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Westland WG.13 Lynx

west-wg13
Lynx HAS.2


One of the three helicopters included in the Aerospatiale/Westland co-production agreement confirmed 2 April 1968, Westland given design leadership, the Westland Lynx was designed initially for naval and civil roles, but early appreciation of its suitability for a wide range of military operations has led to an expanded development programme under the titles Army and Navy Lynx. Production was shared 70% by Westland and 30% by Aerospatiale.
From the start of Westland Helicopters planing for what in the early 1960s was called the WG.13 (the name Lynx coming later), every effort was made to find a basic formula that would appeal to the greatest number of operators, both military (including naval) and commercial. New technology enabled the original Lynx first flown on 21 March 1971, to be the most modern in the world, typical features being the all-new Rolls-Royce Gem three-shaft engines, the conformal-gear main gearbox giving amazing compactness (with a much shallower powerplant group above the cabin than in rival designs) and the four-blade rotor with a semi-rigid hub forged from a single slab of titanium. This hub is one of the parts made in France by Aerospatiale, which was brought in at the start of the project under the terms of the 1967 Anglo-French helicopter programme. Modified Westland Scout helicopters were used to test the Lynx's main rotor system.

 

Features a manually folding tail pylon on naval versions; single four-blade semi-rigid main rotor (foldable), each blade attached to main rotor hub by titanium root plates and flexible arm; rotor drives taken from front of engines into main gearbox mounted above cabin ahead of engines; in flight, accessory gears (at front of main gearbox) driven by one of two through shafts from first stage reduction gears; four-blade tail rotor, drive taken from main ring gear; single large window in each main cabin sliding door; provision for internally mounted armament, and for exterior universal flange mounting each side for other weapons/stores.

 

Super Lynx has increased take-off weight; all-weather day/night capability; extended payload range; swept-tip BERP composites main rotor blades offering improved speed and reduced vibration; and reversed direction tail rotor for improved control.

 

The rotor head controls actuated by three identical tandem servojacks and powered by two independent hydraulic systems; control system incorporates simple stability augmentation system; each engine embodies independent control system providing full-authority rotor speed governing, pilot control being limited to selection of desired rotor speed range; in event of one engine failure, system restores power up to single-engine maximum contingency rating; main rotor can provide negative thrust to increase stability on deck after touchdown on naval versions; hydraulically operated rotor brake mounted on main gearbox; sweptback fin/tail rotor pylon, with starboard half-tailplane.

 

The structure is a conventional semi-monocoque pod and boom, mainly light alloy; glass fibre access panels, doors, fairings, pylon leading/trailing-edges, and bullet fairing over tail rotor gearbox; composites main rotor blades; main rotor hub and inboard flexible arm portions built as complete unit, as titanium monobloc forging; tail rotor blades have light-alloy spar, stainless steel leading-edge sheath and rear section as for main blades.

 

The general purpose military version landing gear is non-retractable tubular skid type. Provision for a pair of adjustable ground handling wheels on each skid. Flotation gear optional. Battlefield Lynx and AH.Mk 9 equivalent have non-retractable tricycle gear with twin nosewheels. Naval versions have a non-retractable oleo-pneumatic tricycle type. Single-wheel main units, carried on sponsons, fixed at 27° toe-out for deck landing; can be manually turned into line and locked fore and aft for movement of aircraft into and out of ship's hangar. Twin-wheel nose unit steered hydraulically through 90° by the pilot to facilitate independent take-off into wind. Sprag brakes (wheel locks) fitted to each wheel prevent rotation on landing or inadvertent deck roll. These locks disengage hydraulically and re-engage automatically in event of hydraulic failure. Maximum vertical descent 2.29m/s; with lateral drift 0.91m/s for deck landing. Flotation gear, and hydraulically actuated harpoon deck lock securing system, optional.

 

Pilot and co-pilot or observer on side-by-side seats. Dual controls optional. Individual forward-hinged cockpit door and large rearward-sliding cabin door on each side; cockpit doors jettisonable; windows of cabin doors also jettisonable. Cockpit accessible from cabin area. Maximum high-density layout (military version) for one pilot and 10 armed troops or paratroops, on lightweight bench seats in soundproofed cabin. Alternative VIP layouts for four to seven passengers, with additional cabin soundproofing. Seats can be removed quickly to permit carriage of up to 907kg of freight internally. Tiedown rings provided. In casualty evacuation role, with a crew of two, Lynx can accommodate up to six Alphin stretchers and a medical attendant. Both basic versions have secondary capability for search and rescue (up to nine survivors) and other roles.

 

Two independent hydraulic systems, pressure 141 bars. Third hydraulic system provided in naval version when sonar equipment, MAD or hydraulic winch system installed. No pneumatic system. 28V DC electrical power supplied by two 6kW engine-driven starter/generators and an alternator. External power sockets. 24V 23Ah (optionally 40Ah) Ni/Cd battery fitted for essential services and emergency engine starting. 200V three-phase AC power available at 400Hz from two 15kVA transmission-driven alternators. Cabin heating and ventilation system. Optional supplementary cockpit heating system. Electric anti-icing and demisting of windscreen, and electrically operated windscreen wipers, standard; windscreen washing system.

 

Avionics common to all roles (general purpose and naval versions).

 

Comms: Collins VOR/ILS; DME; Collins AN/ARN-118 Tacan; I-band transponder (naval version only); GEC-Plessey PTR 446, Collins APX-72, Siemens STR 700/375 or Italtel APX-77 IFF.

 

Flight: Marconi duplex three-axis automatic stabilisation equipment; BAe GM9 Gyrosyn compass system; Decca Tactical Air Navigation System (TANS); Decca 71 Doppler, E2C standby compass. Marconi Mk 34 AFCS. Additional units fitted in naval version, when sonar is installed, to provide automatic transition to hover and automatic Doppler hold in hover.

 

(Army): Flight: Decca Doppler 91 and RSN252 navigation; Honeywell/Smiths AN/APN-198 radar altimeter; Rockwell Collins 206A ADF and VIR 31A VOR/ILS on latest versions.

 

Mission: British Army Lynx equipped with TOW missiles have roof-mounted Hughes sight manufactured under licence by British Aerospace. Roof sight upgraded with night vision capability in far infra-red waveband; first test firing of TOW with added Marconi thermal imager took place in October 1988. Optional equipment, according to role, can include lightweight sighting system with alternative target magnification, vertical and/or oblique cameras, flares for night operation, low-light level TV, infra-red linescan, searchlight, and specialised communications equipment. Some have infra-red formation flying lights and provision for crew's NVGs. For surveillance, some AAC Lynx carry Chancellor Helitele in external (port) ball housing, complete with datalink.

 

Self-defence: Sanders AN/ALQ-144 infra-red jammer installed beneath tailboom of some British Army Lynx from 1987; later augmented by exhaust diffusers. Requirement for RWR satisfied by 1989 selection of Marconi AWARE-3 (ARI23491) system; Marconi Sky Guardian Mk 13 (later Mk 15) on some aircraft from 1990.

 

(Navy): Comms: Rotal Navy helicopters have two GEC-Marconi AD 3400 VHF/UHF transceivers, Dowty D403M standby UHF radio, Collins 718U-5 HF transceiver, Plessey PTR446 D-band transponder and Pilkington ARI 5983 I-band transponder.

 

Radar: Marconi ARI5979 Sea Spray Mk 1 lightweight search and tracking radar, for detecting small surface targets in low-visibility/high-sea conditions in original versions. Super Lynx has Sea Spray Mk 3000 or AlliedSignal RDR 1500 360° scan radar in chin fairing. UK Mk 8 upgraded with Sea Spray Mk 3000 below fuselage.

 

Flight: GPS on Royal Navy and Netherlands Lynx from 1997.

 

Self-defence: Tracor M-130 chaff/flare dispensers and Ericsson Radar Electronics AN/ALQ-167(V) D- to J-band anti-ship missile jamming pods installed on Royal Navy Lynx patrolling Arabian Gulf, 1987. Two Loral Challenger IR jammers above cockpit of Royal Navy Lynx during 1990-91 Gulf War. RWR in Netherlands SH-14Ds from 1996.

 

For armed escort, anti-tank or air-to-surface strike missions, army version can be equipped with two 20mm cannon mounted externally so as to permit carriage also of anti-tank missiles or pintle-mounted 7.62mm machine gun inside cabin. External pylon can be fitted on each side of cabin for variety of stores, including two Minigun or other self-contained gun pods; two rocket pods; or up to eight HOT, Hellfire, TOW, or similar air-to-surface missiles. Additional six or eight missiles carried in cabin. For ASW role, armament includes two Mk 44, Mk 46, A244S or Sting Ray homing torpedoes, one each on an external pylon on each side of fuselage, and six marine markers; or two Mk 11 depth charges. Alternatively, up to four Sea Skua semi-active homing missiles; on French Navy Lynx, four AS.12 or similar wire-guided missiles. Self-protection FN HMP 12.7mm machine gun pod optional on Royal Navy Lynx.

 

The first flight of the first of 13 prototypes (XW835) 21 March 1971(six prototypes, seven pre-production prototypes). It was followed by four more aircraft in two basic configurations: the AH Mk.1 for the Army and the HAS Mk.2 for the Navy. First flight of fourth prototype (XW838) 9 March 1972, featuring production type monobloc rotor head; first flights of British Army Lynx prototype (XX153) 12 April 1972, French Navy prototype (XX904) 6 July 1973, production Lynx (RN HAS. Mk 2 XZ229) 20 February 1976.

 

Standard power plant consists of two Rolls-Royce BS-360-07-26 Gem turboshaft engines, each of which has a maximum rating of 900 shp. Army versions can be configured for many roles including anti-tank, command post, reconnaissance, SAR, and tactical troop transport duties. For such roles that require weapons, armament can include a 20-mm cannon, rocket pods, six AS.11 or up to eight HOT or TOW air-to-surface missiles. Naval versions are intended for such duties as ASW, ASV, communications, reconnaissance, SAR, troop trans-port, and vertical replenishment. Equipment can include dipping sonar and search radar, and weapons such as depth charges, homing torpedoes, and air-to-surface missiles can be deployed. This latter category of weapon includes the new British Sea Skua, an all-weather, sea-skimming, semi-active homing anti-ship missile which became operational in 1980.

 

Engine options include two Rolls-Royce Gem 42-1 turboshafts, each rated at 835kW, or two LHTEC CTS800-4N, each rated at 995kW. Transmission rating 1,372kW. Exhaust diffusers for IR suppression optional on Battlefield Lynx.

Two Rolls-Royce Gem 2 turboshafts, each with maximum contingency rating of 671kW in original Lynx AH. 1, HAS. 2 and early export variants. Later versions have Gem 41-1, 41-2, or 42-1 engines, all with maximum contingency rating of 835kW. Transmission rating 1,372kW. Engines of British and French Lynx in service were converted to Mk 42 standard during regular overhauls from 1987 onwards. Danish, Netherlands and Norwegian Lynx similarly retrofitted. Fuel in five internal tanks; usable capacity 957 litres when gravity-refuelled; 985 litres when pressure-refuelled. For ferrying, two tanks each of 441 litres in cabin, replacing bench tank. Maximum usable fuel 1,867 litres. Engine oil tank capacity 6.8 litres. Main rotor gearbox oil capacity 28 litres.

All versions equipped as standard with navigation, cabin and cockpit lights; adjustable landing light under nose; and anti-collision beacon. For search and rescue, with three crew, both versions can have a waterproof floor and a 272kg capacity clip-on hydraulic hoist on starboard side of cabin. Cable length 30m. Electric hoist on CTS800-powered aircraft.

 

The initial HAS Mk.2 version was ordered by both the Royal Navy and the French Aeronavale, although they differed in their avionics, ASW equipment, and their armament (the former has four Sea Skua anti-ship missiles and the latter AS.12 missiles). Uprating and other changes subsequently resulted in two distinct new variants, the HAS Mk.3 for the Royal Navy and the Mk.4 for the Aeronavale. Similar uprating for the British Army version has resulted in the AH Mk.5.

The Lynx HAS. Mk 3 used by Armilla Patrol in Arabian Gulf modified to HAS. Mk 3GM (Gulf Mod), with better cooling, or HAS. Mk 3S/GM, also with Mk 3S modifications (to which standard all 3GMs converted). Augmenting new-build Mk 3Ss, 36 modified by Royal Navy Aircraft Yard at Fleetlands from April 1989; Mk 3S is Phase 1 of Mk 8 conversion programme, involving GEC-Marconi AD 3400 secure speech radios (blade aerial beneath mid-point of tailboom) and upgraded ESM; programme continues, including Mk 3S/GM. Phase 2 is Lynx HAS. Mk 3CTS, adding RAMS 4000 central tactical system; prototype (XZ236 ex-Mk 3) flew 25 January 1989; further six for Royal Navy trials (one ex-Mk 3; five ex-Mk 3S); deliveries to Operational Flight Trials Unit, Portland, from April 1989. CTS service clearance granted August 1991; Mk 3CTS has flotation bag each side of nose.

After evaluation, it was chosen by the German Navy (12 ordered in 1981) for use on their new frigates, and six SAR and 18 ASW models were ordered by the Royal Netherlands Navy. Other operators of the Lynx include Argentina, Brazil, Denmark, Norway, Nigeria and Qatar.

Denmark upgrading its eight Mk 80A and Mk 90A Lynx to Super Lynx standard; includes building of replacement airframes for integration with existing fleet's engines, transmission, rotor system, flying controls, hydraulic systems, avionics and electrical systems, upgrade and modifications of main rotor blades, tail rotor and fuel systems. Completion was due in 2004, and to be known as Mk 90B when upgraded.

GBP80 million contract awarded in June 1998 for upgrading 17 German Navy Mk.88 Sea Lynx to Super Lynx standard, following on from a GBP100 million order for seven new Super Lynx Series 100s. The modification includes fitting the Marconi Sea Spray 3000 radar, Racal Doppler 91, RNS 252 and Rockwell Collins GPS. It will be fitted to accommodate the FLIR system fitted to the new aircraft and will also be capable of deploying the Sea Skua air-to-surface missile. GKN Westland was to carry out the first trial installation, with Eurocopter Deutschland subcontracted to modify the remaining 16 aircraft. Trial installation was scheduled for mid-2001.

The first flight of South Korean Super Lynx was on 16 November 1989 (also first Lynx with Sea Spray Mk 3).

By 1993, 380 Army and Navy versions had been completed for customers in 17 nations.

 

Differing versions of the Lynx were in service with the armed forces of the Argentine, Brazil, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and Qatar, in addition to those which serve with the Royal Navy and the RAF.

The Lynx demonstrated its capabilities by the records achieved in the summer of 1972. Piloted by Westland's chief test pilot Roy Moxam, it broke the world record over 15/25km by flying at 321.74km/h, also setting a new 100km closed circuit record shortly afterwards by flying at 318.504km/h.

Service trials began first in 1976 with No. 700L Naval Air Squadron at RNAS Yeovilton, Somerset, this being a joint Royal Navy and Royal Netherlands navy operational evaluation unit; similarly, an Army Aviation trials unit was established at Middle Wallop, Hampshire, in mid-1977.

Deliveries of production aircraft to operational units began following completion of the latter trials in December 1977, the Lynx entering service first with Army Aviation squadrons in West Germany. The first Royal Navy unit (No. 702 Sqn, at Yeovilton) became operational in December 1977.

 

The British Army ordered over 100 Lynx AH.1 for a variety of roles, from tactical transport to armed escort, antitank warfare (with eight TOW missiles), reconnaissance and casualty evacuation. A Marconi Elliott AFCS system is fitted to the Army's version of the Lynx, which gives automatic stabilization on three axes and can also be used as an autopilot during extended flights.

 

The original naval model, the Lynx HAS.2 for the Royal Navy, was actually the first production variant to fly, on 10 February 1976. The Lynx HAS.Mk 2 is powered by the 750-shp (559kW) Gem 2 with contingency rating of 900 shp (671 kW) and entered service with a gross weight of 4309 kg (9,500 lb). Subsequently this has been increased to 4423 kg (9,750 lb), and it is at this weight that the 60 Lynx HAS.Mk 2s of the Royal Navy were operating. The designation Helicopter Anti-Submarine does not preclude many other missions, such as anti-ship missile attack, all forms of rescue and a variety of liaison, surveillance and transport duties. This has a gross weight of 4309 kg (9,500 lb), a crew of two (three in the ASW or SAR roles) plus all equipment for ASW, SAR, ASV (anti-surface vessel) search and strike, reconnaissance, troop transport (typically 10 troops), fire support, communication, and fleet liaison and vertrep (vertical replenishment) duties. Equipment of all these models includes a search radar which in the 60 Lynx HAS. Mk.2s of the RN is the Ferranti Seaspray; the equivalent machines of the French Aeronavale have the OMERA-Segid ORB 31W. In the ASW search role other sensors can include Bendix or Alcatel dipping sonars or a TI MAD (magnetic anomaly detector). This model was characterized by wheeled landing gear, with a castoring and steerable (± 90 degrees) twin-wheel nose unit and single-wheel main gears which can be toed out 27 degrees to the sides for stability on pitching decks.


In 1979 the Royal Netherlands navy began receiving the upgraded Lynx Mk 27, first of a Mk 2 family with Gem 41-1 engines and weights ranging from 4763 to 4990 kg (10, 500 to 11, 000 lb). The first configured for ASW operations, the Royal Netherlands Navy designated them SH-14B (previously the UH-14A multi-role search/rescue and trainer model had been supplied). The SH-14B was designed to carry heavier loads, including Alcatel dunking sonar and two homing torpedoes or depth charges. These raise equipped empty weight from about 3266 kg (7,200 lb) to 3650 kg (8,047 lb). Westland accordingly strengthened the transmission and introduced a modified main gearbox in which the third pinion, instead of merely extracting power for the tail rotor, is in fact an input gear through the use of a balancing geartrain. This opened the way to greater input power, and the Gem 41-1 is installed, rated for contingency at 1,120 shp (835 kW). This enabled gross weight to be increased successively to 4536, 4763 and then 4876 kg (10,000, 10,500 and then 10,750 lb).

 

The Royal Netherlands Navy upgraded five UH-14As and eight SH-14Cs to SH-14D standard, with Alcatel dipping sonar, UHF radios, RWR, FLIR Systems Inc 2000HP FLIR, Trimble Type 2200 GPS, new radar altimeter, composites rotor blades and Mk 42 Gem power plants. Nine SH-14Bs, already with sonar, raised to SH-14D standards, but in interim SH-14Cs upgraded to SH-14B through deletion of MAD and addition of sonar. UH-14As are first full SH-14D conversions, from 1990; programme designated STAMOL (Standaardisatie en Modernisering Lynx); standard fleet comprising 16 with sonar and six with provisions for sonar installation. Completed early 1993.

 

Almost all export Lynxes were at this standard, known as Lynx 2 to Westland, and the two original customers also received up-rated Lynx 2 machines, the Royal Navy taking 23 Lynx HAS, Mk 3 (three are replacements for the machines lost off the Falklands), and the French Aeronavale a further 14 Lynx Mk 4 (FN) to add to the original 26 Lynx Mk 2(FN),


The availability of the three-pinion gearbox and Gem 41-Series engine opened the way to what became the Westland 30, with a very large new fuselage making possible an in-crease in cabin volume from 5.21 m3 (184 cu ft) to 13,03 m3 (460 cu ft).
The Westland Lynx Mk.21 for the Brazilian navy is based on the Royal Navy HAS.Mk.2 with Seaspray surveillance radar, various anti-submarine devices and Sea Skua anti-ship missiles.


The first Lynx airframe modified to Lynx 3 standard flew in June 1984. Changes include the installation of 832kW Gem 60 engines, composite main rotor blades with-paddle tips, and a lengthened fuselage faired into a Westland 30 tailboom. Lynx 3 development to 5443 kg (12,000 lb) has been completed, and the maximum take-off weight is increased to 5,896kg. Lynx 3 is offered in both Army and Navy versions.


Lynx 4 will take the weight to 6577 kg (14,500 lb) using a five-blade rotor.


The initial Army variant, the AH.1, is generally armed with eight TOW missiles aimed via a roof sight.


The production version of the Lynx for the British Army is the AH.7. The first for the Army, which has ordered an initial batch of five, ZE376 flew at Yeovil on 7th November 1985. As well as the uprated Gem 41-1 engines of the earlier AH.5 and a.u.w. increased to 10,750 lb., the Lynx W.7 has improved transmission and a new composite tail rotor, operating clockwise and mounted on the port side. Lynx AH.Mk 1s were converted to AH.Mk 7 standard by the Royal Navy.


Several naval versions of the Lynx were in service, including the Royal Navy’s HAS.2 and HAS.3, powered by Gem 2s and Gem 41s respectively. All can carry up to four Sea Skuas plus various homing torpedoes.


The first production example (XZ227) of the Westland/Aerospatiale Lynx HAS.Mk 2 for the Royal Navy was flown at Yeovil, Somerset on 10 February 1976. Following intensive navy trials, No. 702 (Training) Squadron was the first to be equipped; the Lynx was embarked subsequently on 'Lean-der' class and Type 21 frigates, and on Type 22 and Type 42 destroyers.
The Lynx HAS Mk 8 ASW/ASV helicopter has a central tactical system (CTS) which processes all sensor data and presents the information on multi-function displays; BERP blades; increased weights and a passive identification system. Armament includes up to four BAe Sea Skuas. The South Korean Navy has ordered the export Super Lynx version of the HAS Mk 8. Powerplants are Rolls-Royce Gem 42-1 turboshafts rated at 1,135 shp (846 kW).

 

The Battlefield Lynx mockup displayed at 1988 Farnborough Air Show (converted demonstrator G-LYNX), featuring wheeled landing gear, exhaust diffusers and provision for anti-helicopter missiles each side of fuselage; first flight of wheeled prototype (converted trials AH. Mk 7 XZ170) 29 November 1989.

 

The Super Lynx is based on the Mk.8 and fitted with aerodynamic composite rotor blades to enhance its response time during manoeuvres. Automatic flight controls help the pilot position the aircraft exactly, and it can carry equipment ranging from infrared viewing devices to Sea Skua missiles. Super Lynx as standard naval Lynx, including four Sea Skua or two Penguin, or Marte Mk.2/s anti-ship missiles.

 

GKN Westland rolled out the first of 7 new Mk.88A Super Sea Lynx for the Germany Navy in 1999. The Lynx Mk.88 has a Bendix AN/AQS-18 sonar and Gem 41-2 engines. The Mk.88A is powered by Rolls-Royce GEM-42 engines.

westlandsealynx88
Mk.88A Super Sea Lynx
 
 

Variants:

Lynx AH.Mk 1
General-purpose/ utility version for the British army with skid landing gear, able to operate in roles that include anti-tank, strike, armed escort, casualty evacuation, command post, logistic support, reconnaissance, tactical transport and SAR; 113 built; most converted to Mk 7.
 
AH.Mk 1GT
Interim version before AH.Mk 7 conversion
 
Lynx HAS. Mk 2
Version for Royal Navy with non-retractable tricycle landing gear and foldable tail rotor pylon, for advanced shipborne anti-submarine and other duties. Gem 2 engines. Ferranti Sea Spray search and tracking radar in modified nose. Total of 60 delivered, plus 26 to French Navy, designated HAS. Mk 2(FN). First production aircraft (XZ227) flown on 20 February 1976. By 1989, all 53 active Royal Navy first-series Lynx had been modified to Mk 3 or later standards.
 
Lynx Mk 2 (FN)
Version for French navy, generally similar to HAS.Mk 2
 
Lynx HAS.Mk 3
Second antisubmarine version for Royal Navy similar to Mk 2, with uprated powerplant and transmission; equipped with two 835kW Rolls-Royce Gem 41-1 turboshaft engines, and GEC-Marconi Seaspray radar in modified nose; 23 delivered between March 1982 to April 1985; seven more in HAS. Mk 3S configuration; first flight, ZF557, 12 October 1987. 53 surviving HAS.Mk 2s converted to HAS Mk 3 standard by 1989; further improved version designated HAS.Mk 3S
This version has two GEC-Marconi AD3400 UHF radios with secure speech facility; additionally, ZD560 built in approximately Mk 7 configuration, delivered to Empire Test Pilots' School. Further 53 obtained through modification of all existing HAS. Mk 2s. Lynx HAS. Mk 3ICE is Mk 3 lacking some operational equipment for general duties aboard Antarctic survey vessel, HMS Endurance; three converted, of which two to Mk 3SICE.
 
Lynx HAS.Mk 3 ICE
Two aircraft converted for Arctic use by Royal Navy
 
Lynx HAS.Mk 3 GM
Unofficial designation for 19 Gulf Modification aircraft originally delivered for use by Armada patrol, involving secure comms, tactical navigation and ESM fit
 
Lynx HAS.Mk ACTS
Phase two of upgrade programme featuring addition of RAMS 4000 central tactical system
 
Lynx HAS.Mk 4 (FN)
Version for French navy with powerplant of Lynx HAS.Mk 3
 
Lynx Mk 4
Second batch of 14 aircraft ordered for French Navy in May 1980 with Gem 41-1 engines and uprated transmission to permit an increase in AUW to 4,763kg. All supplied 'green' for equipment installation by Aerospatiale and subsidiaries.
 
Lynx AH. Mk 5
Similar to AH. Mk 1 with uprated Gem engines. Two trials aircraft ZD285 and ZD559. Nine AH. Mk 5s ordered for Army Air Corps. Initial example (ZE375) flew on 23 February 1985 and was used for engine trials. Remainder transferred to AH. Mk 7 contract, although ZE376 flew initially as Mk 5.
 
Lynx AH.Mk 7
Uprated British Army version, with improved systems, reversed-direction tail rotor with improved composite blades to reduce noise and enhance extended period hover at high weights; 13 ordered, eight from Mk 5 contract (two cancelled); first flight (ZE376) 7 November 1985; seven converted to Mk 9. Royal Navy workshops at Fleetlands converted Mk 1s to Mk 7s; first (XZ641) redelivered 30 March 1988; box-type exhaust diffusers added from early 1989; last conversion mid-1994. Interim version was Lynx AH. Mk 1GT with uprated engines and rotors, but lacking Mk 7's improved electronic systems; first conversion (XZ195) 1991. GEC-Marconi AWARE-3 radar warning receiver selected 1989 for retrofit, designated ARI23491 Rewarder; Mk 1 XZ668 to Westland for trial installation 22 November 1991. (GEC-Marconi Sky Guardian Mk 13 installed in some Lynx AH. Mk 7s for Gulf War, 1990-91; later uprated to Mk 15.) BERP (extended tip chord) blades retrofitted to Mk 7 from 1993.
 
Lynx HAS.Mk 8
Version for Royal Navy featuring 15 new-build and 45 converted airframes featuring increased weights, internal MAD, improved rotors, avionics and ESM systems; Seaspray radar relocated to chin position and GEC-Marconi Sea Owl thermal imager fitted to nose instead; initial deliveries scheduled for early 1994; export version designated Lynx Mk.8 HMA
 
Lynx Mk 8 HMA
Formerly known as HAS. Mk 8: Entered service with Royal Navy 1995. Equivalent to export Super Lynx; passive identification system; 5,125kg maximum T-O weight; improved (reversed-direction) tail rotor control; BERP composite main rotor blades; Racal RAMS 4000 central tactical system (CTS eases crew's workload by centrally processing sensor data and presents mission information on multifunction CRT display; 15 systems ordered 1987, 106 September 1989); original Sea Spray Mk 1 radar repositioned in new chin radome; GEC-Marconi Sea Owl thermal imager (x5 or x30 magnifying system on gimballed mount, with elevation +20 to -30° and azimuth +120 to -120°; ordered October 1989) in former radar position; MIR-2 ESM updated; three Mk 3s used in development programme as tactical system (XZ236), dummy Sea Owl/chin radome (ZD267) and avionics (ZD266) testbeds.
 
Definitive Mk 8 (Phase 3)
Conversions begun 1992 with addition of Sea Owl, further radar and navigation upgrades, (including RACAL RNS252 'Super TANS'), composites BERP main rotor blades and reversed-direction tail rotor. Conversion programme covers 44 aircraft in two phases. All conversions due to be completed by the year 2003.
 
Lynx AH. Mk 9
UK Army Air Corps equivalent of export Battlefield Lynx; tricycle wheel landing gear which precludes carriage of TOW missiles; maximum T-O weight 5,125kg; advanced technology composites main rotor blades; exhaust diffusers; first flight of prototype (converted company demonstrator XZ170) 29 November 1989; 16 new aircraft (beginning ZG884, flown 20 July 1990) ordered for delivery from 1991, plus eight Mk 7 conversions (contract awarded November 1991); some outfitted as advanced command posts, remainder for tactical transport role. Deliveries from 22 May 1991.
 
Lynx Mk 21
Version for Brazilian navy similar to Lynx HAS.Mk 2
 
Lynx Mk 22
Unbuilt version for Egyptian navy
 
Lynx Mk 23
Version for Argentine navy similar to Lynx HAS.Mk 2
 
Lynx Mk 24
Unbuilt version for Iraqi army
 
Lynx Mk 25
Version for Royal Netherlands navy, which designated them UH-14A; similar to Lynx HAS.Mk 2
 
Lynx Mk 26
Unbuilt, unarmed version for Iraqi army
 
Lynx Mk 27 / SH-14B
Version for Royal Netherlands navy which designated them SH-14B; uprated Gem engines and equipped for ASW role with sonar; nine delivered
 
Lynx Mk 28
Version for State of Qatar police; generally as Lynx AH.Mk 1 but with uprated Gem 47-1 turboshafts and special equipment, including flotation gear
 
Lynx Mk 80
Version for Royal Danish navy, similar to Lynx HAS.Mk 2; eight built
 
Lynx Mk 81 / SH-14C
Version for Royal Netherlands navy which designated them SH-14C; uprated Gem engines and magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) gear, some converted to SH-14B standard through deletion of MAD and addition of sonar; eight built
 
SH-14D
Conversion of five Dutch navy UH-14As and eight SH-14Cs with Alcatel dipping sonar, UHF radios, RWR, FLIR, GPS, radar altimeter, composite blades and Gem Mk 42 engines
 
Lynx Mk 82
Unbuilt version for Egyptian army
 
Lynx Mk 83
Unbuilt version for Saudi army
 
Lynx Mk 84
Unbuilt version for Qatari army
 
Lynx Mk 85
Unbuilt version for UAE army
 
Lynx Mk 86
Version for Royal Norwegian air force coast guard; similar to Lynx HAS.Mk 2, but with uprated Gem engines and non-folding tail rotor pylon; six built
 
Lynx Mk 87
Embargoed version for Argentine navy, similar to Lynx Mk 23 but with uprated engines
 
Lynx Mk 88
Version for the Federal German navy similar to Lynx Mk 86; equipped with sonar; 19 built
 
Lynx Mk 89
Version for Nigerian navy; equipped for ASW/SAR roles; three built
 
Lynx Mk 90
Single follow-on aircraft for Danish navy assembled in Denmark; delivered in 1988
 
Super Lynx
Export model approximately equivalent to Mk 8 HMA. Lynx Mk 21A: Five remaining Brazilian Navy Lynx Mk 21 upgraded to Super Lynx Mk 21A standard. Contract placed in February 1994 includes nine new-build aircraft.
 
Super Lynx Mk 95
Five aircraft for Portuguese navy; equivalent to HAS. Mk 8; deliveries commenced in 1993
 
Super Lynx Mk 99
12 aircraft for South Korean navy; delivered between 1989 and 1991; equivalent to HAS.Mk8
 
Super Lynx Series 100
Upgraded export naval Lynx introduced in September 1996, powered by Rolls-Royce Gem 42-1 turboshaft engines, approximately equivalent to Lynx. Mk 8 HMA; operated by South Korean, Portuguese and Brazilian navies and applied to new Mk 88As sold to Germany.
 
Super Lynx Series 200
More powerful alternative option with 1,007kW LHTEC CTS800 engine with dual-channel Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC), LCD flat panel electronic power system displays, but otherwise conventional cockpit of Series 100.
 
Super Lynx Series 300
Also powered by the LHTEC CTS800, but with full 'glass' cockpit with six LCD colour flat panel displays, night vision goggle-compatible, and digital core avionics based around dual-redundant MIL-STD-1553B and ARINC 429 databuses; includes new navigation system, attitude and heading reference system and communications suite. Mission sensors and systems can be integrated into the avionics system and controlled via control and display units.
Demonstrator made its first flight with CTS800-4N turboshaft engines at Yeovil on 12 June 2001.
 
Battlefield Lynx 800
Upgraded export army Lynx; approximately equivalent to Lynx AH. Mk 9. Demonstrator AH Mk 9 G-LYNX fitted with two 1,007kW LHTEC T800 turboshafts as Battlefield Lynx 800 private venture (LHTEC funding power plants and gearboxes, Westland providing airframe for full flight demonstration programme); first flight 25 September 1991; programme terminated early 1992 after 17 hours.

 

Specifications:


Lynx (Naval)
Engine: 2 x R-R Gem 41
Installed pwr: 1670 kW
Rotor dia: 12.8 m
Fuselage length (folded): 10.6 m
No. Blades: 4
Empty wt: 2740 kg
MTOW: 4763 kg
Cruise speed: 232 kph
ROC: 350 m/min
HOGE: 2575 m
Fuel cap: 733 kg
Range: 595 km
Crew: 2

HAS.2
Type: multi role shipboard helicopter
Powerplant: two 750/900 shp (559/671 kW) Rolls Royce Gem 2 turboshafts
Main rotor diameter 12.80 m (42 ft 0 in)
Main rotor disc area 128.71 sq.m (1,385.4 sq ft)
Length overall 15.16 m (49 ft 9 in)
Height 3.60 m (11 ft 9.75 in)
Width: 2.94m
Maximum cruising speed 232km/h (144mph)
Time on ASW hover at 93 km (58 miles) 2 hours
Ferry range 1046 km (650 miles)
Empty weight 2740 kg, (6,040 lb)
Maximum take off (early machines) 4309 kg (9,500 lb) or (later machines) 4763 kg (10, 500 lb)
Armament: two torpedoes, or four BAe Sea Skua anti ship missiles, or two Mk 11 depth charges

 

HAS.3
Engine: 2 x R-R Gem 60
Installed pwr: 1664 kW
Rotor dia: 12.8 m
Fuselage length: 13.8 m
No. Blades: 4
MTOW: 5895 kg
Payload: 1532 kg
Max speed: 306 kph
Fuel cap: 1000 kg
Range: 705 km
Crew: 2
Pax: 9

HAS.35

HMA.8

Battlefield Lynx
Engine: 2 x RR Gem 42-1
Instant pwr: 835 kW
Rotor dia: 12.8 m
MTOW: 5126 kg
Payload: 1948 kg
Max speed: 160 kts
Max cruise: 137 kts
Max range (with aux fuel): 992 km
HIGE: 8859 ft
HOGE: 6,726 ft
Service ceiling: 12,000 ft
Crew: 2
Pax: 10

Super Lynx
Engine: 2 x RR Gem 42-1
Instant pwr: 835 kW
Rotor dia: 12.8 m
MTOW: 5126 kg
Payload: 1702 kg
Max speed: 160 kts
Max cruise: 137 kts
Max range (with aux fuel): 992 km
HIGE: 8859 ft
HOGE: 2726 ft
Service ceiling: 12,000 ft
Crew: 3
Pax: 10

Super Lynx 300
Engines: LHTEC CTS800.

Lynx AH.Mk 1
Rotor dia: 42 ft 0 in (12,8 m)
Undercarriage: Skid.
Length: 40.486 ft / 12.34 m
Height: 11.253 ft / 3.43 m
Max take off weight: 8551.0 lb / 3878.0 kg
Weight empty: 5298.6 lb / 2403.0 kg
Max. speed: 160 kts / 296 km/h
Cruising speed: 140 kts / 259 km/h
Maximum range: 999 nm / 1850 km
Range: 999 nm / 1850 km
Range (max. weight): 859 nm / 1590 km
Engine: 2 x Rolls Royce BS 360-07-26, 888 shp
Crew: 2
Payload: 12 Pax / 1242kg

AH.5
Undercarriage: Skid.

AH.7
Undercarriage: Skid.

 

Lynx-ld

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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