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Sikorsky S-70 / H-60 Black Hawk / Sea Hawk

 

sikorsk-s70
S-70


Like the Boeing-Vertol YUH-61A, the Sikorsky Model S-70 was developed in response to the Army's 1972 requirement for a simple, robust, and reliable Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft System (UTTAS) helicopter intended to eventually replace most of the Army's UH-1 Iroquois.

The Blackhawk's general shape and external dimensions were dictated by the Army's requirement that one complete UTTAS helicopter be air transportable within the cargo bay of a single C-130 Hercules (with the additional requirement that two helicopters fit within a single C-141 Starlifter, and six within each C-5 Galaxy). The UH-60 is thus a long and low-set craft with a streamlined pod-and-boom layout, and is characterized by a downward-sloping tail boom fitted with a moving stabilator, a sharply-swept vertical tail, and a four-bladed anti-torque rotor canted twenty degrees off the vertical to produce added lift and thus allow a reduction in the main rotor diameter. The tips o1 each of the Blackhawk's four fully-articulated, high-lift main rotor blades are swept twenty degrees to reduce control loads and the effects of high Mach numbers, and all four blades can be manually folded. The UH-60A can be fitted with an External Stores Support System (ESSS) consisting of two stub wings, one fixed to either side of the central fuselage above and just forward of the main cabin doors. These stub wings can carry auxiliary fuel tanks, electronic countermeasures (ECM) equipments, machine gun, cannon or rocket pods, up to sixteen Hellfire anti-tank missiles, or four M-56 landmine dispensers.

The UH-60's design also incorporates a variety of structural features that allow the aircraft to remain in flight after sustaining heavy damage and that provide maximum protection for the crew and passengers in a crash or while under hostile fire. In the Blackhawk these features include an immensely strong yet flexible and crashworthy cabin box, wheeled landing gear able to absorb very heavy vertical impacts, extensive armour plating around the cockpit and dynamic components, self-sealing fuel tanks, widely-separated and redundant electronic and hydraulic systems, and main rotor blades that can withstand hits by explosive or incendiary projectiles up to 23mm in size. For utility use, 14 troop seats could be replaced by four medevac litters or internal cargo; or up to 8,000 lb (3628 kg) of cargo could be carried on an external book.

In August 1972 both Sikorsky and Boeing-Vertol were awarded Army contracts for the production and initial testing of three UTTAS prototypes, the Sikorsky machines (serial numbers 73-21650 through -21652) being designated YUH-60A.

The first YUH-60A example (73-21650) made its maiden flight on 17 October 1974 by Sikorsky at Stratford, Connecticut, and all three prototypes entered competitive testing against the Boeing-Vertol YUH-61A in March 1975. The YUH-60A was declared the winner of the UTTAS competition, against the Bell 240 and Boeing Vertol 179,  on 23 December 1976, and almost immediately thereafter the Army awarded Sikorsky a contract for the first fifteen production UH-60A Blackhawks.

The first production contract covered 15 UH-60A Black Hawk helicopters; a further 353 were the subject of a fixed-price option, and an April 1982 contract covered the acquisition of 294 more for delivery up to 1985.

The first production UH-60 flew on 17 October 1978 and S-70s began to enter service in April 1979. The first production UH-60A was delivered to the Army in 1979, with the aviation components of the 101st and 82nd Airborne Divisions in June, being the first frontline units to transition to the new helicopter. With the service designation UH-60A Black Hawk, this is a twin-turbine helicopter powered by 1,543 shp General Electric T700-GE-700 turboshaft engines. Procurement of more than 1,000 for the US Army was planned. Combat assault UH-60s which accommodate 11 troops, or four stretchers, have provision for one or two side-firing machine-guns. It soon proved far superior to the UH-1H, able to carry loads of up to 20 and to cope with external loads of up to 2000kg. With the addition of External Stores Support System (ESSS) pylons the UH-60A can carry stores such as Hellfire missiles and long-range fuel tanks on pylons, and M60 machine-guns in the forward area of the cabin.

Sixteen of the anti-armour Hellfire missiles can be carried externally on the UH-60A Black Hawk’s external stores support system (ESSS), plus another 16 in the cabin, allowing the crew to land and reload for additional sorties. Test firings have been completed in all directions, as well as in the hover and at night (in conjunction with pilot’s night vision goggles). The ESSS, designed by Sikorsky under another US Army design contract, consists of removeable pylons on the fuselage sides which allow the carriage of missiles, auxiliary fuel tanks, mine dispensing systems, and a variety of other stores. They can be installed in less than 40min by four personnel. All production Black Hawks built after 1983 have built-in provision for ESSS, while retrofit kits are being produced for earlier aircraft. Other improvements now being incorporated include internal/external lighting systems which are compatible with pilots’ night vision goggles, and infrared suppression equipment to increase survivability.

The Army awarded Sikorsky the first of two multi-year Blackhawk construction contracts in early 1982, and by early 1988 more than 900 examples were in Army service in the utility transport, aeromedical evacuation, and special warfare-support roles.

The UH-60A underwent its baptism of fire during the 1983 U.S. invasion of Grenada, and there proved itself to be a dependable and capable successor to the Huey. The Blackhawks deployed to Grenada were fired upon by weapons ranging from small arms to 23mm cannon, and in the Army's official report on the conflict the craft's sturdy construction, mechanical reliability, and ability to absorb significant damage and still fly were singled out for special mention.

Further development of the UH-60 continues as the manufacturer seeks to improve the basic airframe and the Army works to adapt the Blackhawk to a wider variety of operational tasks. In January 1988 the Army accepted the first of nine UH-60A machines especially equipped for use by the commanders-in-chief (CINCs) of various Army commands. These 'CINC Hawks' are fitted with additional radio equipment, satellite communications gear, M-130 flare and chaff dispensers, and other airborne survivability equipment.

In 1982/83 11 UH-60As were delivered to the USAF to meet a short-term rescue helicopter undercapacity, and under a later contract Sikorsky is converting ten to Credible Hawk standard, which includes the installation of a 117gal auxiliary fuel tank, a fuel management system, and an in-flight refuelling probe. The eleventh was reconfigured as an HH-60A Night Hawk in 1983/84, with internal and external auxiliary fuel totalling 937ga1, an in-flight refuelling probe, and various specialised rescue equipment. Mission equipment installed included Doppler radar, Fur, multifunction CRT displays, Litton INS, provision for GPS, a MIL 1553B digital databus, and various self-protection systems.

To complement its large fleet of UH-60A Black Hawk tactical transport helicopters, the US Army contracted with the Tracor Aerospace Group for a specialist electronic warfare counterpart designed for the jamming of the enemy’s battle-field communications network. The first YEH-60A prototype flew in September 1984, and the type is configured with the 1,800-lb (817-kg) Electronic Systems Laboratories ALQ-151 “Quick Fix IIB” package (an advanced version of the equipment first fitted in the EH-1 version of the Bell “Huey”) to intercept, monitor, and jam radio communications.

A short first flight was made at Stratford, Conn, on 6 February 1981 by the Sikorsky YEH-60B, the first of five prototype SOTAS (Stand- off Target Acquisition Systems) helicopters ordered by the US Army. A derivative of the UH-60A, the SOTAS variant has a rotating radar antenna beneath the fuselage (in mock- up form only in the first prototype) and an electronics data terminal inside the cabin; intended to observe the location and movement of enemy ground forces, the EH-60B is equipped to transmit this information back to ground station terminals for the benefit of battlefield commanders. The antenna and related electronics equipment are being developed by Motorola.

In October 1984 the Tracor Aerospace Group won an Army contract for the conversion of forty UH-60A to EH-60A standard. Flight testing of a planned 132 production -A model EW Blackhawks began in April 1986, though budget restraints ultimately led the Army to acquire only 66 production machines. The last of these was delivered in September 1989, and soon afterwards the type's designation was changed from EH-60A to EH-60C.

The first delivery of an EH-60A Quick Fix electronic warfare airframe was made in 1985, and 66 are on order for production at a rate of two a month until November 1988. The Quick Fix is basically a Black Hawk modified to be equipped with an electronics package, including four dipole antennae in the rear fuselage and a retractable whip antenna under the tail boom, which is used to intercept, monitor, and jam enemy communications.

Other features are an inertial navigation system and the Aircraft Survivability Equipment defen-sive suite (a radar warning receiver and two chaff/flare launchers). Under its Special Electronic Mission Aircraft program, the US Army planned to receive 132 EH-60As, and the first 40 were UH-60A conversions. The program was cut back, however, after the delivery of 26 new-build helicopters, giving the army a strength of 66 such machines. The first of these entered service in July 1987, and the type was re-designated EH-60C.

While the EH-60C is intended to locate, classify and disrupt enemy signals traffic, the EH-60B was developed specifically to carry the Stand-Off Target Acquisition System (SOTAS) radar. The EH-60B was characterized by the long box-shaped SOTAS scanner mounted below the main cabin, and was equipped with backward-retracting main landing gear legs to allow the SOTAS antenna to rotate a full 360 degrees in flight. The sole EH-60B prototype made its maiden flight in February 1981, but the SOTAS development programme was cancelled the following September and the aircraft was subsequently converted to EH-60A/C standard.

In September 1987 Sikorsky submitted a proposal for a Blackhawk derivative intended specifically to support the Army's special operations forces. This aircraft, the MH-60K, will feature a long-range fuel system incorporating both additional internal tankage and the pylon-mounted auxiliary fuel tanks of the Air Force HH-60 combat rescue helicopter, and will have uprated engines, a 'glass' cockpit built around multiple CRT displays, advanced communi-cations and navigation equipment, Forward-Looking Infrared Radar (FLIR), an air-to-air refuelling probe, heavier defensive armament, and additional troop seating. Sikorsky has announced its intention to begin flight testing the MH-60K in early 1989, and current Army planning calls for the acquisition of up to twenty-one aircraft. And in the summer of 1986 Sikorsky began preliminary design work on what was originally called a B-model Blackhawk incorporating an advanced composite main rotor system with larger-diameter blades, more powerful engines, the stronger gearbox developed for the Navy's SH-60B Seahawk variant, a redesigned nose intended to improve pilot visibility, a modified cockpit with improved instrumentation, and upgraded electronics. By late 1988 this aircraft had entered the final design definition stage with the designation UH-60M.

When the US Navy's LAMPS (Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System) programme required a helicopter with a capability superior to that of the Kaman Seasprite that won the LAMPS Mk I contract, substantial commonality with the UH-60A meant that significant economies could result from selection of the navalised S-70L, the SH-60B Seahawk. This version has chin-mounted surveillance radar, ESM (electronic support measures) equipment, a starboard-side pylon for MAD (magnetic anomaly detection) equipment, a sonobuoy launcher, automatic rotor folding, tail pylon folding and modified landing gear. The first of five prototypes flew on 12 December 1979, followed by the first production aircraft on 11 February 1983; initial deliveries were made on 24 March. The first US Navy unit to deploy operationally was HSL-41 at North Island, San Diego, California. With more powerful 1,690 shp General Electric T700-GE-401 turbo-shaft engines, advanced avionics, and armament which includes two homing torpedoes. The S-70L SeaHawk / SH-60B, the former S-70B, first flew on Dec 12, 1979. The SH-60B will operate from frigates and destroyers, while the SH-60F derivative entered service as an SH-3H Sea King replacement.

When the US Navy's LAMPS (Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System) programme required a helicopter with a capability superior to that of the Kaman Seasprite that won the LAMPS Mk I contract, substantial commonality with the UH-60A meant that significant economies could result from selection of the navalised S-70L, the SH-60B Seahawk. This version has chin-mounted surveillance radar, ESM (electronic support measures) equipment, a starboard-side pylon for MAD (magnetic anomaly detection) equipment, a sonobuoy launcher, automatic rotor folding, tail pylon folding and modified landing gear. The first of five prototypes flew on 12 December 1979, followed by the first production aircraft on 11 February 1983; initial deliveries were made on 24 March. The first US Navy unit to deploy operationally was HSL-41 at North Island, San Diego, California. The SH-60B operates from frigates and destroyers, while the SH-60F derivative entered service is an SH-3H Sea King replacement. By 1993 a total of 1,816 H-60/S-70s had been built for customers in 20 nations.

Naval development of Sikorsky UTTAS (UH-60A Black Hawk) utility helicopter; won US Navy LAMPS Mk III competition for shipboard helicopter in 1977. First flight of first of five YSH-60B prototypes (161169) 12 December 1979; first 18 SH-60B authorised FY82. Changed USN planning in 1993 resulted in premature end to SH-60E/F production; original intent was to remanufacture SH-60B/P and HH-60H as SH-60R (redesignated MH-60R in mid-2001), but acquisition strategy changed in 2001 and most MH-60R will be new-build helicopters.

 

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Sikorsky SH-60B Sea Hawk

 

Two SH-60B (162976 and 162977) selected as prototype MH-60Rs; conversion undertaken by Lockheed Martin Systems Integration at Owego, New York, where first (then designated SH-60R) was rolled out on 5 August 1999. First flight scheduled for October 1999, following electronic systems functional test and checkout on the gruund, but delayed until 11 December; first prototype half analogue/half 'glass cockpit' for initial testing, with full 'glass cockpit' installed after about three months. After initial trials at Owego, first prototype delivered to Patuxent River. Maryland, in early May 2000 for start of two-year Navy/contractor developmental test programme.

Initial test aircraft (166402), remanufactured by Sikorsky, first flew 19 July 2001 and formally accepted by Navy (still in manufacturer's hands) later in same month. Subsequently to Patuxent River, Maryland, on 10 August 2001 for installation of flight test instrumentation and then to Lockheed Martin at Owego for fitting of new mission systems. First flight with 'total weapon system' made on 4 April 2002.

 

All four test aircraft (166402 to '405) had been delivered to the Navy by the beginning of February 2002, with first of five LRIP1 MH-6OR (166406 to '410) flying on 9 July and being delivered to US Navy by end of that month. Further two LRIP1 machines were delivered in third quarter of 2002 and then allocated to Lockheed Martin at Owego for fitment of mission systems. Final hurdle before start of full-rate production is US Navy OpEval (operational evaluation), which began with VX-1 Squadron at Patuxent River in latter half of 2003.

The SH-60B Seahawk designed to provide all-weather detection, classification, localisation and interdiction of surface ships and submarines, either controlled through datalink from parent ship or operated independently; secondary missions include SAR, vertical replenishment, medevac, fleet support and communications relay.

Revised features, compared with UH-60A, include more powerful navalised GE T700-GE-401 engines, additional fuel, sensor operator's station, port-side internal launchers for 25 sonobuoys, pylon on starboard side of tailboom for MAD bird, lateral pylons for two torpedoes or external tanks, chin-mounted ESM pods, sliding cabin door, rescue hoist, electrically actuated blade folding, rotor brake, folding tail, short-wheel base tailwheel landing gear with twin tailwheels stressed for lower crash impact, DAF Indal RAST recovery assist, secure and traversing for haul-down landings on small decks and moving into hangar, hovering in-flight refuelling system, and emergency flotation system; pilots' seats not armoured. SH-60B gives 57 minutes' more listening time on station and 45 minutes' more ship surveillance and targeting time than SH-2F Seasprite LAMPS Mk I.

Initial testing of new Fairey Hydraulics Decklock landing system for S-70B was completed in mid-1995; ensuing one year development programme was expected to lead to manufacture of prototype unit for operational trials. Decklock consists of a pair of steel jaws attached to a two-stage actuator which extends during approach to landing platform; jaws then automatically secure helicopter to deck-installed grid on landing, permitting operation without assistance of deck crew during storm-force weather conditions.

For operation in Gulf during mid-1980s Iran-Iraq war, 25 SH-60B fitted with upper and lower Sanders AN/ALQ-144 IR jammers, BAR Systems AN/ALE-39 chaff/flare dispensers, Honeywell AN/AAR-47 electro-optical missile warning, and a single 7.62mm machine gun in door, for a weight penalty of 169kg; seven Seahawks fitted with Raytheon AN/AAS-38 FLIR on root weapon pylon with instantaneous relay to parent ship.

First Block I SH-60B update, introduced in production Lot 9, delivered from October 1991, includes provision for NFT AGM-119 Penguin anti-ship missile, Mk 50 advanced lightweight torpedo, Flightline AN/ARR-84 99-channel sonobuoy receiver (replacing ARR-75), Rockwell Collins AN/ARC-182 V/UHF FM radio and Rockwell Collins Class ÇÀ Navstar GPS; before production cutbacks, 115 Penguin-capable Seahawks to come from retrofitting back to Lot 5, but only 28 launch kits (delivered 1997) so far ordered.

The structure is basically as for UH-60 plus marine corrosion protection; single cabin door, starboard side, narrower than on UH-60, but with twin tailwheel positioned further forward to facilitate operation from landing platforms on warships.

Power is from two 1,260kW intermediate rating General Electric T700-GE-401 turboshafts in early aircraft; 1,342kW T700-GE-401Ñ turboshafts introduced in 1988 and on HH-60H/J. Transmission rating 2,535kW. Internal fuel capacity 2,233 litres. Hovering in-fight refuelling capability. Two 455 litre auxiliary fuel tanks on fuselage pylons optional (three on HH-60J). Hover IR suppressor subsystem (HIRSS) exhaust cowling fitted to HH-60H.

Pilot and airborne tactical officer/back-up pilot in cockpit, sensor operator in specially equipped station in cabin. Dual controls standard. Sliding door with jettisonable window on starboard side. Accommodation heated, ventilated and air conditioned.

External cargo hook (capacity 2,722kg) and rescue hoist (272kg) standard.

Taiwan operates the S-70C(M)-1, equipped with new radar and torpedoes, from 'Kwang Hua I'-class frigates.


On February 3, 1987, the USAF received the first of ten UH-60A Credible Hawk rescue heli-copters.

Export versions of the Black Hawk were available under the designation S-70A. Australia signed a follow-on contract for 25 S-70A-9s in May 1987, taking total procurement to 39, most of which will be assembled in Australia by Hawker de Havilland. A commercial utility model, the S-70C, is not subject to US Foreign Military Sales regulations, and has been sold to China for operation in Tibet. In the UK Rolls-Royce is testing an S-70C fitted with RTM.322 engines.

Derived from the UH-60A Black Hawk airframe, the Seahawk first flew on December 12, 1979, and has twin uprated navalised T700-GE-701 turboshafts, a relocated tail-wheel, a deck recovery system, and hovering in-flight refuelling capability. The first production SH-60B flew in February 1983. The US Navy’s new CV-Inner Zone ASW helicopter, the SH-60F Seahawk, made its initial flight on March 19, 1987. Based on the SH-60B Seahawk but with Lamps Mk.III mission related equipment removed, the SH-60F will use a Bendix AQS-13F dipping sonar and Mk.50 torpedoes in conjunction with a Teledyne ASN-l23 tactical navigation computer, a MIL 1553B databus, and a tactical datalink to other aircraft. Airframe modifications include the removal of redundant sensor fairings, an extended pylon on the port side for additional weapons/auxiliary fuel tank, and a rearranged cabin interior. Provision is also made for future systems such as GPS, Flir, ASMs and a sonobuoy datalink.

By May 1987,85 SH-60B Lamps Mk.III helicopters had been delivered to the US Navy, and they are in service with six operational squadrons. Initial deliveries were made in 1983, and all SH-60Bs have been ready on time and below cost, while mission availability rates of 97 per cent are being regularly achieved. The SH-60B mission system is installed by IBM, which is the prime contractor for Lamps Mk.III avionics integration. The system consists of an APS-l24 search radar, a sonobuoy acoustic processor, towed ASQ-8l(V)2 MAD, ESM, and an ARQ-44 datalink. Armament includes Mk.46 torpedoes, ASMs, and depth bombs. Secondary roles are over-the-horizon targeting for ship-launched missiles, SAR, and stores transfer using an external cargo hook. An SH-60B is under test in the USA powered by Rolls-Royce-Turbomeca RTM.322 engines.

Two specialised rescue versions of the Seahawk, the HH-60H combat SAR/special warfare support (HCS) aircraft and HH-60J medium-range recovery (MRR) helicopter, are being developed for the USN and US Coast Guard respectively. The combined total required stands at 53 aircraft, and initial contracts have been placed for nine Hs and five Js. The first deliveries of HH-60H Rescue Hawks will begin in 1989, followed by Coast Guard HH-60Js in 1990.

Export models of the Seahawk are known by the designation S-70B, although some were delivered to Japan for the installation and test of Japanese equipment as XSH-60Js. The JMSDF may ultimately procure the SH-60J (licence built with UH-60Js by Mitsubishi) in quantity to replace Sea Kings from the mid -1990s. Australia has selected the Seahawk, and most of the 16 on order will be assembled in Australia by Hawker de Havilland. The Austra-lian version, the S-70B-2, will be equipped with MEL Super Searcher radar and Collins inte-grated avionics, while six S-70Bs to be delivered to Spain in 1988 will use systems similar to those of the SH-60B.

By 1993 a total of 1,816 H-60/S-70s had been built for customers in 20 nations.

 

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MH-60R


The S-70L for the US Navy has the same rotors, transmission and control system as the UH-60A. The four-blade rotor is of composite construction, including a titanium spar, Nomex honeycomb filling and glassfibre skin. The tail rotor is of graphite composite construction. Compared with the UH-60A, the Navy helicopter has significantly more fuel capacity, to provide an endurance of more than 3 hrs compared with the 23 hrs of the Army version. The requirement is for the ASW and ASST (anti-ship surveillance and targeting) missions to include a substantial loiter time at a distance of 80 mls (129 km) from the launching ship, this being a key factor in the Navy opting for a helicopter as large as the UTTAS types after earlier looking at much smaller projects. Secondary missions for the LAMPS Mk III helicopter include search and rescue, medical evacuation and vertical replenishment.

The first CH-60 flew in 1997, a hybrid of the UH-60 Black Hawk and SH-60 Sea Hawk.

The US Marine Corp operate nine VH-60N Whitehawks as VIP transport.

The Sikorsky S-70 Battlehawk helicopter, with a turreted 20-mm. cannon, offers battlefield versatility with a 9,000-1b cargo hook, it can carry munitions for several aircraft, essentially bringing along its own rearming facility. The Battlehawk also can perform other missions, such as search and rescue.

The UH-60L Firehawk is Sikorsky's state-of-the art aerial firefighter. The helicopter can deliver 15 firefighters to a fire or drop thousands of gallons of water on a blaze.

The UH-60M Black Hawk made its first flight in 2003, and was designed to replace the UH-60L as the standard configuration for all new US Army Black Hawk units.

Westland licence built the UH-60L as the Westland WS.70 Black Hawk.

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Westland WS.70 Black Hawk


Mitsibishi constructed the Sikorsky S-70B-3 helicopters for the JMSDF as SH-60JS (the first flew in 1991) plus UH-60Js for SAR with the JMSDF and JASDF and UH-60JAS for the JGSDF.

 

Exports comprise:

S-70B-1: Spanish Navy received six from December 1988 (designated HS.23) for operation from four FFG-7 frigates by Escuadrilla 010 at Rota; similar to USN SH-60B, but with Honeywell AN/ AQS-13F dipping sonar. Spanish government approval to order additional six granted in December 1998, with order placed in third quarter 2000; five of them delivered to Rota, in October 2002, with final aircraft retained at Owego, New York, tor additional trials. Deal for new helicopters also included funds to upgrade original six to same standard, including armament kits and compatibility with AGM-114 Hellfire and AGM-119 Penguin ASMs. First two upgraded helicopters were scheduled to be redelivered to Spanish Navy by October 2003.

S-70B-2: Royal Australian Navy (RAN) selected Seahawk for role adaptable weapon system (RAWS) full-spectrum ASW helicopter with autonomous operating capability; order for eight confirmed 9 October 1984; eight more ordered May 1996. S-70B-2 has substantially different avionics from USN version: Racal Super Searcher radar (capable of tracking 32 surface targets) and Rockwell Collins advanced integrated avionics including cockpit controls and displays, navigation receivers, communications radios, airborne target handoff datalink and tactical data system (TDS), Upgrade of Australian Seahawks, known as Project Sea 1405, includes installation of Raytheon AN/AAQ-27 FLIR and an electronic warfare support measures package based on Elisra's AES-210 system; also installation of Smiths NVG-corapatible aircraft standby attitude indicators and Northrop Graimuan AN/AAR-54(V) passive MAWS. All 16 Seahawks upgraded by third quarter of 2003; first helicopter handed over to Tenix Defence Systems in first quarter 2000. Mid-life upgrade (MLU) expected to follow in due course, with project definition study to begin in 2003-04; MLU is likely to involve provision of dipping sonar and integration of ASM, with Penguin Mk2 anti-ship missile a strong possibility as this already purchased for use by RAN Seasprite helicopters.

S-70B-6: Hybrid SH-60B/F for Greece, unofficially known as Aegean Hawk; selected December 1991 and initial quantity of five ordered 17 August 1992 for MEKO 200 frigates. Option for three more subsequently converted to firm order and contract for further two (later increased to three) signed on 12 June 2000. Armament includes NFT Penguin Mk2 ASMs; avionics include AN/AQS-18(V)-3 dipping sonar, AN/APS-143(V3) radar and AN/ ALR-6G(V)-2 ESM; towed MAD and sonobuoy launcher omitted. First two delivered fourth quarter of 1994, with three more in 1995, one in 1997 and two in 1998. Original eight aircraft being modified to operate with AN/ AAQ-22Q Star SAFIRE FLIR sensor; three undelivered examples will have Raytheon AN/AAS-44 FLIR/laser rangefinder.

S-70B-7: Six Seahawks ordered by Royal Thai Navy in October 1993; equipped for coastal surveillance, maritime patrol and SAR from aircraft carrier HTMS Chakri Naruebet, first handed over at Stratford on 6 March 1997, with all six delivered by June.

S-70B-28: Initial batch of four ordered by Turkish Navy on 14 February 1997, with option on another four subsequently converted to firm order; the first example made its maiden flight on 18 January 2001 and all eight were delivered in 2002 for service aboard frigates in ASW and surveillance roles. They are first export Seahawks with a Rockwell Collins 'glass cockpit' and also have L-3 Communications Ocean Systems HELRAS long-range active dipping sonar and Telephonics AN/APS-143(V) radar installed. Original order includes supply of AGM-114 Hellfire II ASM. Turkey has ultimate requirement for up to 28 S-70B, of which further eight ordered in 2002.

S-70C(M)-1/2 Thunderhawk: S-70C designation used for H-60 purchases not qualifying for FMS. Principally assigned to aircraft delivered to Taiwan. Production complete.

 

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S-70B

 

CUSTOMERS: Total US Navy requirement originally 260 SH-60B; 186 on order, including five prototypes, when procurement prematurely terminated in FY94. First flight production Seahawk 11 February 1983; last SH-60B delivered to US Navy on 25 September 1996; first squadron was HSL-41 at NAS North Island, San Diego, California; operational deployment began 1984; 10 US Navy squadrons operating by March 1991 (HSL-41, 43, 45, 47 and 49 at NAS North Island; 40,42,44,46 and 48 at NAS Mayport, Florida); subsequently HSL-51 formed at Atsugi, Japan, 1 October 1991, and HSL-37 at NAS Barbers Point, Hawaii, began converting from SH-2F on 6 February 1992; most recent unit to equip is HSL-60 of the Reserve Force, also at Mayport. SH-6OB deployed in ‘Oliver Hazard Perry’ (FFG-7) class frigates, 'Spruance' class and Aegis equipped destroyers and 'Ticonderoga' class guided missile cruisers. US Navy originally required 150 SH-60F; total 82 completed, comprising seven pre-series plus 18 each in FY88, 89 and 91, 12 in FY92 and nine in FY93; procurement then prematurely halted; two used for operational evaluation; in West Coast service with HS-2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 14 squadrons at NAS North Island, California; HS-3 at Jacksonville, Florida, equipped from 27 August 1991 as first East Coast squadron, followed by HS-1, 5, 7, 11 and 15, of which training squadron HS-1 since disestablished, leaving HS-10 of Pacific Fleet to conduct all US Navy SH-60F instruction. Reserve Force unit HS-75 at Jacksonville now also has SH-60F.

COSTS: US$20.25 million (1992) USN programme unit cost. Flyaway cost of final USN SH-60B about US$16 million; total MH-60R development programme costs expected to be around US$400 million, with unit flyaway cost quoted as US$16 million to US$18 million (FY96 dollars) for remanufactured aircraft and slightly more for new-build examples.

The Army also acquired examples of two electronic warfare (EW) Blackhawk variants, designated EH-60A and EH-60B. Development of the former began in October 1980 when Sikorsky was awarded an Army contract to modify one UH-60A (probably 79-23301) for evaluation under the Quick Fix II EW programme. The modifications included preparation of the airframe for later installation of the AN/ALQ-151 multi-role tactical EW system, the addition of four dipole antennae mounted in pairs on either side of the tailboom, and the installation of a deployable whip antenna beneath the aft section of the main cabin. The EH-60A was also equipped with the AN/ALQ-144 infrared countermeasures set and flare/chaff dispensers in addition to the standard AN/APR-39(V)1 radar warning receiver. The YEH-60A EW Blackhawk flew for the first time in September 1981, and in October 1984 the Tracor Aerospace Group won an Army contract for the conversion of forty UH-60A to EH-60A standard. Flight testing of a planned 132 production -A model EW Blackhawks began in April 1986, though budget restraints ultimately led the Army to acquire only 66 production machines. The last of these was delivered in September 1989, and soon afterwards the type's designation was changed from EH-60A to EH-60C.

The A Model is the Quick Fix and the L Model is the Quick Fix II. It was designed to work with the "prophet" intel system.

 

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Sikorsky EH-60A Quick Fix II

 

While the EH-60C is intended to locate, classify and disrupt enemy signals traffic, the EH-60B was developed specifically to carry the Stand-Off Target Acquisition System (SOTAS) radar. The EH-60B was characterized by the long box-shaped SOTAS scanner mounted below the main cabin, and was equipped with backward-retracting main landing gear legs to allow the SOTAS antenna to rotate a full 360 degrees in flight. The sole EH-60B prototype made its maiden flight in February 1981, but the SOTAS development programme was cancelled the following September and the aircraft was subsequently converted to EH-60A/C standard.

 

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EH-60L

 

Gallery


Variants:

YUH-60A
Three prototypes entered for UTTAS competition with a further three built after Sikorsky had won; extensively modified during test flights resulting in new tail shape, upper fuselage fairing, cabin windows, and rotor shaft

 

UH-60A
Initial production version of Black Hawk assault transport for US Army; manually folding tail boom for C-130 transport; steadily improved over the years through the addition of a rescue hoist, ESSS provision from the 431st production aircraft (retrofitted), M60D machine-guns replaced by M134 Miniguns, infra-red suppresses fitted to exhausts, wire strike protection above cockpit, accident data recorder, Tracor AN/ARN-148 Omega navigation system, satellite communications transceiver and GPS also added; in use with US Customs service as UH-60A 'Pot Hawk' for anti-drug surveillance; delivered to Bahrain Amiri Air Arm, Fuerza Aerea Colombiana, Philippine air force and Royal Saudi land forces; 'Credible Hawk' UH-60As delivered to USAF in mid-1980s as initial combat rescue version to replace HH-3s with ARRS; detail differences from Army Black Hawks include much of the equipment later added to Army UH-60As; 11 'Credible Hawks' ordered initially, and subsequent procurement and upgrade programme repeatedly cut back

 

GUH-60A
Non-flyable instructional airframes

 

JUH-60A
Aircraft temporarily detached for test purposes

 

EH-60A
As part of the US Army's Special Electronics Mission Aircraft programme, TRW equipped a single
YEH-60A with Quick Fix IIB emitter location gear and associated antennas; funding allocated for 40 aircraft, later designated EH-60C

 

HH-60A
Single development aircraft for USAF HH-60D

 

MH-60A
30 UH-60As modified for special operations use pending the delivery of the dedicated MH-60A; nicknamed 'Velcro Hawk' due to the haphazard addition of equipment; now withdrawn from all active-duty units, bar the Oklahoma Air National Guard, and replaced by MH-60L

 

VH-60A
Initial designation for nine USMC VIP aircraft, later allocated VH-60N designation

 

S-70A
Bulk of export Black Hawks delivered using civilian designation with numerical suffix allocated to each customer; deliveries made to Saudi Arabia, Philippines, Thailand, Australia, Jordan, Japan, Brunei, Turkey, Korea, Egypt, Mexico, Hong Kong, Morocco, and Rolls-Royce/Westland in the UK; Royal Saudi land forces received 21 S-70A-1 Desert Hawks and a further eight S-70A-L1 Medevac versions, all optimised for desert operations; 39 S-70A-9s were delivered to the Royal Australian Air Force, with a further 38 assembled by Hawker de Havilland in Bankstown, NSW

 

UH-60B
Sikorsky designation for an improved Army transport version of the Black Hawk with a CRT cockpit, improved engines and other new features; most of these elements were included in the UH-60L

 

YEH-60B
UH-60A modified for a proposed Stand-Off Target Acquisition System with an underslung rotating sensor in a canoe faring; first flown on 6 February 1981, but proposed acquisition of 78 aircraft abandoned to provide funding for J-STARS

 

YSH-60B
Five Seahawk prototypes for US Navy to fulfill LAMPS Mk III requirement

 

SH-60B
Production ASW Seahawk for US Navy; fitted with RAST probe, 25-tube sonobuoy launcher, towed MAD bird on stub wing to port, AN/APS-142 radar, ALQ-142 ESM system under nose, single-piece pilot's windscreen, folding tailboom; primary armament two Mk 46 torpedoes; aircraft subject to phased upgrade programme involving addition of new weapons capability and avionics

 

NSH-60B Sea Hawk
Designation applied to two SH-60B (162337 and 162974) assigned to permanent test duties at Patuxent River, Maryland.

 

SH-60B/F Sea Hawk
Close derivative of SH-60F, with Ò700-GE-401Ñ engines and HIRSS as SH-60B/F; equipment includes two cabin-mounted M60D 7.62mm machine guns;. Armament development authorised October 1991 for installation of Hellfire ASM, 70mm rockets and forward-firing guns. Some HH-60H now fitted with nose-mounted Raytheon AN/AAS-44(V) FLIR/laser designator system for use with Hellfire missile.

 

S-70B-6
ASW version for Greece, to be delivered commencing in 1995

 

EH-60C
Production Quick Fix II-equipped aircraft designed to locate and jam enemy radio transmissions; fitted with antenna array on tailboom and folding whip aerial under fuselage; plans to acquire 130 EH-60Cs later cut to 66

 

S-70C
Designation allocated to civilian versions of Black Hawk; applied to VIP-configured Brunei aircraft and also to Black Hawks and Seahawks for Republic of China, to circumvent restrictions on 'military' exports

 

S-70C(M)-1
Thunder-hawk, essentially SH-60F standard aircraft delivered to Republic of China navy from 1993 onwards

 

HH-60D
'Night Hawk' combat rescue version for USAF, fitted with NVG-compatible cockpit, refuelling probe, ESSS provision, IR jammer, HIRSS exhaust suppressor, rotor de-icing, colour weather radar; subsequently fell victim to procurement cuts and only one development aircraft completed, later used in HH-60A development

 

CH-60E
Proposed Marine Corps troop-carrying version, not proceeded with as Corps squad size too great for cabin

 

HH-60E
Proposed reduced specification HH-60D for USAF; not proceeded with in favour of HH-60A

 

YSH-60F
Designation applied to second production SH-60F (163283) which serves as 'prototype' on test duties at Patuxent River, Maryland. To be fitted with vectored thrust ducted propeller ('ring tail') by Piasecki Aircraft Corporation for trials project at Patuxent River during 2003-04 as part of advanced technology demonstration programme.

 

SH-60F
Dubbed 'Ocean Hawk', the SH-60F provides inner ASW screening for US carrier battle groups; less heavily equipped than SH-60B

 

SH-60F Sea Hawk
CV Inner Zone ASW helicopter, known as CV-Helo, for close-in ASW protection of aircraft carrier groups; US$50.9 million initial US Navy contract for full-scale development and production options placed 6 March 1985; replacing SH-3H Sea King; Seahawk prototype modified as SH-60F test aircraft; first flight 19 March 1987; initial fleet deployment by HS-2 aboard USS Nimitz in 1991. Currently assigned to 10 deployable squadrons (HS-2 to HS-8, HS-11, HS-14 and HS-15) plus one training unit (HS-10) and one Reserve Force squadron (HS-75). Production terminated with delivery of 82nd example 1 December 1994.

 

HH-60G
Initially designated MH-60G, HH-60G aircraft at first not fitted with full MH-60G special operations equipment but optimised for SAR instead; subject to upgrade when funds allow

 

MH-60G
'Pave Hawk' full-specification combat rescue/special operations aircraft for USAF, converted from existing aircraft; fitted with Bendix colour weather radar, Doppler navig-ation, GPS, INS, moving map display, new HF, VHF and satellite comms, IR jammer, threat-warning system, chaff/flare dispensers, FLIR, refuelling probe, IR strobes, ESSS, HUD, digital databus and additional guns; first MH-60Gs delivered to 55th SOS in December 1987 and all aircraft subject to a rolling modification programme to reach full capability

 

HH-60H Sea Hawk
US Navy procurement of 42 completed in 1996; used for strike-rescue/special warfare support (HCS); designated HH-60H in September 1986; first flight (163783) 17 Augusi 1988; accepted by USN 30 March 1989; in service with HCS-4 at Norfolk, Virginia, January 1990; initial procurement ended with 18th delivery July 1991, completing HCS-5 at Point Mugu, California; both squadrons are part of Navy Reserve. Regular SH-60F squadrons later added pairs of HH-60H for deployed duty when embarked aboard aircraft carriers; missions are to recover four-man crew at 463km from launch point or fly 371km and drop eight SEALs from 915m.

 

HH-60J Jayhawk
Ordered in parallel with ÍH-60Í; adapted for US Coast Guard medium-range recovery (MRR) role; last of 42 delivered in 1996. First flight (USCG 6001) 8 August 1989; first delivery to USCG (6002 at Elizabeth City CGAS) 16 June 1990; subsequently to Mobile, Traverse City, San Diego, Astoria, San Francisco, Cape Cod, Sitka, Kodiak and Clearwater CGAS. When carrying three 455 litre external tanks, HH-60J can fly out 556km and return with six survivors in addition to four-man crew, or loiter for 1 hour 30 minutes when investigating possible smugglers; other duties include law enforcement, drug interdiction, logistics, aids to navigation, environmental protection and military readiness; compatible with decks of 'Hamilton' and 'Bear' class USCG cutters. Equipment includes Honeywell RDR-1300C search/weather radar, AN/ARN-147 VOR/ILS, KDF 806 direction-finder, GPS, Tacan, VHF/UHF-DF, TacNav, dual U/UHF-FM radios, HF radio, IFF, V/U/HF IFF crypto computers, NVG-compatible cockpit, rescue hoist and external cargo hook.

 

XSH-60J
Japan Maritime Self-Defence Force (JMSDF) placed US$27 million order for two S-70B-3 for installation of Japanese avionics and mission equipment; first flights 31 August and early October 1987; 1,007 hour test programme by Japan Defence Agency-Technical Research and Development Institute between 1 June 1989 and 7 April 1991 to evaluate largely Japanese avionics for SH-60J, but AN/APS-124 radar.

 

UH-60J / SH-60J
Replaced KV-107s in Japan Air Self-Defence Force service and S-61As of the Japan Maritime Self-Defence Force; essentially a Sikorsky S-70A-12 (UH-60L), they differ from US aircraft in being optimised for rescue missions; equipped with rescue winch to starboard, external fuel tanks, Japanese avionics and weather radar, turret-mounted FLIR; first aircraft built by Sikorsky, two more assembled by Mitsubishi which will build the remaining 26 on order entirely in Japan; operational from March 1992

 

SH-60K
Improved version of Seahawk for JMSDF; prototype rolled out 8 August 2001 and made first hover flight on 9 September 2001. Production was expected to begin in FY01 but had been delayed; JMSDF reportedly seeking initial batch of 50, with second batch of 50 to follow, as well as upgrade project involving SH-60J version.

 

MH-60K
Army special operations version similar to Air Force MH-60G but equipped to a higher standard from the outset; fitted with Texas Instruments FLIR, night vision imaging system, moving map display, OBOGS, T700-GE-701C engines, main rotor brake, and a comprehensive self-defence suite including missile plume detector, radar warning receiver, chaff and flare dispenser, IR jammer, radio jammer and laser warning receiver; prototype flew on 10 August 1990 and the first of 22 currently funded aircraft was delivered in spring 1992; 38 further MH-60Ks are required for Army and ANG units

 

UH-60L
Improvements to UH-60As saw the basic weight of the aircraft increased by 25%; to remedy this situation Sikorsky developed the T700-210C-powered UH-60L which became the standard production transport version for the US Army from October 1989; 190 aircraft ordered, with modifications being retrofitted to UH-60As


MH-60L

UH-60Ls temporarily modified for special operations duties with US Army; replaced stop-gap MH-60As, and referred to as 'Velcro Hawks'; transferred to Reserve units after their replacement by MH-60Ks


VH-60N

'Presidential Hawk' VIP transports delivered to HMX-1 at MCAS Quantico, originally as VH-60A; fitted with weather radar, extra sound-proofing and VIP cabin, shrouded exhausts, and extensive avionics and communications improvements

 

UH-60P
100 UH-60Ls ordered by the Republic of Korea Army, with improved gearbox and main rotor brake; first Sikorsky-built aircraft handed over on 10 December 1990; the next 19 assembled from CKDs, with a further 80 to be built by Korean Air

 

MH-60R Strikehawk
Originally designated SH-60R and also known as LAMPS Block II; combines SH-60B capabilities with dipping sonar of SH-60F; original plan was for rebuild of existing fleet; first two conversions to be funded in FY98; 15 in FY99 and more thereafter; however, concerns over cost led to one year delay in launch of remanufacture programme, which began in FY00 with batch of four helicopters for test duties (ordered 25 April 2000) and was followed by five low-rate initial production (LRIP1) helicopters in FY01, also converted from existing airframes. MH-60R systems orientated towards littoral warfare operations, with ability to process and prosecute large number of air and sea contacts in a comparatively confined space.

 

UH-60Q
'Dustoff Hawk', Medevac version utilising UH-60L airframe, with purpose-designed medical interior

 

WS-70
S-70/UH-60 built under licence by Westland Helicopters in UK; offered in anticipation of RAF requirement to replace Wessex and Puma transport helicopters



Specifications:

UH-60A Black Hawk
Engine: 2 x GE T700-700
Instant pwr: 1164 kW
Rotor dia: 16.4 m
Fuselage length: 15.3 m
No. Blades: 4
Empty wt: 4820 kg
MTOW: 9977 kg
Payload: 10,716 kg
Max speed: 156 kt
VROC: 137 m/min
HIGE: 2895 m
HOGE: 1705 m
Service ceiling: 18,500 ft
Fuel cap (+aux): 1360 lt (5150 lt)
Range: 600 km
Crew: 23
Pax: 12/14

UH-60A
Engine: 2 x General Electric T700-401 turboshaft, 1285kW at take-off
Main rotor diameter: 16.36m
Fuselage length with a fuel probe: 17.38m
Height: 5.13m
Max take-off weight: 9980kg
Empty weight: 5735kg
Max speed: 268km/h
Cruising speed: 237km/h
Hovering ceiling, OGE: 3170m
Service ceiling: 5790m
Range: 600km
Range with max fuel: 2220km

S-70A-9
Engines Two General Electric T700-701A
Crew 2 pilots, 2 aircrew
Radius of Action 120 nautical miles on internal fuel.
Hardpoints 4
Cruise Speed 120 knots
Seating 10
Internal load cap. 1800kg
External load cap. 2700kg
Max speed 269 km/h.
Single engine cruise 117km/h.

 

EH-60A
Main rotor diameter: 16.38m
Fuselage length: 15.26m
Height: 5.13m
Max take-off weight: 9980kg
Cruising speed: 237km/h
Hovering ceiling, OGE: 3170m
Range: 600km
Crew: 4-5



SH-60B Seahawk
Engine: 2 x GE T700-401C turboshafts, 1,690-shp (1261-kW)
Instant pwr: 1414 kW
Rotor dia: 16,36 m (53 ft 8 in)
Main rotor disc area 210,05 sq.m (2,261 sq ft)
Fuselage length 15. 26 m (50 ft 0.75 in)
Fuselage length (folded): 12.5 m
Height 3.63 m (11 ft 11 in)
No. Blades: 4
Empty wt: 6300 kg (13,889 lb)
MTOW: 9926 kg (21,884 lb)
Max dash speed: 234 kph (145 mph)
ROC: 213 m/min
Fuel cap: 1370 lt
Crew: 3
Armament: normally two Mk 46 anti-submarine torpedoes

S-70B-2 Seahawk
Engines Two GE T-700 Turboshaft
Length 19.8 m / 64.961 ft
Height 5.2 m / 17.06 ft
Width 16.4 m / 53.806 ft
Weight 9947 kg / 21,930 lb
Speed 330 kph
Range 1295 km / 804.676 mi
Crew 3 (Pilot, Tactical Coordinator, Sensor Operator)
Armament Two Mk46 Torpedo, One 7.62 machine gun

EH-60C Black Hawk

Engines: two l,560-shp (1,163-kW) General Electric T700-GE-700 turboshafts
Maximum speed 184 mph (296 km/h) at sea level
Initial climb rate 450+ ft (137+ m) per minute
Service ceiling 19,000 ft (5,790 m)
Range 375 miles (603 km)
Empty weight 12,400 lb (5,625 kg)
Maximum take-off weight 16,260 lb (7,375 kg)
Main rotor diameter 53 ft 8 in (16.36 m)
Length overall, rotors tuming 64 ft 10 in (19.76 m)
Height 16 ft 10 in (5.13 m)
Main rotor disc area 2,264.04 sq ft (210.14 sq.m)
Armament: none

SH-60F Seahawk

Engine: 2 x GE T700-401C
Instant pwr: 1417 kW
MTOW: 9990 kg
Max speed: 132 kt
Crew: 4

HH/MH-60G Pave Hawk

Engine: 2 x GE T700-701C
Instant pwr: 1342 kW
MTOW: 7708 kg
Payload: 5520 kg
Max speed: 160 kt
Max range: 932 km
HOGE: 4300 ft
Service ceiling: 19,000 ft
Crew: 2
Pax: 14

HH-60H Ocean Hawk
Engine: 2 x GE T700-401C
Instant pwr: 1417 kW
MTOW: 9990 kg
Payload: 1860 kg
Max speed: 147 kt
Max range: 462 km
Crew: 4
Pax: 8

HH-60J Jayhawk

Engine: 2 x GE T700-401C
Instant pwr: 1417 kW
MTOW: 9990 kg
Payload: 3551 kg
Max speed: 146 kt
Max range: 555 km
Crew: 4
Pax: 6

SH-60J
Engine: GE T700-401 turboshaft

UH-60J
Engine: GE T700-401 turboshaft

MH-60K Black Hawk

Engine: 2 x GE T700-701C
Instant pwr: 1447 kW
Rotor dia: 16.4 m
MTOW: 11,111 kg
Payload: 3628 kg
Useful load: 4609 kg
Max speed: 162 kt
Max range (max internal &external fuel): 1381 km
HIGE: 9430 ft
HOGE: 4700 ft
Service ceiling: 19,000 ft
Crew: 4
Pax: 12

S-70L
Power Plant: Two General Electric T700-GE-400 turboshafts each 30-min intermediate power rating of 1,400 shp at sea level, 90 deg F,  contingency rating of 1,630 shp
Max cruising speed, approx 172 mph (277 km/h)
Ceiling, 10,000 ft (3050 m)
Vertical rate of climb, 450 ft/min (2,28 n/sec)
Engine out rate of climb, 540 ft/min (5,08 m/sec)
Mission take-off weight (anti-submarine warfare), 19,377 lb (8 789 kg)
Mission take-off weight (anti-ship surveillance and targeting), 17,605 lb (7985 kg)
Max weight to hover out of ground effect, SL std day, 20,829 lb (9448 kg)
Main rotor diameter, 53 ft 8 in (16,36 m)
Tail rotor diameter, 11 ft 0 in (3,35 m)
Overall length, rotors turning, 64 ft 10 in (19,76 m)
Fuselage length, 50ft 0.75 in (15,26 m)
Overall height, 17 ft 2 in (5,23 m)
Under-carriage track, 8 ft 10 in (2,68 m)

UH-60L Black Hawk
Engine: 2 x GE T700-701C
Instant pwr: 1447 kW
Rotor dia: 16.4 m
MTOW: 11,111 kg
Payload: 4082 kg
Useful load: 5395 kg
Max speed: 162 kt
Max cruise: 153 kt
Max range: 2037 km
HIGE: 13,800 ft
HOGE: 11,000 ft
Service ceiling: 19,000 ft
Crew: 4
Pax: 15

UH-60M Black Hawk


WS.70L Black Hawk

Engine: 2 x GE T700-701C
Instant pwr: 1224 kW
Rotor dia: 16.36 m
MTOW: 9979 kg
Payload: 4763 kg
Max cruise: 147 kt
Max range: 611 km
HIGE: 3775 ft
HOGE: 3283 ft
Service ceiling: 19,000 ft
Crew: 3
Pax: 20

 

Sik-UH60A-ld
UH-60A

 

Sik-SH60B-ld
SH-60B

 

Sik-EH-60A-ld
EH-60A

 

 


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