PZL Swidnik Kania
In the mid fifties, the Mil bureau decided to improve the performance of the Mi-1 by developing a turbine-powered version. The Mil Mi-2, which has the NATO reporting name Hoplite, was first announced in the autumn of 1961, and is essentially the Mi-1 updated in the light of operating experience with the Mi-6. The Mil Mi-2 is frequently referred to as V-2, the "V" indicating "Vertolet", Russian for 'rotary wing'.
Two of the new Isotov GTD-350 free-turbine engines were chosen. A free-turbine engine enables the r.p.m. of the rotor to be varied, whilst those of the engine are kept constant. For half the weight of the earlier piston engine, the two GTD-350 developed 40% more power. They were installed side-by-side above the fuselage, considerably increasing the available cabin space. Two 313kW Polish-built Isotov GTD-350 turboshafts, mounted side by side above cabin. Fuel in single rubber tank, capacity 600 litres, under cabin floor. Provision for carrying 238 litre external tank on each side of cabin. Refuelling point in starboard side of fuselage. Oil capacity 25 litres.
The first prototype, designated V-2 and then Mi-2, flew on 22 September 1961; it had the same rotor, transmission and tail unit as the Mi-1. After preliminary trials, a metal tail rotor was adopted (the Mi-1 had a wooden one) and later, from 1965, a new main rotor hub derived from that of the Mi-6.
A completely new fuselage, all light-alloy monocoque with steel forgings at concentrated loads, the structural basis was a deep floor box carrying wheel or ski landing gears and housing flexible fuel cell of 600 litres.
Normal accommodation for one pilot on flight deck (port side). Seats for up to eight passengers in air conditioned cabin, comprising back to back bench seats for three persons each, with two optional extra starboard side seats at rear, one behind the other. All passenger seats removable for carrying up to 700kg of internal freight. Access to cabin via forward-hinged doors on each side at front of cabin and aft on port side. Pilot's sliding window jettisonable in emergency. Ambulance version has accommodation for four stretchers and medical attendant, or two stretchers and two sitting casualties. Side by side seats and dual controls in pilot training version. Cabin heating, ventilation and air conditioning standard. Option of four stretchers and attendant, or slung load of 1.2t or two 600 lit ag containers. All versions plumbed for two 250-lit auxiliary tanks on sides.
The three-blade main rotor has hydraulic blade vibration dampers; flapping, drag and pitch hinges on each blade; anti-flutter weights on leading-edges, balancing plates on trailing-edges. Coil spring counterbalance in main and tail rotor systems; pitch change centrifugal loads on tail rotor carried by ribbon-type steel torsion elements. Blades do not fold; rotor brake fitted. Main rotor blade section NACA 230-12M. Main rotor shaft driven via gearbox on each engine; three-stage WR-2 main gearbox, intermediate gearbox and tail rotor gearbox; main rotor/engine rpm ratio 1:24.6, tail rotor/engine rpm ratio 1:4.16; main gearbox provides drive for auxiliary systems and take-off for rotor brake; freewheel units permit disengagement of failed engine and autorotation.
Each individual rotor blade used to be of typical Mil construction, with some 20 bonded sections attached to a light alloy spar, with a light aluminium honeycomb trailing edge, the whole being covered in light alloy sheet. WSK-PZL-Swidnik have since developed a more advanced rotor blade based on an extruded duralumin spar with plastic sections and covering. Subsequently developed as production Mi-2 with bonded/welded fuselage, hub with hydraulic instead of friction dampers, bleed-air anticed intakes, tail rotor with bonded-metal honeycomb blades and electro-thermal de-icing on all blades.
Flying controls have a hydraulic system for cyclic and collective pitch control boosters; variable incidence horizontal stabiliser, controlled by collective pitch lever.
The landing gear is non-retractable tricycle type, plus tailskid. Twin-wheel nose unit. Single wheel on each main unit. Oleo-pneumatic shock-absorbers in all units, including tailskid. Main shock-absorbers designed to cope with both normal operating loads and possible ground resonance. Mainwheel tyres size 600 x 180, pressure 4.41 bars. Nosewheel tyres size 400 x 125, pressure 3.45 bars. Pneumatic brakes on mainwheels. Metal ski landing gear optional.
Systems include cabin heating, by engine bleed air, and ventilation; heat exchangers warm atmospheric air for ventilation system during cold weather. Hydraulic system, pressure 65 bars, for cyclic and collective pitch control boosters. Hydraulic fluid flow rate 7.5 litres/min. Vented reservoir, with gravity feed. Pneumatic system, pressure 49 bars, for mainwheel brakes. AC electrical system, with two STG-3 3kW engine-driven starter/generators and 208V 16kVA three-phase alternator. 24V DC system, with two 28Ah lead-acid batteries. Main and tail rotor blades de-iced electrically; engine air intake de-icing by engine bleed air. Electric de-icing of windscreen.
The FAI has certified as a world record the speed of 157.7mph (253.818 km/h) established in May 1963 over a 62.1-mile (100-km) closed -circuit course by a twin-turbine Mil Mi-2 (Hoplite) helicopter. The Russians had claimed a speed of 164mph (264 km/h). The type established a class speed record of 269.38km/h on June 20, 1965, when piloted by Tatyana Russyan.
The first production aircraft had 400shp engines, but from 1974 these were uprated to 450shp. Another modification was the use of fiberglass materials for the main rotor, tail rotor and stabilizer, to simplify production and improve performance. As the Russian plants were fully occupied with production of the Mi-8 and other heavy helicopters in the Mil series, an agreement was reached with WSK-Swidnik to manufacture the Mi-2 in Poland, and they took over production and development rights in 1964. The first Polish Mi-2 had flown before this in November 1963, and once trials were completed, large-scale production began in 1965. The first Polish-built production example flew on 4 November 1965.
In the ambulance role it can accommodate 4 stretchers and a medical attendant; as a freighter, it can carry 700kg of cargo. For flying crane or rescue duties it can be fitted with an under-fuselage hook for a sling load of 800kg or a winch over the cabin door capable of lifting up to 150kg.
In the Mi-2's agricultural role, it can carry a hopper on either side of the cabin containing 450kg of dry chemical or 500l of liquid (can be replaced by additional fuel tanks) and either a spraybar to rear of cabin on each side or distributor for dry chemicals under each hopper. Swath width covered by spraying version is 40 to 45m.
For search and rescue, electric hoist, capacity 120kg, is fitted. In freight role an underfuselage hook can be fitted for suspended loads of up to 800kg. Polish press has illustrated version equipped for laying smokescreens. Electrically operated wiper for pilot's windscreen. Freon fire extinguishing system, for engine bays and main gearbox compartment, can be actuated automatically or manually.
All production and development subsequently at WSK, involving 12 series versions including SAR, photo, anti-armour and gunship. One in service with the Polish Air Force was equipped with rocket launchers and air-to-ground missiles, slung from rails at the sides of the fuselage.
The Mi-2B has upgraded electrical and navigation systems.
The Mi-2 has undergone continuous refinement and adaptation to special versions and more than 5,250 had been built when production was suspended in 1991 pending privatisation of the company planned for 1992.
Polish production at standstill early 1992, but reported continuing on limited basis. A total of 5,450 were built for civil and military operators by January 1999, a majority exported.
Further development of the Mi-2 has been undertaken by WSK-PZL-Swidnik with a view to selling the type to western countries. The late-1970s result is the Kania or Kitty Hawk, and Taurus, powered by two Allison turboshafts. Developed with co-operation from Allison in the USA, the Kania, which first flew on June 3, 1979, is an Mi-2 airframe powered by two Allison 250-C20B turboshafts.
The engine selected for the Kania is the Allison 250 turboshaft. WSK-PZL Swidnik have worked closely with the Detroit Diesel Allison Division of the General Motors Corporation on the installation of the two 250-C20B turboshafts, to ensure optimum location at minimum weight. The two Allison 250-C20B turboshafts, mounted side by side above cabin; each rated at 420shp / 317kW for T-O, 30 minutes twin-engine emergency power and one engine out maximum continuous power, and 370shp / 276kW for normal cruise. Automatic and manual torque sharing control systems standard. Two separate fuel boost systems, each with fuel filter bypass switch, fuel pressure gauge and switch, connected by crossfeed. Fuel tankage remains unaltered, compared with that of the Mi-2, standard usable fuel capacity of 600 litres, with provision for additional 423 litres usable in optional auxiliary tanks. Fuel quantity gauge and fuel reserve warning. Two separate oil systems, each with oil cooling, temperature and pressure gauges, oil filter bypass pop-up and chip warning. Each engine equipped with starter/generator, engine fuel pump effective for cruise after both boost pumps out, N1 and N2 tacho-generators, TOT gauge and switch, start counter, and 'engine out' warning. Dual engine inlet anti-icing standard, each engine compartment equipped with fire detection system and with automatic and manual fire extinguishing systems.
The smaller size of the Allison 250-C20B, compared with the Isotov GTD-350P used on the Mi-2, has made possible a smaller engine installation, and the opportunity has also been taken to recontour the nose. Rotor diameter has been increased by 6cm compared with the 14.5m of the Mi-2. The overall effect has been a reduction in empty weight of 262kg, though maximum take-off weight falls by only 150kg.
The design features a three-blade fully articulated main rotor and two-blade seesaw tail rotor. Main gearbox equipped with freewheel units, oil cooling system, oil temperature and pressure gauges and switches, tacho-generator with low- and high-rpm warning, air compressor and a spare power pad of 19.1kW at 8,000 rpm. Steel engine driveshafts, each with two crowned tooth couplings. Tail rotor driveshaft of duralumin tube, with similar crowned tooth couplings and anti-friction bearings. Hoist and cargo sling attachment points standard. Transmission includes main rotor, intermediate and tail rotor gearboxes, each with individual lubrication system. Glass fibre/epoxy blades on both rotors. Conventional semi-monocoque fuselage and circular-section tailboom. Glass fibre/epoxy horizontal stabiliser at end of tailboom.
Two prototypes were produced by converting Mi-2 airframes. The first prototype (SP-PSA) was flown on 3 June 1979 and was intended, like the standard Mi-2, to fulfil a variety of roles. It could accommodate a pilot and a maximum of nine passengers or, alternatively, pilot and copilot plus eight passengers, and the cabin seats were removable to allow use in the agricultural or air ambulance roles. Reconfigured it could carry up to 800kg of cargo, some externally slung.
Polish certification of the Kania was carried out in two stages. The first took place in 1979-81 and resulted, on 1 October 1981, in a supplementary type certificate to that of the Mi-2.
A further refined version, the Kania Model 1, has a redesigned cockpit and improved control systems, and is offered in several military configurations.
Accommodation is provided at the front of the cabin for a pilot and co-pilot or passenger, on separate seats, with eight more passengers seated on two three-abreast benches and one double or two single seats at the rear of the cabin. The Kania is intended as a general-purpose helicopter, and so the seating is removable to allow the carriage of freight, agricultural equipment and litters. Access to the cabin is gained by a small door on each side of the forward fuselage, and a larger door on the left side of the passenger compartment's rear. To suit the type to western markets, the Kania is provided with an array of western avionics. These include dual instrument lighting systems, pilot's cabin extension light and an adjustable landing light. Standard instrumentation includes King KX-175BE com/nav, KR-85 digital Automatic Direction Finding equipment and KT-76 transponder. An optional feature is a 16k VA AC generator for de-icing the pilot's windscreen and cabin heating and air conditioning.
Standard equipment includes dual anti-collision lights, navigation lights, portable fire extinguisher, tool kit and first aid kit. Fluorescent tube cabin lighting and/or individual lights optional. According to mission, the Kania can be equipped with an 800kg capacity stabilised cargo sling; 120kg capacity hoist (275kg); stretchers and casualty care equipment; or equipment for a variety of agricultural duties. Polish Border Guard aircraft have Spectrolab SX-5 searchlight and HLU-100 loudspeaker system.
Flying controls have three hydraulic boosters for longitudinal lateral and collective pitch control augmentation.
The landing gear is non-retractable tricycle type, plus tailskid. Twin-wheel castoring and self-centring nose unit; single wheel on each main unit. Stomil Poznan tyres, sizes 600 x 180 mm (main) and 300 x 125 mm (nose); tyre pressure 4.0 and 3.5 bars respectively. Pneumatic brakes on mainwheels. Metal skis and emergency flotation bags optional.
The second stage of Polish certification, concerning a considerably improved Kania Model 1 version, was carried out during 1982-86 under the leadership of Stanislaw I Markisz. Improvements included among others, redesigned cockpit and cabin layout, engine and flight controls as well as engine and transmission cowlings. On 21 February 1986 this version of the Kania was granted a separate type certificate as an FAR Pt 29 (Transport Cat. B) day and night SVFR multipurpose utility helicopter with Cat. A engine isolation.
PZL Swidnik Kania (Kitty Hawk)
The number ultimately converted (to the Kania Model 1) is believed to have totalled four prototypes plus half a dozen definitive aircraft by January 1999. Production may have been discontinued in 2000.
Despite the lower power of the American engines, the performance of the Kania is comparable with that of the Mi-2 except in range, where the Kania appears to be superior by a small margin.
In 1988, the PZL W-3 Sokol replaced the Mi-2 in production. PZL's W-3 Sokol (Falcon), which flew in 1979, was based on the Mi-2 but had new engines, rotors and a larger cabin.
Standard civil version available as convertible 6/8-passenger or cargo transport, crop sprayer (identified as the Bazant), pilot trainer, aerial photography, photogrammetry or as freight hauler with external sling and electric hoist
Engine: 2 x PZL Rzeszow GTD-350
Instant pwr: 294 kW
Rotor dia: 14.56 m
MTOW: 3550 kg
Payload: 800 kg
Useful load: 1140 kg
Max speed: 113 kts
Max cruise: 105 kts
Max range (ferry): 580 km
HIGE: 5167 ft
HOGE: 2870 ft
Service ceiling: 13,123 ft
Engine: 2 x Isotov GTD-350
Installed pwr: 670 kW
Rotor dia: 14.5 m
Fuselage length: 11.9 m
No. Blades: 3
Empty wt: 2370 kg
MTOW: 3700 kg
Payload: 800 kg
Max speed: 210 kph
ROC: 270 m/min
Ceiling: 4000 m
HIGE: 2000 m
HOGE: 1000 m
Fuel cap (+aux): 600 lt ( 480 lt )
Range: 440 km
Different electrical system and more modern navigational aids; manufactured in same versions (except agricultural) as basic Mi-2, and has same flight performance; empty equipped weights 2,300kg for passenger version, 2,293kg for cargo version; T-O weight unchanged; no rotor blade de-icing. Production total not large.
Radiation reconnaissance and smoke-laying conversion.
Airborne Command Post with radio communication, cipher and telephone equipment.
Photogrammetry version. Only two built.
Engines: 2 x Izotov GTD-350P turboshaft, 331kW
Main rotor diameter: 14.5m
Length with rotors turning: 17.42m
Max take-off weight: 3550kg
Empty weight: 2402kg
Max speed: 210km/h
Cruising speed: 200km/h
Service ceiling: 4000m
Range with max payload: 170km
Standard eight-seat passenger, convertible all-cargo version with external sling and electric hoist.
Agricultural version for conventional or Ultra Low Volume (ULV) dusting and spraying. Chemical hoppers mounted on each side of the fuselage; capacity 500 litres liquid or 375kg dry chemicals. Empty weight 2,372kg.
SAR and air ambulance version for land use fitted with an electric hoist
SAR version for naval use with two-person electric winch over port side door and air-droppable dinghies. Nine built for Polish Naval Air Arm.
Military reconnaissance version.
Special contamination reconnaissance version.
Medevac version equipped for four litters plus attendant or two litters and two sitting patients.
Dual-control training version.
Military transport version.
1973 Combat support/armed reconnaissance version; as Mi-2US but with two Mars 2 launchers (each 16 S-5 57mm unguided rockets) instead of pylon-mounted gun pods; PKV gunsight in cockpit for aiming all weapons; in service from 1973.
1976 Anti-tank version; cabin side outriggers for four 9M14M Malyutka (AT-3 'Sagger') wire-guided missiles; four additional missiles in cargo compartment; in service from 1976.
Similar to Mi-2URP but with four Gad (9M32 Strela 2/SA-7 'Grail') anti-aircraft missiles.
Gunship version; 23mm NS-23KM cannon on port side of fuselage, two 7.62mm gun pods on each side pylon, two other 7.62mm PK-type pintle-mounted machine guns in rear of cabin.
Reconnaissance training version.
PZL-Swidnik Kania / Kitty Hawk
Engines: two Alli-son 250-C20B turboshafts
Instant pwr: 313 kW
Rotor dia: 14.56 m
MTOW: 3550 kg
Payload: 1200 kg
Useful load: 1590 kg
Max speed: 113 kts
Max cruise: 113 kts
Max range: 886 km
HIGE: 8202 ft
HOGE: 4511 ft
Service ceiling: 13,123 ft
PZL-Swidnik Kania Model 1
Engines: two Allison 250-C20B turboshafts, 314kW at take-off
Main rotor diameter: 14.56m
Length with rotors turning: 17.41m
Max take-off weight: 3550kg
Empty weight: 2140kg
Cruising speed: 210km/h
Service ceiling: 4000m
Range with max payload: 497km
two Allison 250-C20B turboshafts
PZL-Swidnik Kania Model 1