Sud Aviation SA360
Sud Aviation SA.361 Dauphin
The Aerospatiale Dauphin was originally planned as a modern replacement for the Alouette III, but it diversified into a family with different fuselages, landing gears (fixed tailwheel type with forward spatted mainwheels or retractable tricycle gear, for example) and various single or twin engines. The original SA 360C Dauphin introduced the four-blade 'Starflex' main rotor and was shown at the 1973 Paris Air Show. The first of two prototypes flew on 2 June 1972 with a 980shp Astazou XVI turbine, a four-blade main rotor (using the same blades as the Alouette III), a characteristic fenestron tail unit and fully-glazed front fuselage section.
After 180 flights, the prototype was refitted with a 1050shp Astazou XVIII engine and new plastic rotor blades, and was modified to reduce vibrations and eliminate ground resonance.
Flights were resumed in May 1973 and it was officially introduced at Le Bourget Air Show, where it distinguished itself by winning a series of three world records in the E1D class for helicopters from 1750 to 3000kg, piloted by Roland Coffignot. With a payload equivalent to eight passengers, it flew at 299km/h over a 100km closed circuit; at 312km/h over a 3km straight course and at 303km/h over 15km. The second prototype, which flew on 29 January 1973, was given new blades, and the first production aircraft subsequently introduced a stepped nose, which was standardised.
Production of the Dauphin began in 1974 with the SA.360C, but the market was limited. At the end of 1976 Aerospatiale had 15 completed Dauphin civil airframes unsold. The SA-360 Dauphin was certified for single-pilot IFR in 1978, using a Sperry package of avionics.
Production of the single-engine civil Dauphin stopped after 34 had been made, although development of a military version continued on an experimental basis.
A military prototype had been developed, the SA.361, with a 1400shp Astazou XX turbine and Starflex rotor. A second model was built with the same powerplant but the original rotor hub.
In the SA.361H/HCL (Helicoptere de Combat Leger) configuration, the Dauphin can carry eight HOT antitank missiles and an SFIM turret,
SA 360 Dauphin
Engine: Turbomeca Astazou XVIIIA, 783kW (1,050 shp)
Rotor diameter: 37.73 ft / 11.5 m
Empty weight: 1550kg
Max take off weight: 6394.5 lb / 2900.0 kg
Max speed: 315km/h
Cruising speed: 265km/h
Range: 362 nm / 670 km
SA 360C Dauphin
Engines: Turbomeca Astazou XVIIIA, 1050 hp
Disc loading: 5.92 lb/sq.ft
Pwr loading: 6.3 lb/hp
Max TO wt: 6615 lb
Empty wt: 3440 lb
Equipped useful load: 3075 lb
Payload max fuel: 1602 lb
Range max fuel/ cruise: 338 nm/ 2.3 hr
Range max fuel / range: 352 nm/ 2.7 hr
Service ceiling: 14,270 ft
Max cruise: 146 kt
Max range cruise: 133 kt
ROC: 1400 fpm
HIGE: 8035 ft
HOGE: 5740 ft
Max sling load: 3300 lb
Fuel cap: 1125/1473 lb.
SA.361N Dauphin II
Cruise: 170 kt