, the second machine (flown for the first time on 17 September 1962) introduced the Isotov TV2-117 engines, each then rated at 1119kW, and this became the standard installation on early production aircraft, designated Mil Mi-8 (NATO reporting name 'Hip B'). The only other major change to be introduced since that time resulted from problems with the main rotor inherited from the Mi-4, replaced in 1964 by a five-bladed rotor of more advanced design in the 'Hip-B' prototype.
The fuselage is an all metal semi-monocoque in the pod and boom style. The rotor head has a conventional machined steel head spider with blades seated in oil-lubricated drag and flapping hinges. Collective pitch control is interlocked with the throttles and engine speeds and torques are auto-matically synchronized. The main rotor blades are all metal interchangeable blades of basic NACA 230 section, solidity 0.0777and employ automatic electkothermal de-icing and are fitted with an automatic gas pressure spar failure warning system. The main rotor shaft is inclined forward 4 degrees 30 minutes from the vertical. The blades are carried on a machined spider; pendulum vibration damper; and three-blade starboard tail rotor. The gear box is a VR-8 twin stage planetary reduction gearbox which drives the main rotor shaft and the intermediate and tail rotor gear boxes, the oil cooling fan, genera-tors, and hydraulic pumps. The two 1500 shp Isotov turbo shafts with free turbines are automatic self governing of the main rotor speed, with a manual over-ride. Both engines drive the one main VR-8 two-stage planetary main reduction gearbox giving main rotor shaft/engine rpm ratio of 0.016:1and operate independ-ently which permits flying the helicopter with one engine operative, when necessary. The transmission comprises gearbox, intermediate and tail rotor gearboxes, main rotor brake, and drives off main gearbox for tail rotor, fan, AC generator, hydraulic pumps and tachometer generators. The tail rotor pylon forms small vertical stabiliser and there is a horizontal stabiliser near the end of the tailboom; clamshell rear-loading freight doors.
Flying controls are mechanical with irreversible hydraulic boosters; main rotor collective pitch control linked to throttles.
The structure is all-metal; main rotor blades each have extruded light-alloy spar carrying root fitting, 21 honeycomb-filled trailing-edge pockets and blade tip; balance tab on each blade; each tail rotor blade made of spar and honeycomb-filled trailing-edge; semi-monocoque fuselage.
The undercarriage is a non-retractable tricycle type; steerable twin-wheel nose unit, locked in flight; single wheel on each main unit; oleo-pneumatic (gas) shock-absorbers. Mainwheel tyres 865 x 280mm; nosewheel tyres 595 x 185mm. Pneumatic brakes on mainwheels; pneumatic system can also recharge tyres in the field, using air stored in main landing gear struts. Optional mainwheel fairings.
Power is from two 1,250kW Klimov TV2-117A turboshafts (1,434 kW TV3-117MTs in Mi-8MT). Main rotor speed governed automatically, with manual override. Single flexible internal fuel tank, capacity 445 litres; two external tanks, each side of cabin, capacity 745 litres in port tank, 680 litres in starboard tank; total standard fuel capacity 1,870 litres. Provision for one or two ferry tanks in cabin, raising maximum total capacity to 3,700 litres. Fairing over starboard external tank houses optional cabin air conditioning equipment at front. Engine cowling side panels form maintenance platforms when open, with access via hatch on flight deck. Total oil capacity 60kg.
Two pilots side by side on flight deck, with provision for flight engineer's station in between. Military versions can be fitted with external flight deck armour. Windscreen de-icing standard. Basic passenger version furnished with 24 to 26 four-abreast track-mounted tip-up seats at pitch of 72 to 75cm, with centre aisle 32cm wide; removable bar, wardrobe and baggage compartment. Seats and bulkheads of basic version quickly removable for cargo carrying. Mi-8T and standard military versions have cargo tiedown rings in floor, winch of 150kg capacity and pulley block system to facilitate loading of heavy freight, an external cargo sling system (capacity 3,000kg), and 24 tip-up seats along sidewalls of cabin. All versions can be converted for air ambulance duties, with accommodation for 12 stretchers and tip-up seat for medical attendant. Large windows on each side of flight deck slide rearward. Sliding, jettisonable main passenger door at front of cabin on port side; electrically operated rescue hoist (capacity 150kg) can be installed at this doorway. Rear of cabin made up of clamshell freight-loading doors, which are smaller on commercial versions, with downward-hinged passenger airstair door centrally at rear. Hook-on ramps used for vehicle loading.
The standard heating system can be replaced by full air conditioning system; heating of main cabin cut out when carrying refrigerated cargoes. Two independent hydraulic systems, each with own pump; operating pressure 44 to 64 bars. DC electrical supply from two 27V 18kW starter/generators and six 28Ah storage batteries; AC supply for automatically controlled electrothermal de-icing system and some radio equipment supplied by 208/115/36/7.5V 400Hz generator, with 36V three-phase standby system. Engine air intake de-icing standard. Provision for oxygen system for crew and, in ambulance version, for patients. Freon fire extinguishing system in power plant bays and service fuel tank compartments, actuated automatically or manually. Two portable fire extinguishers in cabin.
A four-axis autopilot to give yaw, roll and pitch stabilisation under any flight conditions, stabilisation of altitude in level flight or hover, and stabilisation of preset flying speed; Doppler radar box under tailboom.
Intended primarily for Aeroflot, the Mi-8 carries a 2- or 3-man crew and has seating accommodation for up to 28 passengers in its standard airline form. Alternative internal arrangements include a de luxe saloon cabin for executive travel or a cargo layout for an internal payload of 4000kg. Emergency conversion of the cargo model to a passenger carrier can be carried out quickly by installing 24 tip-up seats along the cabin sides. Clamshell rear doors are provided for loading large items of cargo or, in the ambulance role, 12 stretchers which can be carried with an accompanying medical attendant. Large numbers of Mi-8s are used by Aeroflot in the transport role, being deployed also for ice reconnaissance, rescue operations and logistic support, but even greater numbers are operated by the Soviet Union's Frontal and Naval Aviation and, in addition, these helicopters have been supplied to the armed forces of about 40 other nations.
The Mi-8 can also be used as a rescue machine with a winch on the cabin side capable of lifting a 250kg load, or with an under-fuselage hook for an external sling load of about 2500kg.
The Mil Mi-8V is a 28-seat multi-role transport helicopter powered by two Izotov turboshaft engines. The Mi-8 was exported to over 50 countries.
The Mil Mi-8MTV-1 is a 24-seat multi-role transport helicopter powered by two Klimov TV3-117VM turboshaft engines.
Powered by 1,900 shp Isotov TV3-117MT engines replacing the 1,700 shp TV2-117As, Hip serves Frontal Aviation in several forms, the principal of these being the basic assault transport Hip-C, which can carry 128 57-mm rockets in four packs on lateral outriggers; Hip-D which performs electronic duties, and Hip-E is the heavily armed attack variant, fitted with a flexibly-mounted 12,7-mm gun in the nose and can carry 192 57-mrn rockets in six packs plus four AT-2 Swatter anti-armour missiles. Hip F is the export version of the Hip E, with six AT-3 Sagger missiles, while Hip G is another communications relay model. Hip J and Hip K are electronic warfare derivatives, used principally to jam communications.
The primary task of Hip is to deposit assault troops, equipment and supplies immediately behind the enemy lines and evacuate casualties, and for this purpose it can carry up to 28 fully-equipped troops, 8,820 lb (4 000 kg) of freight or 12 casualty litters.
The Mi-8 Salon is an executive transport.
The Mi-8PPA is a special communications jammer variant.
In 1981, the Mi-8 was replaced in production by the re-engined Mi-17 that was flown first as Mi-8MT in 1980.
More than 10,000 Mi-8 and Mi-17 Hips have been built in several models, and production of both the Mi-8 and Mi-17 continued in 1987. Many hundreds being exported to more than 40 operators.
Mi-8s, Mi-17s and Mi-171s were marketed and delivered from Kazan (Mi-8, Mi-17, Mi-172) and Ulan-Ude (Mi-8T, Mi-171) plants for civil and military use, including 2,800 exported; many Mi-8s converted to Mi-17 standard.
Mi-8 derivatives include Mi-9 tactical airborne command post (first flown 1977) and Mi-19 variant for use by commanders of tactical rocket units, Mi-17 (first flown August 1975) with change of engines and other modifications and Mi-171/Mi-172 export models, and lengthened Mi-173. The Mi-8PPA is a special communications jammer variant. The Mil Mi-14 'Haze' anti-submarine helicopter is derived from the Mi-8.
Long-range modification: AEFT (Auxilliary External Fuel Tanks) by Aeroton adds another 1,900 litres in two internal tanks, plus same quantity in four external tanks on the stores pylons of the Mi-8T and Mi-8AT. Operational range with all six tanks is 1,100km; ferry range 1,600km.
All helicopters of Mi-8/Mi-17 series in Russian military service are known as Mi-8s of various subtypes, regardless of engines fitted.
Military VIP transport with enhanced communications fit and more luxurious interior; used as Russian Presidential aircraft.
Civil transport version produced by Ulan-Ude; TV2-117AG turboshafts; optional 8A-813 weather radar, DISS-32-90 Doppler radar and A-723 long-range radio navigation.
Agricultural helicopter with spray hoppers on each side, and with 'wing'-type spraybars.
Dedicated minelayer, despatching mines down steep, ladder-like slide projecting from gap between lower corners of clamshell doors.
Equipped for minesweeping, towing sled from winch in cabin. Clamshell doors removed for missions.
Reconnaissance and artillery fire correction version; large window for camera in rear clamshell doors.
Flying crane version with operator's glazed gondola in place of rear clamshell doors. SSSR-254444 may have been the prototype. Designation re-used for Mi-17.
Civil passenger helicopter; standard seating for 28 to 32 persons in main cabin with large square windows.
Mi-8PD (punkt dowodzenia)
Polish airborne command post version.
Active communications jammer; rectangular container and array of six cruciform dipole antennae each side of cabin; no Doppler box under tailboom; heat exchangers under front fuselage; some uprated to Mi-17 standard, with port-side tail rotor.
Military VIP transport; basically as civil Mi-8 Salon.
Mi-8S (Salon) ('Hip-C')
Original de luxe version of standard Mi-8; normally 11 passengers, on eight-place inward-facing couch on port side, two chairs and swivelling seat on starboard side, with table; square windows; air-to-ground radiotelephone and removable ventilation fans; compartment for attendant, with buffet and crew wardrobe forward of cabin; toilet (port) and passenger wardrobe (starboard) to each side of cabin rear entrance; alternative nine-passenger configuration; maximum T-O weight 10,400kg; range 380km with 30 minutes fuel reserve.
ECM version with R-949 jamming system; additional small boxes each side of fuselage, fore and aft of main landing gear legs. Also four containers with 32 droppable short-range jammers. Range 54 n miles (100 km; 62 miles).
Civil utility transport version, with TV2-117A turboshafts and circular cabin windows, built by Ulan-Ude plant. Alternative payloads include internal or external freight; 24 passengers on removable folding seats; 26 passengers on conventional seats; 12 stretcher patients or executive layout similar to Mi-8S.
Also available as standard assault transport of Russian Federation and Associated States (RFAS) army support forces; carrying 24 fully armed troops. Able to dispense 200 anti-personnel or anti-tank mines in flight, by conveyor belt through rear doors.
Development of 'Hip-C'; KV-4 flexibly mounted 12.7 mm machine gun, with 700 rounds, in nose; triple stores rack each side, to carry total 192 S-5 rockets in six UV-32-57 packs, plus four 9M17P Scorpion (AT-2 'Swatter') anti-tank missiles (semi-automatic command to line of sight) on rails above racks; about 250 in RFAS ground forces; some uprated to Mi-17 standard as Mi-8MTV, with port-side tail rotor.
Export 'Hip-E'; missiles changed to six 9M14 Malyutka (NATO AT-3 'Saggers'; manual command to line of sight).
Modified TV2-117TG engines permit operation on Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Kerosene. LPG contained in large tanks, on each side of cabin, under low pressure. Engines switch to Kerosene for take-off and landing. Reduced harmful exhaust emissions in flight offer anti-pollution benefits. Modification to operate on LPG requires no special equipment and can be effected on in-service Mi-8s at normal maintenance centre. Weights unchanged. Large external tanks, each side of cabin, reduce payload by 100 to 150kg over comparable ranges, with little effect on performance. First flight on LPG made 1987.
Dedicated photo-reconnaissance platform with AFA-42/100 or AFA-A87P starboard oblique camera in forward part of the cabin, possibly with some onboard processing capability. May be used as fire correction platform.
Upgraded civil transport version of Mi-8T; weather radar and rotor head integrity system.
Military executive version; upgraded communications include R-832 radio with two-blade antennae under front fuselage and tailboom and R-111 with rod antenna lowered under cabin.
Mi-8TS (tropichesky sukhoi: tropical)
Export version for hot and dusty climates.
Mi-8TV (vooruzhonnyi: armed) ('Hip-C')
As Mi-8T, but with added twin-rack each side, to carry total of 64 57 mm S-5 rockets in four UV-16-57 packs, or bombs, for army assault forces.
Adapted to deliver fuel to front-line areas.
De luxe version by Kazan; three crew and seven to nine passengers; main rotor has vibration damper; hinged airstair door; interior divided into vestibule, passenger cabin crew department, cloakroom and toilet; optional water heater, TV and GPS. Maximum take-off weight 12,000kg.
Mi-8VZPU (vozduzhnyi zapasnoi punkt upravlenya: airborne reserve command post) ('Hip-D')
As 'Hip-C' but rectangular-section canisters on outer stores racks; two large dorsal antennae above forward part of tailboom; no armament.
Mi8AMT, Mi-8MT and Mi-8MTV are versions of the Mi-17, with more powerful turboshafts and port-side tail rotor.
Mi-8M see Mil Mi-17
Airborne command post variant of Mi-8; 'hockey stick' antennae projecting from rear of cabin and from undersurface of tailboom, aft of Doppler radar box; rearward inclined short whip antenna above forward end of tailboom; strakes on fuselage undersurface. Crew of three to six.
Mil Mi 8
Engine: 2 x Isotov TW 2-117A, 1479 shp
Length: 60.072 ft / 18.31 m
Height: 12.828 ft / 3.91 m
Rotor diameter: 69.849 ft / 21.29 m
Max take off weight: 26460.0 lb / 12000.0 kg
Max. speed: 135 kts / 250 km/h
Service ceiling: 14764 ft / 4500 m
Range: 532 nm / 985 km
Mi-8 Hip E
Engine: 2 x Isotov TV2
Installed pwr: 2535 kW
Rotor dia: 21.3 m
Fuselage length: 18.2 m
No. Blades: 5
Empty wt: 6625 kg
MTOW: 12,000 kg
Payload: 4000 kg
Max speed: 260 kph
Ceiling: 4500 m
HIGE: 1900 m
HOGE: 800 m
Fuel cap (+aux): 1870 lt ( 1830 lt )
Range: 465 km
Engines: 2 x Klimov (Isotov) TV2-117A turboshaft, 1250 kW (1677 shp)
Max speed: 140 kts / 250km/h
Max cruise speed: 120 kts / 225km/h
Service ceiling: 14,765 ft / 4500m
HIGE: 6235 ft
Range (24 pax + res): 500 km
Empty Wt: 14,990 lbs / 6625kg
MTOW: 26,455 lbs / 12000kg
Rotor dia: 69 ft 10 in / 21.29m
Length overall: 82 ft 10 in
Fuselage length: 59 ft 8 in / 18.17m
Height: 18 ft 7 in / 4.38m
Fuselage width: 2.5m
Disc area: 3932 sq.ft
Mi-8M see Mil Mi-17