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Kamov Ka-32

ka32mt
Ka-32MT


The Ka-27 came in four versions, the Ka-27, 28, 29, and 32. The Ka-32T is a utility transport helicopter, and the 32S is a utility version for operating in adverse weather. The 32K is a flying crane version of the Ka-27.

Development of Ka-27/32 began in 1969 with the first flight of a common prototype in 1973. The first Ka-32 (SSSR-04173) flew on 8 October 1980, and the prototype of a utility version was shown at Paris Air Show June 1985.
The Ka-32 claimed several time-to-height and altitude records in 1983.
Series production of the Ka-32 has been going on in Kumertau since 1986.
New military versions were first exhibited at Moscow Air Show '95.

Early publicity of the Kamov Ka-32 'Helix’ was associated with civil ap-plications, including reconnaissance from the nuclear-powered icebreak-ers Arktika, Lemn, Rossiva and Sibir, and all forms of transport and agri-cultural flying. Photographs were first taken of an Aeroflot (civil) and AVMF (naval air force) examples at sea aboard the new destroyer Udaloy in September 1981, and NATO allocated the reporting name 'Helix.

Conceived as completely autonomous 'compact truck', to stow in much the same space as Ka-25 with rotors folded, and to operate independently of ground support equipment, operation is by with single pilot. The twin fins are on a short tailboom, the upper rotor turning clockwise, the lower anti-clockwise. The rotor mast is tilted forward 3degrees. The twin turbines and APU are above the cabin, leaving the interior uncluttered, andf the lower fuselage is sealed for flotation.


Control is by a dual hydraulically powered flight control systems, without manual reversion, spring stick trim. Yaw control is by differential collective pitch applied through the rudder pedals. A mix in the collective system maintains constant total rotor thrust during turns, to reduce pilot workload when landing on pitching deck, and to simplify transition to hover and landing. The twin rudders are intended mainly to improve control in autorotation, but are also effective in coordinating turns. Flight can be maintained on one engine at maximum T-O weight.


Titanium and composites are used extensively in the structure, with particular emphasis on corrosion resistance. The fully articulated three-blade coaxial contrarotatmg rotors have all-composites blades with carbon fibre and glass fibre main spars, pockets (13 per blade) of Kevlar-type material, and a filler similar to Nomex. The blades have a non-symmetrical aerofoil section, and each has a ground-adjustable tab. Each lower blade carries an adjustable vibration damper, comprising two dependent weights, on the root section, with further vibration dampers in the fuselage. A tip light is on each upper blade. The blades fold manually outboard of all control mechanisms, to a folded width within the track of the main landing gear. The rotor hub is 50% titaniuin/50% steel, and a rotor brake is standard. The Ka-32 is built with an all-metal fuselage and composite tailcone. The fixed incidence tailplane, elevators, fins and rudders have an aluminium alloy structure and composites skins. The fins toe inward approximately 25 degrees. A fixed leading-edge slat on each fin prevents airflow over the fin stalling in crosswinds or at high yaw angles.


The four-wheel type landing gear has oleo-pneumatic shock-absorbers and castoring nosewheels. Mainwheel tyres size 600x180 (Ka-32); 620x180, pressure 10.80 bar (Ka-32A). Nosewheel tyres size 400x150 (Ka-32); 480x200, pressure 5,90 bar (Ka-32A). Skis optional.


Power is from two 1,633kW Klimov TV3-117V (Ka-32) or TV3-117VMA (Ka-32A) turboshafts, with automatic synchronisation system, located side by side above the cabin, forward of the rotor driveshaft. A main gearbox brake is standard. An oil cooler fan is aft of the gearbox. Cowlings hinge downward as maintenance platforms, and fuel is in tanks under the cabin floor and inside tanks each side of the center-fuselage. The capacity of the main tanks 2180 litres and maximum capacity with two underfloor auxiliary tanks is 3,450 litres. Single-point pressure refuelling is behind a small forward-hinged door on the port side, where bottom of tailboom meets rear of cabin.


The pilot and navigator are side by side in the air conditioned flight deck, in adjustable seats. A rearward-sliding jettisonable door with blister window is each side. A seat behind the navigator, on the starboard side, is for an observer, loadmaster or rescue hoist operator. Windscreen anti-icing uses alcohol. Direct access from the flight deck to the cabin is available. The heated and ventilated main cabin of the Ka-32 can accommodate freight or 16 passengers, on three folding seats at the rear, six along the port side wall and seven along the starboard sidewall (13 passengers in the Ka-32A). Fittings can carry four stretchers. A rearward-sliding door is aft of the main landing gear on the port side, with steps below. An emergency exit door is on the opposite side. A hatch to the avionics compartment is on the port side of the tailboom.


There are three hydraulic systems. A main system supplies servos, mainwheel brakes and hydraulic winch when fitted. A standby system supplies only servos after main system failure, and an auxiliary system supplies brakes after a main system failure and adjusts the height of the helicopter fuselage above ground. The auxiliary system can also be connected to main system for checking all functions on the ground. The electrical system includes two independently operating AC generators and two batteries which cut in automatically or manually via inverters after an AC generating system failure. After failure of either generator, the other is switched automatically to supply both circuits. Two rectifiers supply DC power. Electrothermal de-icing of the entire profiled portion of each blade switches on automatically when the helicopter enters icing conditions. Hot air provides engine intake anti-icing. An APU is in the rear of the engine bay fairing on the starboard side, for engine starting and to power all essential hydraulic and electrical services on the ground, eliminating need for a GPU.

Flight avionics include an electromechanical flight director controlled from the autopilot panel, Doppler hover indicator, two HSI and air data computer. A fully coupled three-axis autopilot can provide automatic approach and hover at height of 25m over the landing area, on a predetermined course, using Doppler. Radar altimeter. Doppler box under tailboom.


The ASW version, known in the West as 'Helix-K, has a large box on each side (probably for sonobuoys), a box under the tail boom (probably for a MAD), a large chin radar and extremely comprehensive avionics including EW installations. 'Helix-B' is a targeting aircraft for anti-ship missiles.
A firefighting version of the Ka-32T was demonstrated in 1996.

Civil versions of the Ka-27 designated Ka-32T (transport) and Ka-32S (shipboard utility and ice reconnaissance) were developed in the mid-80s to fill Civil Aviation needs. They were optimised for carrying cargo inside the cabin or on a sling, loading and unloading ships both anchored at the roadstead and under way, supporting offshore oil rigs, search-and-rescue operations etc. Development of these aircraft was led by deputy Chief Designer M.A.Kupfer, with leading designer B.Ye.Sokolov as his assistant; Ye.N.Yamshchikov was leading engineer of the test programme. The prototype flew for the first time on October 8, 1980 at the hands of test pilot Ye.I.Laryushin. The Ka-32S differed from the Ka-32T in being fitted with a search radar and a navigation system required for ice-patrol flights. The Ka-32S and Ka-32T versions were in production by KAPP, with other conversions by Kamov at Lyubertsy.


The civil version is described as able to lift slung loads up to 5000 kg (11, 023 lb), and carry such a load over a range of 185 km (115 miles)
The Klimov VK-3000 turboshaft was to be certified in 2001 as alternative power plant, but no installations have been reported.

Customers included Aeroflot and its successors; operators in Bulgaria (32S), Canada (32A), Laos (air force; six Ka-32T), Papua New Guinea (32A), South Africa (32A), Switzerland (32A), Yemen (32S/T). Estimated 132 Ka-32s in civilian use, of which 50 were abroad in 1998. Between December 1993 and November 2000, 36 imported by LGI of South Korea for operation by Forestry Service (23 Ka-32Ts), National Maritime Police Agency (eight Ka-32Ss), Kyonggi Provincial Fire & Disaster HQ (two Ka-32Ts) and Kyongsang Buk-do Fire Defence Aviation Corps, National Parks and Ulsan Fire Defence HQ (one Ka-32T each); further 20 expected in settlement of Russian debt, of which 10 reportedly ordered in March 2003 and three delivered by end of 2001. Following lease of two (later three) Ka-32s, Cyprus government announced intention, August 2001, to purchase three. Algerian Air Force acquiring unknown number, three of which (two Ka-32T and one Ka-32S) noted at Saint Petersburg in August 2002.

Versions:

Ka-32A
Assemblies and systems of basic Ka-32 modified in 1990-93 to meet all requirements of Russian NLG-32-29 and NLG-32-33 and US FAR Pt 29/FAR Pt 33 airworthiness standards in categories A and B. First flight September 1990; Russian type certificates obtained for Ka-32A and its two 2190shp TV3-117VMA engines in June 1993. Production began 1996. Larger tyres. Optional pressure fuelling with reduced fuel capacity. Maximum accommodation for 13 passengers. Advanced avionics available, including Canadian Marconi dual CMA-900 flight management system, with EFIS, AFCS, CMA-2012 Doppler velocity sensor and CMA-3012 GPS sensor. Modification of helicopters to Ka-32A standard started by Kamov 1994. Civil transport version with 16 passenger seats and provision for lifting underslung loads.

Ka-32A1
Firefighting version of Ka-32A, first flown 12 January 1994. Equipped with Canadian or Russian variants of "Bambi Bucket", capacity 5,000 litres. Two operated by Moscow fire service, with doorway-mounted steerable water cannon and three types of rescue cage, able to lift two, 10 or 20 people from roofs of tall buildings. Other equipment includes searchlights and loudspeakers. Fire service aircraft and others flown by anti-riot police controlled by Aviatika Concern ISC, set up by Moscow city authorities and private investors to develop urban air transport system. Several on lease to South Korean forestry department have Simplex 10900-050 system, including 2,955 litre belly tank which can be refilled in 1.5 minutes, plus 152 litre retardant tank. Ka-32 can also be fitted with 10900- 055 system with two panniers totalling 5,000 litres of water and 250 litres of retardant.
One Moscow fire service helicopter (RA-31073) retrofitted with large, forward-facing nose boom for fire suppression in tall buildings; trials completed April 2001; shown statically al Moscow Salon, August 2001. System developed by Soyuz Federal Centre of Double Technologies at Dzerginsk; water supply of 2.800 litres carried in two underslung tanks or helicopter can be connected to fire vehicle on ground for unlimited supply; hose boom movable in vertical plane only.

Ka-32A2
Ka-32A modification for police operations.
Police version used by Moscow Militia, first flown 21 March 1995; seen in camouflage finish (RA-06144) at Moscow Air Show '95. Seats for 11 passengers, two of whom can operate pintle-mounted guns in port-side rear doorway and starboard rear window. Fuel tanks filled with polyurethane foam to prevent explosion after damage or catching fire. Equipped for abseiling from both sides of cabin. Hydraulic hoist; two sets of loudspeakers; L-2AG searchlight under nose. Militia reportedly has 25. Maximum T-O weight 12,700kg.

Ka-32A3
Ordered by Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations (MChS) to carry rescue and salvage equipment to disaster areas and evacuate casualties.

Ka-32A7
Armed export version (alternatively known as Ka-327) of Russian Border Troops' Ka-27PV developed from military Ka-27PS for frontier and maritime economic zone patrol, with Osrninog (octopus) radar and pairs of Kh-25 ASMs, UPK-23-250 pods each containing a GSh-23L twin-barrel 23mm gun with 250 rounds, or B-8V-20 pods each with twenty 80mm S-8 rockets, on four underwing pylons. Displayed - but not yet integrated - with Kh-35 (AS-20 'Kayak') active radar-homing ASMs. Provision for 30mm Type 2A42 gun above port outrigger. Optional twin searchlights on weapons pylons. Large oblique camera in starboard rear window. Search and rescue equipment standard, with ability to lift up to 10 survivors at a distance of 200km from base. Provision for 13 persons in cabin. Maximum T-O weight 11,000kg. Maximum level speed 260km/h. First flown 1995.

Ka-32-10
Announced 25 May 2001; projected 24-seat civil version with enlarged cabin; internal payload 4,000kg. Target certification date 2004.

Ka-32A11BC
Built in accordance with requirements of Transport Canada. FAR Pt 29 certification gained 11 May 1998, but full clearance achieved 26 February 1999, after installation of dual actuators in flight control system; first Russian helicopter to gain Western certification. Two development aircraft delivered to VIH Logging in May 1997; flew 4,000 hours up to February 1999; also used for firefighting; further 15 on order by 1998.

Ka-32A12
Version approved by Aviation Register of Switzerland.

Ka-32K
Flying crane (kran) with retractable gondola for second pilot under cabin. Prototype first flew December 1991; operational testing completed 1992. Supplied to Krasnodar Institute of Civil Aviation.

Ka-32M
Was under development by Kamov, to increase lifting capability to 7,000kg; retrofit with 1839kW TV3-117VMA-SB3 engines.

Ka-32S
("Helix-C"): Shipborne (sudovoi) version, intended especially for polar use; in production since 1987. More comprehensive avionics, including autonomous navigation system and Osminog (octopus) undernose radar (search radius 200km), for IFR operation from icebreakers in adverse weather and over terrain devoid of landmarks; 300kg electric load hoist standard; additional external fuel tanks available 1994, strapped on each side at top of cabin; duties include ice patrol, guidance of ships through icefields, unloading and loading ships (up to 30 tonnes an hour, 360 tonnes a day). Simplex carbon fibre/epoxy tank, capacity 1,500 litres or 3,000 litres, and 12.0m spraybar can be fitted for maritime anti-pollution work. Spraytime 6 minutes with 1,500 litre tank. In maritime search and rescue role, can loiter for 1 hour anywhere within 480km of base, and return carrying four crew and 5,000kg payload. Maximum fuel capacity 2,650 litres; weight empty 6,997kg; maximum payjoad 3,300kg internally, 4,600kg externally, maximum level and cruising speeds as Ka-32T.

Ka-32T
Ka-32 utility model for civil or military use with stripped down equipment and avionics.
('Helix-C'): Utility transport (transportnyi), ambulance, flying crane and agricultural sprayer; production began in 1987. Limited avionics; for carriage of internal or external freight, and passengers, along airways and over local routes, including support of offshore drilling rigs. Military "Helix-C" similar; no undernose radome, but with dorsal ESM "flower pot" and other military equipment. Several seen on board carriers, operating in SAR and planeguard roles. Military version understood to be designated Ka-27 or Ka-27T.


Specifications:

Ka-32
Engine: 2 x Klimov TV3-117.
Instant pwr: 1642 kW.
Rotor dia: 15.9 m.
Fuselage length: 11.3 m.
No. Blades: 2 x 3.
MTOW: 12,600 kg.
Payload: 4000 kg.
Max speed: 146 kts.
Max cruise: 124 kts.
HOGE: 12,131 ft.
Service ceiling: 19,672 ft.
Range: 850 km.
Crew: 2.
Pax: 16.
External sling load: 11,000 lb (5 000 kg).

Ka-32A
Engine: 2 x Klimov TV3-117VMA
Instant pwr: 1640 kW.
Rotor dia: 15.9 m.
Main rotor disc area 440.0 sq.m (4,736 sq ft).
Fuselage length: 12.25m
Height: 5.4m
Width: 3.8m
MTOW: 12,700 kg.
Payload: 5850 kg (internal: 4000 kg, external: 5000 kg).
Useful load: 6085 kg.
Max speed: 140 kts / 260km/h
Max cruise: 124 kts / 230km/h
Max range: 650 km.
HIGE: 14,098 ft.
HOGE: 12,131 ft / 3500m
Service ceiling: 14,754 ft / 6000m
Crew: 1-3
Pax: 14.
Seats: 18.

Ka-32MT
Engines: 2 x Klimov TV3-117B turboshaft, 2250 shp.
Disc area: 356.1 sq.m
Max external load: 5000 kg.
MAUW: 12,600 kg.
Max speed: 230 kph.

Ka-32T
Engines: 2 x TV3-117VK turboshaft, 1620kW
Rotor diameter: 15.9m
Fuselage length: 12.25m
Height: 5.4m
Width: 3.8m
Max take-off weight: 11000kg
Internal payload: 3700kg
External payload: 4500-5000kg
Max speed: 250km/h
Hovering ceiling: 3500m
Service ceiling: 5000m
Range with internal fuel: 800km
Crew: 1-3
Passengers: 15

Ka-32S
Engines: 2 x TV3-117VK turboshaft, 1620kW
Rotor diameter: 15.9m
Fuselage length: 12.25m
Height: 5.4m
Width: 3.8m
Max take-off weight: 11000kg
Internal payload: 3700kg
External payload: 4500-5000kg
Max speed: 250km/h
Hovering ceiling: 3500m
Service ceiling: 5000m
Range with internal fuel: 800km
Crew: 1-3
Passengers: 15

ka-32

Ka-32A

 

 

 


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